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Mental disorder

Index Mental disorder

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. [1]

362 relations: Abuse, Activities of daily living, Acute (medicine), Adherence (medicine), Adjustment disorder, Advance healthcare directive, Adverse effect, Advocacy, Age of Enlightenment, Agoraphobia, Alcoholic drink, Alcoholism, Algorithm, Allen Frances, American Psychiatric Association, Amnesia, Animal rights, Anorexia nervosa, Anthropomorphism, Anti-psychiatry, Antidepressant, Antipsychotic, Antisocial personality disorder, Anxiety, Anxiety disorder, Anxiolytic, Art therapy, Arthur Kleinman, Attachment theory, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Australia, Autism spectrum, Avoidant personality disorder, Behaviorism, Behaviour therapy, Benzodiazepine, Binge eating disorder, Biological psychiatry, Biomedicine, Biopsychosocial model, Bipolar disorder, Body dysmorphic disorder, Borderline personality disorder, Brain, Bulimia nervosa, Bullying, Caffeine, Cambridge University Press, Cannabis, Cannabis (drug), ..., Capgras delusion, Carers rights movement, Carl Bell (physician), Carter Center, Causes of mental disorders, Child development, Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders, Chlorpromazine, Chronic condition, Classification of mental disorders, Clinic, Clinical formulation, Clinical psychology, Co-counselling, Cocaine, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Cognitive disorder, Cognitive psychology, Colloquialism, Combat stress reaction, Committee, Communication, Community mental health service, Comorbidity, Conduct disorder, Confidentiality, Conflict of interest, Continuum (measurement), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Conversion disorder, Cotard delusion, Couvade syndrome, Cross cultural sensitivity, Cross-cultural psychiatry, Culture, Culture-bound syndrome, David Cooper (psychiatrist), David Owen, Decision aids, Deinstitutionalisation, Delusion, Delusional disorder, Delusional parasitosis, Dementia, Department of Health and Social Care, Dependent personality disorder, Depersonalization disorder, Depression (mood), Developmental disorder, Deviance (sociology), Diagnosis, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Diathesis–stress model, Diazepam, Dichotomy, Dietary supplement, Differential psychology, Disability, Disability-adjusted life year, Disease mongering, Dissociative identity disorder, Drama therapy, DSM-5, Dyspareunia, Dysthymia, Eating disorder, Economic inequality, Ego-dystonic sexual orientation, Elam, Electroconvulsive therapy, Emotional support animal, Empirical evidence, Employment, Employment discrimination, Endocrinology, Engagement, Erving Goffman, Ethnic group, European Psychiatric Association, Evidence based assessment, Evolutionary psychology, Exercise bulimia, Factitious disorder, Factitious disorder imposed on self, Family therapy, Fear, First Lady of the United States, Folie à deux, G factor (psychometrics), Gambling, Ganser syndrome, Gender dysphoria, General practitioner, Generalized anxiety disorder, Genetics, Geschwind syndrome, Giorgio Antonucci, Glenn Albrecht, Global mental health, Grief, Hallucination, Hand, Heresy, Histrionic personality disorder, Homeland (TV series), Hominidae, Human body, Human migration, Human rights, Humanistic psychology, Humorism, Hypomania, Hysteria, ICD-10 Chapter V: Mental and behavioural disorders, Imola, Inanna, Industrialisation, Informed consent, Insanity, Insanity defense, Insomnia, Institutional racism, Institutionalisation, Insulin shock therapy, Integrative psychotherapy, Intellectual disability, International Review of Psychiatry, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Interpersonal relationship, Involuntary commitment, Involuntary treatment, Iron Man 3, Islamic Golden Age, Kleptomania, Kraepelin, Learned helplessness, Learning disability, Licensed professional counselor, List of counseling topics, Lithium (medication), Lobotomy, Major depressive disorder, Maladaptation, Mania, Mediation (statistics), Medical diagnosis, Medical model, Medical sign, Medicalization, Medicine, Mental disorder, Mental distress, Mental health, Mental health professional, Mental Illness Awareness Week, Mental illness portrayed in media, Mental status examination, Mentalism (discrimination), Mentally ill people in United States jails and prisons, Mesopotamia, Michael Polanyi, Mind, Minority group, Model organism, Mood disorder, Mood stabilizer, Moral treatment, Morality, Music therapy, Narcissistic personality disorder, National Institute of Mental Health, Neglect, Neurasthenia, Neurodevelopmental disorder, Neurological disorder, Neurology, Neuroscience, Objectivity (science), Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, Off-label use, Oppositional defiant disorder, Outpatient commitment, Panic disorder, Paranoia, Paranoid personality disorder, Paraphilia, Parenting, Parity of esteem, Passive–aggressive personality disorder, Pathological jealousy, Patient advocacy, Paula Caplan, Peer support, Pejorative, Person, Personality development, Personality disorder, Peter Breggin, Pharmaceutical marketing, Phobia, Placebo, Postmodernism, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, Primate, Prototype, Psychiatric hospital, Psychiatric medication, Psychiatric service dog, Psychiatric survivors movement, Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis, Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual, Psychoeducation, Psychological evaluation, Psychological testing, Psychological trauma, Psychology, Psychometrics, Psychomotor agitation, Psychopathology, Psychopathy, Psychosis, Psychosurgery, Psychotherapy, Public health, Pyromania, R. D. Laing, Race (human categorization), Reasonable accommodation, Recovery approach, Relational disorder, Religion, Religion and schizophrenia, Robert Spitzer (psychiatrist), Romania, Rosalynn Carter, Rosenhan experiment, Sadistic personality disorder, Schizoaffective disorder, Schizoid personality disorder, Schizophrenia, Schizotypal personality disorder, Schizotypy, Science, Sedative, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Self-defeating personality disorder, Self-harm, Self-help, Self-help groups for mental health, Services for mental disorders, Sexual dysfunction, Shared decision-making in medicine, Sleep, Sleep disorder, Social anxiety disorder, Social exclusion, Social firm, Social movement, Social norm, Social stigma, Social stress, Social welfare model, Social work, Society, Socioeconomic status, Socioeconomics, Sociology, Solastalgia, Somatization disorder, South Africa, Spectrum disorder, Spirituality, Stereotype, Stereotypy, Stimulant, Stress (biology), Stuart A. Kirk, Subculture, Substance abuse, Substance dependence, Substance use disorder, Substituted amphetamine, Suicide, Supportive housing, Supreme court, Surrogate decision-maker, Symptom, Syndrome, Synonym, Systemic therapy (psychotherapy), Systems psychology, The BMJ, The Myth of Mental Illness, Therapeutic relationship, Thomas Szasz, Thought disorder, Transpersonal, Trust (emotion), Unemployment, United Nations, Utu, Value (ethics), Victimology, WebMD, Workplace, World Health Organization, World Mental Health Day, World War I, World War II. Expand index (312 more) »


