68 relations: Actus reus, Admission (law), Animus nocendi, Attendant circumstance, Breach of contract, Burden of proof (law), Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Causation (law), Civil infraction, Civil law (common law), Civil law (legal system), Command responsibility, Common law, Commonwealth Law Reports, Conclusive presumption, Concurrence, Court, Credibility, Crime, Criminal law, Criminal negligence, Culpability, Damages, Defense of infancy, Dishonesty, Due process, Element (criminal law), English law, Evidence (law), Excuse, Flores-Figueroa v. United States, Fraud, He Kaw Teh v The Queen, Henry de Bracton, Imputation (law), Indian Penal Code, Insanity defense, Jurisdiction, Jury, Knowledge (legal construct), Latin, Law Latin, Legal liability, Legislature, Louisiana, M'Naghten rules, Model Penal Code, Morissette v. United States, Motive (law), Plaintiff, ..., Police power (United States constitutional law), Proximate cause, Punishment, R v Nedrick, R v Woollin, Reasonable person, Recklessness (law), Sentence (law), Strict liability, Strict liability (criminal), Supreme Court of Canada, Texas Penal Code, Tort, U.S. state, United States Code, Vagueness doctrine, Voluntary manslaughter, Voluntas necandi. Expand index (18 more) » « Shrink index
Actus reus, sometimes called the external element or the objective element of a crime, is the Latin term for the "guilty act" which, when proved beyond a reasonable doubt in combination with the mens rea, "guilty mind", produces criminal liability in the common law-based criminal law jurisdictions of England and Wales, Canada, Australia, India, Kenya, Pakistan, South Africa, New Zealand, Scotland, Nigeria, Ghana, Ireland, Israel and the United States of America.
An admission in the law of evidence is a prior statement by an adverse party which can be admitted into evidence over a hearsay objection.
In jurisprudence, animus nocendi (Latin animus, "mind" + gerund of noceo, "to harm") is the subjective state of mind of the author of a crime, with reference to the exact knowledge of illegal content of his behaviour, and of its possible consequences.
In law, attendant circumstances (sometimes external circumstances) are the facts surrounding an event.
Breach of contract is a legal cause of action and a type of civil wrong, in which a binding agreement or bargained-for exchange is not honored by one or more of the parties to the contract by non-performance or interference with the other party's performance.
The burden of proof (onus probandi) is the obligation of a party in a trial to produce the evidence that will prove the claims they have made against the other party.
The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (La Charte canadienne des droits et libertés), in Canada often simply the Charter, is a bill of rights entrenched in the Constitution of Canada.
Causation is the "causal relationship between conduct and result".
In common law countries, a civil infraction is a non-criminal violation of a rule, ordinance, or regulation.
Civil law is a branch of the law.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard or the Medina standard, and also known as superior responsibility, is the legal doctrine of hierarchical accountability for war crimes.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The Commonwealth Law Reports (CLR) are the authorised reports of decisions of the High Court of Australia.
A conclusive presumption (in Latin, praesumptio iuris et de iure), also known as an irrebuttable presumption, is a type of presumption used in several legal systems.
In Western jurisprudence, concurrence (also contemporaneity or simultaneity) is the apparent need to prove the simultaneous occurrence of both actus reus ("guilty action") and mens rea ("guilty mind"), to constitute a crime; except in crimes of strict liability.
A court is a tribunal, often as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law.
Credibility comprises the objective and subjective components of the believability of a source or message.
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
In criminal law, criminal negligence is a surrogate mens rea (Latin for "guilty mind") required to constitute a conventional as opposed to strict liability offense.
Culpability, or being culpable, is a measure of the degree to which an agent, such as a person, can be held morally or legally responsible for action and inaction.
In law, damages are an award, typically of money, to be paid to a person as compensation for loss or injury.
The defense of infancy is a form of defense known as an excuse so that defendants falling within the definition of an "infant" are excluded from criminal liability for their actions, if at the relevant time, they had not reached an age of criminal responsibility.
Dishonesty is to act without honesty.
Due process is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person.
Under United States law, an element of a crime (or element of an offense) is one of a set of facts that must all be proven to convict a defendant of a crime.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
The law of evidence, also known as the rules of evidence, encompasses the rules and legal principles that govern the proof of facts in a legal proceeding.
In jurisprudence, an excuse is a defense to criminal charges that is distinct from an exculpation.