Abuse is the improper usage or treatment of an entity, often to unfairly or improperly gain benefit.

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Activities of daily living

Activities of daily living (ADLs or ADL) is a term used in healthcare to refer to people's daily self care activities.

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Acute (medicine)

In medicine, describing a disease as acute denotes that it is of short duration and, as a corollary of that, of recent onset.

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Adherence (medicine)

In medicine, compliance (also adherence, capacitance) describes the degree to which a patient correctly follows medical advice.

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Adjustment disorder

An adjustment disorder (AD)—sometimes called exogenous, reactive, or situational depression—occurs when an individual is unable to adjust to or cope with a particular stress or a major life event.

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Advance healthcare directive

An advance healthcare directive, also known as living will, personal directive, advance directive, medical directive or advance decision, is a legal document in which a person specifies what actions should be taken for their health if they are no longer able to make decisions for themselves because of illness or incapacity.

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Adverse effect

In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.

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Advocacy is an activity by an individual or group which aims to influence decisions within political, economic, and social systems and institutions.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by symptoms of anxiety in situations where the person perceives the environment to be unsafe with no easy way to get away.

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Alcoholic drink

An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.

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Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.

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In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

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Allen Frances

Allen J. Frances (born 1942 in New York City, New York) is an American psychiatrist.

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American Psychiatric Association

The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world.

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Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.

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Animal rights

Animal rights is the idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own lives and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings.

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Anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction.

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Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities.

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Anti-psychiatry is a movement based on the view that psychiatric treatment is often more damaging than helpful to patients.

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Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.

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Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

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Antisocial personality disorder

Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD or APD) is a personality disorder characterized by a long term pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others.

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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.

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Anxiety disorder

Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.

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An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.

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Art therapy

Art therapy (also known as arts therapy) is a creative method of expression used as a therapeutic technique.

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Arthur Kleinman

Arthur Kleinman (born March 11, 1941) is an American psychiatrist and a professor of medical anthropology and cross-cultural psychiatry at Harvard University.

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Attachment theory

Attachment theory is a psychological model that attempts to describe the dynamics of long-term and short-term interpersonal relationships between humans.

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Autism spectrum

Autism spectrum, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders.

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Avoidant personality disorder

Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) is a Cluster C personality disorder.

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Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals.

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Behaviour therapy

Behaviour therapy is a broad term referring to clinical psychotherapy that uses techniques derived from behaviourism.

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Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

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Binge eating disorder

Binge eating disorder (BED) is an eating disorder characterized by frequent and recurrent binge eating episodes with associated negative psychological and social problems, but without subsequent purging episodes (e.g. vomiting).

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Biological psychiatry

Biological psychiatry or biopsychiatry is an approach to psychiatry that aims to understand mental disorder in terms of the biological function of the nervous system.

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Biomedicine (i.e. medical biology) is a branch of medical science that applies biological and physiological principles to clinical practice.

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Biopsychosocial model

The biopsychosocial model is a broad view that attributes disease outcome to the intricate, variable interaction of biological factors (genetic, biochemical, etc), psychological factors (mood, personality, behavior, etc.), and social factors (cultural, familial, socioeconomic, medical, etc.).Santrock, J. W. (2007).

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Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.

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Body dysmorphic disorder

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), occasionally still called dysmorphophobia, is a mental disorder characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body part or appearance is severely flawed and warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix their dysmorphic part on their person.

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Borderline personality disorder

Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Bulimia nervosa

Bulimia nervosa, also known as simply bulimia, is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging.

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Bullying is the use of force, threat, or coercion to abuse, intimidate or aggressively dominate others.

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Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.

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Cannabis (drug)

Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.

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Capgras delusion

Capgras delusion is a psychiatric disorder in which a person holds a delusion that a friend, spouse, parent, or other close family member (or pet) has been replaced by an identical impostor.

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Carers rights movement

The Carers rights movement attempts to address the issues of low income, social exclusion, damage to mental and physical health and lack of recognition that have been identified by research articles and studies of unpaid carers (or caregivers as they are known in the USA).

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Carl Bell (physician)

Carl Compton Bell (born October 28, 1947 in Chicago) is a professor of psychiatry and public health at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

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Carter Center

The Carter Center is a nongovernmental, not-for-profit organization founded in 1982 by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter.

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Causes of mental disorders

A mental disorder is "a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or psychological pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present disability or with a significantly increased risk of suffering, death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom." The causes of mental disorders are regarded as complex and varying depending on the particular disorder and the individual.

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Child development

Child development entails the biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy.

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Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders

The Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders (CCMD), published by the Chinese Society of Psychiatry (CSP), is a clinical guide used in China for the diagnosis of mental disorders.

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Chlorpromazine (CPZ), marketed under the trade names Thorazine and Largactil among others, is an antipsychotic medication.

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Chronic condition

A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.

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Classification of mental disorders

The classification of mental disorders is also known as psychiatric nosology or psychiatric taxonomy.

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A clinic (or outpatient clinic or ambulatory care clinic) is a healthcare facility that is primarily focused on the care of outpatients.

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Clinical formulation

A clinical formulation, also known as case formulation and problem formulation, is a theoretically-based explanation or conceptualisation of the information obtained from a clinical assessment.

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Clinical psychology

Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.

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Co-counselling (spelled co-counseling in American English) is a grassroots method of personal change based on reciprocal peer counseling.

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Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.

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Cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.

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Cognitive disorder

Cognitive disorders (CDs), also known as neurocognitive disorders (NCDs), are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem solving.

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Cognitive psychology

Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".