Flores-Figueroa v. United States, 556 U.S. 646 (2009), was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States, holding that the law enhancing the sentence for identity theft requires proof that an individual knew that the identity card or number he had used belonged to another, actual person.
In law, fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right.
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Henry of Bracton, also Henry de Bracton, also Henricus Bracton, or Henry Bratton also Henry Bretton (c. 1210 – c. 1268) was an English cleric and jurist.
In law, the principle of imputation or attribution underpins the concept that ignorantia juris non excusat—ignorance of the law does not excuse.
The Indian Penal Code (IPC) is the main criminal code of India.
The insanity defense, also known as the mental disorder defense, is a defense by excuse in a criminal case, arguing that the defendant is not responsible for his or her actions due to an episodic or persistent psychiatric disease at the time of the criminal act.
Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.
A jury is a sworn body of people convened to render an impartial verdict (a finding of fact on a question) officially submitted to them by a court, or to set a penalty or judgment.
In law, knowledge is one of the degrees of mens rea that constitute part of a crime.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Law Latin, sometimes written L.L. or L. Lat., and sometimes derisively called Dog Latin, is a form of Latin used in legal contexts.
In law, liable means "esponsible or answerable in law; legally obligated." Legal liability concerns both civil law and criminal law and can arise from various areas of law, such as contracts, torts, taxes, or fines given by government agencies.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The M'Naghten rule (pronounced, and sometimes spelled, McNaughton) is any variant of the 1840s jury instruction in a criminal case when there is a defense of insanity: The rule was formulated as a reaction to the acquittal in 1843 of Daniel M'Naghten on the charge of murdering Edward Drummond, whom M'Naghten had mistaken for British Prime Minister Robert Peel.
The Model Penal Code (MPC) is a text designed to stimulate and assist U.S. state legislatures to update and standardize the penal law of the United States of America.
Morissette v. United States,, is a U.S. Supreme Court case, relevant to the legal topic of criminal intent.
A motive, in law, especially criminal law, is the cause that moves people to induce a certain action.
A plaintiff (Π in legal shorthand) is the party who initiates a lawsuit (also known as an action) before a court.
In United States constitutional law, police power is the capacity of the states to regulate behavior and enforce order within their territory for the betterment of the health, safety, morals, and general welfare of their inhabitants.
In the law, a proximate cause is an event sufficiently related to an injury that the courts deem the event to be the cause of that injury.
A punishment is the imposition of an undesirable or unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, meted out by an authority—in contexts ranging from child discipline to criminal law—as a response and deterrent to a particular action or behaviour that is deemed undesirable or unacceptable.
R v Nedrick (Ransford Delroy) (1986) 8 Cr. App. R. (S.) 179 is an English criminal law case dealing with mens rea.
R v Woollin is a case in English criminal law, in which the subject of intention within mens rea was examined and refined.
In law, a reasonable person, reasonable man, or the man on the Clapham omnibus is a hypothetical person of legal fiction crafted by the courts and communicated through case law and jury instructions.
In criminal law and in the law of tort, recklessness may be defined as the state of mind where a person deliberately and unjustifiably pursues a course of action while consciously disregarding any risks flowing from such action.
A sentence is a decree of punishment of the court in criminal procedure.
In criminal and civil law, strict liability is a standard of liability under which a person is legally responsible for the consequences flowing from an activity even in the absence of fault or criminal intent on the part of the defendant.
In criminal law, strict liability is liability for which mens rea (Latin for "guilty mind") does not have to be proven in relation to one or more elements comprising the actus reus (Latin for "guilty act") although intention, recklessness or knowledge may be required in relation to other elements of the offense.
The Supreme Court of Canada (Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada, the final court of appeals in the Canadian justice system.
The Texas Penal Code is the principal criminal code of the State of Texas.
A tort, in common law jurisdictions, is a civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
The Code of Laws of the United States of America (variously abbreviated to Code of Laws of the United States, United States Code, U.S. Code, U.S.C., or USC) is the official compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal statutes of the United States.
In American constitutional law, a statute is void for vagueness and unenforceable if it is too vague for the average citizen to understand.
Voluntary manslaughter is the killing of a human being in which the offender acted during the heat of passion, under circumstances that would cause a reasonable person to become emotionally or mentally disturbed to the point that they can't reasonably control their emotions.
In jurisprudence, voluntas necandi (Latin voluntas, "will" + gerund of neco, "to kill") describes the animus nocendi of a person who willfully kills another human being.