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Everyday language, everyday speech, common parlance, informal language, colloquial language, general parlance, or vernacular (but this has other meanings too), is the most used variety of a language, which is usually employed in conversation or other communication in informal situations.

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Combat stress reaction

Combat stress reaction (CSR) is a term used within the military to describe acute behavioral disorganization seen by medical personnel as a direct result of the trauma of war.

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A committee (or "commission") is a body of one or more persons that is subordinate to a deliberative assembly.

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Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.

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Community mental health service

Community mental health services (CMHS), also known as community mental health teams (CMHT) in the United Kingdom, support or treat people with mental disorders (mental illness or mental health difficulties) in a domiciliary setting, instead of a psychiatric hospital (asylum).

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In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder; in the countable sense of the term, a comorbidity (plural comorbidities) is each additional disorder or disease.

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Conduct disorder

Conduct disorder (CD) is a mental disorder diagnosed in childhood or adolescence that presents itself through a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate norms are violated.

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Confidentiality involves a set of rules or a promise usually executed through confidentiality agreements that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information.

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Conflict of interest

A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization is involved in multiple interests, financial or otherwise, and serving one interest could involve working against another.

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Continuum (measurement)

Continuum theories or models explain variation as involving gradual quantitative transitions without abrupt changes or discontinuities.

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Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is an international human rights treaty of the United Nations intended to protect the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities.

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Conversion disorder

Conversion disorder (CD) is a diagnostic category used in some psychiatric classification systems.

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Cotard delusion

Cotard delusion is a rare mental illness in which the affected person holds the delusional belief that they are already dead, do not exist, are putrefying, or have lost their blood or internal organs.

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Couvade syndrome

Couvade syndrome, also called sympathetic pregnancy, is a proposed condition in which a partner experiences some of the same symptoms and behavior as an expectant mother.

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Cross cultural sensitivity

Cross cultural sensitivity is the knowledge, awareness, and acceptance of other cultures.

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Cross-cultural psychiatry

Cross-cultural psychiatry (also known as transcultural psychiatry or cultural psychiatry) is a branch of psychiatry concerned with the cultural context of mental disorders and the challenges of addressing ethnic diversity in psychiatric services.

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Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.

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Culture-bound syndrome

In medicine and medical anthropology, a culture-bound syndrome, culture-specific syndrome, or folk illness is a combination of psychiatric and somatic symptoms that are considered to be a recognizable disease only within a specific society or culture.

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David Cooper (psychiatrist)

David Graham Cooper (1931 in Cape Town, South Africa – 29 July 1986 in Paris, France) was a South African-born psychiatrist and theorist who was prominent in the anti-psychiatry movement.

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David Owen

David Anthony Llewellyn Owen, Baron Owen, (born 2 July 1938) is a British politician and physician.

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Decision aids

Decision aids are interventions or tools designed to facilitate shared decision making and patient participation in health care decisions.

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Deinstitutionalisation (or deinstitutionalization) is the process of replacing long-stay psychiatric hospitals with less isolated community mental health services for those diagnosed with a mental disorder or developmental disability.

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A delusion is a mistaken belief that is held with strong conviction even in the presence of superior evidence to the contrary.

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Delusional disorder

Delusional disorder is a generally rare mental illness in which the patient presents delusions, but with no accompanying prominent hallucinations, thought disorder, mood disorder, or significant flattening of affect.

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Delusional parasitosis

Delusional parasitosis, also known as delusional infestation or Ekbom's syndrome, is a delusional disorder in which individuals incorrectly believe they are infested with parasites, insects, or bugs, whereas in reality no such infestation is present.

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Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.

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Department of Health and Social Care

The Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC) is a department of Her Majesty's Government, responsible for government policy on health and adult social care matters in England, along with a few elements of the same matters which are not otherwise devolved to the Scottish Government, Welsh Government or Northern Ireland Executive.

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Dependent personality disorder

Dependent personality disorder (DPD), formerly known as asthenic personality disorder, is a personality disorder that is characterized by a pervasive psychological dependence on other people.

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Depersonalization disorder

Depersonalization disorder (DPD), also known as depersonalization/derealization disorder, is a mental disorder in which the person has persistent or recurrent feelings of depersonalization or derealization.

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Depression (mood)

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.

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Developmental disorder

Developmental disorders comprise a group of psychiatric conditions originating in childhood that involve serious impairment in different areas.

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Deviance (sociology)

In sociology, deviance describes an action or behavior that violates social norms, including a formally enacted rule (e.g., crime), as well as informal violations of social norms (e.g., rejecting folkways and mores).

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Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.

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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.

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Diathesis–stress model

The diathesis–stress model is a psychological theory that attempts to explain a disorder as the result of an interaction between a predispositional vulnerability and a stress caused by life experiences.

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Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.

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A dichotomy is a partition of a whole (or a set) into two parts (subsets).

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Dietary supplement

A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.

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Differential psychology

Differential psychology studies the ways in which individuals differ in their behavior and the processes that underlie it.

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A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.

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Disability-adjusted life year

The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is a measure of overall disease burden, expressed as the number of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death.

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Disease mongering

Disease mongering is a term for the practice of widening the diagnostic boundaries of illnesses and aggressively promoting their public awareness in order to expand the markets for treatment.

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Dissociative identity disorder

Dissociative identity disorder (DID), also known as multiple personality disorder, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two distinct and relatively enduring personality states.

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Drama therapy

Drama therapy (written dramatherapy in the UK, Europe, Australia, and Africa) is the use of theatre techniques to facilitate personal growth and promote mental health.

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The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).

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Dyspareunia is painful sexual intercourse due to medical or psychological causes.

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Dysthymia, now known as persistent depressive disorder (PDD), is a mood disorder consisting of the same cognitive and physical problems as depression, with less severe but longer-lasting symptoms.

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Eating disorder

An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health.

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Economic inequality

Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.

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Ego-dystonic sexual orientation

Ego-dystonic sexual orientation is an ego-dystonic mental disorder characterized by having a sexual orientation or an attraction that is at odds with one's idealized self-image, causing anxiety and a desire to change one's orientation or become more comfortable with one's sexual orientation.

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Elam (Elamite: haltamti, Sumerian: NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.

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Electroconvulsive therapy

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), formerly known as electroshock therapy, and often referred to as shock treatment, is a psychiatric treatment in which seizures are electrically induced in patients to provide relief from mental disorders.

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Emotional support animal

An emotional support animal (ESA), or simply "support animal", is a companion animal that a medical professional has determined provides benefit for an individual with a disability.

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Empirical evidence

Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.

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Employment is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profit, not-for-profit organization, co-operative or other entity is the employer and the other is the employee.

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Employment discrimination

Employment discrimination is a form of discrimination based on race, gender, religion, national origin, physical or mental disability, age, sexual orientation, and gender identity by employers.

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Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.

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An engagement, betrothal, or fiancer is a promise to wed, and also the period of time between a marriage proposal and a marriage.

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Erving Goffman

Erving Goffman (11 June 1922 – 19 November 1982) was a Canadian-American sociologist and writer, considered by some "the most influential American sociologist of the twentieth century".

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Ethnic group

An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.

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European Psychiatric Association

The European Psychiatric Association (EPA) is the main association representing psychiatry in Europe.

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Evidence based assessment

Evidence-based assessment (EBA) refers to the use of research and theory to guide the selection of constructs to be used for a specific assessment purpose and to inform the methods and measures used in the assessment process.

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Evolutionary psychology

Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.

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Exercise bulimia

Exercise bulimia is a subset of the psychological disorder called bulimia in which a person is compelled to exercise in an effort aimed at burning the calories of food energy and fat reserves to an excessive level that negatively affects their health.

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Factitious disorder

A factitious disorder is a condition in which a person, without a malingering motive, acts as if they have an illness by deliberately producing, feigning, or exaggerating symptoms, purely to attain (for themselves or for another) a patient's role.

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Factitious disorder imposed on self

Factitious disorder imposed on self, also known as Munchausen syndrome, is a factitious disorder wherein those affected feign disease, illness, or psychological trauma to draw attention, sympathy, or reassurance to themselves.

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Family therapy

Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy, marriage and family therapy, family systems therapy, and family counseling, is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development.

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Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events.

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First Lady of the United States

The First Lady of the United States (FLOTUS) is the title held by the hostess of the White House, usually the wife of the President of the United States, concurrent with the President's term in office.

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Folie à deux

Folie à deux (French for "madness of two"), or shared psychosis, is a psychiatric syndrome in which symptoms of a delusional belief and sometimes hallucinations are transmitted from one individual to another.

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G factor (psychometrics)

The g factor (also known as general intelligence, general mental ability or general intelligence factor) is a construct developed in psychometric investigations of cognitive abilities and human intelligence.

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Gambling is the wagering of money or something of value (referred to as "the stakes") on an event with an uncertain outcome with the primary intent of winning money or material goods.

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Ganser syndrome

Ganser syndrome is a rare dissociative disorder characterized by nonsensical or wrong answers to questions and other dissociative symptoms such as fugue, amnesia or conversion disorder, often with visual pseudohallucinations and a decreased state of consciousness.

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Gender dysphoria

Gender dysphoria (GD), or gender identity disorder (GID), is the distress a person experiences as a result of the sex and gender they were assigned at birth.

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General practitioner

In the medical profession, a general practitioner (GP) is a medical doctor who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education to patients.

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Generalized anxiety disorder

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry, that is, apprehensive expectation about events or activities.

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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Geschwind syndrome

Geschwind syndrome, also known as Gastaut-Geschwind, is a group of behavioral phenomena evident in some people with temporal lobe epilepsy.

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Giorgio Antonucci

Giorgio Antonucci (Lucca, 24 February 1933 – Florence, 18 November 2017) was an Italian physician, known for his questioning of the basis of psychiatry.

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Glenn Albrecht

Glenn Albrecht (born 1953) was Professor of Sustainability at Murdoch University in Western Australia.

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Global mental health

Global mental health is the international perspective on different aspects of mental health.

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Grief is a multifaceted response to loss, particularly to the loss of someone or something that has died, to which a bond or affection was formed.

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A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.

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A hand is a prehensile, multi-fingered appendage located at the end of the forearm or forelimb of primates such as humans, chimpanzees, monkeys, and lemurs.

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Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.

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Histrionic personality disorder

Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) is defined by the American Psychiatric Association as a personality disorder characterized by a pattern of excessive attention-seeking emotions, usually beginning in early adulthood, including inappropriately seductive behavior and an excessive need for approval.

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Homeland (TV series)

Homeland is an American spy thriller television series developed by Howard Gordon and Alex Gansa based on the Israeli series Prisoners of War (Original title translit, literally "Abductees"), which was created by Gideon Raff.

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The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.

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Human body

The human body is the entire structure of a human being.

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Human migration

Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.

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Human rights

Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.

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Humanistic psychology

Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective that rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in answer to the limitations of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory and B. F. Skinner's behaviorism.

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Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.

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Hypomania (literally "under mania" or "less than mania") is a mood state characterized by persistent disinhibition and elevation (euphoria).

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Hysteria, in the colloquial use of the term, means ungovernable emotional excess.

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ICD-10 Chapter V: Mental and behavioural disorders

ICD-10 is an international statistical classification produced by the World Health Organization.

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Imola (Jômla or Jemula) is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Bologna, located on the river Santerno, in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.

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Inanna was the ancient Sumerian goddess of love, beauty, sex, desire, fertility, war, combat, justice, and political power.

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Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.

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Informed consent

Informed consent is a process for getting permission before conducting a healthcare intervention on a person, or for disclosing personal information.

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Insanity, craziness, or madness is a spectrum of both group and individual behaviors characterized by certain abnormal mental or behavioral patterns.

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Insanity defense

The insanity defense, also known as the mental disorder defense, is a defense by excuse in a criminal case, arguing that the defendant is not responsible for his or her actions due to an episodic or persistent psychiatric disease at the time of the criminal act.

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Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.

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Institutional racism

Institutional racism (also known as institutionalized racism) is a form of racism expressed in the practice of social and political institutions.

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Institutionalisation (or institutionalization) refers to the process of embedding some conception (for example a belief, norm, social role, particular value or mode of behavior) within an organization, social system, or society as a whole.

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Insulin shock therapy

Insulin shock therapy or insulin coma therapy (ICT) was a form of psychiatric treatment in which patients were repeatedly injected with large doses of insulin in order to produce daily comas over several weeks.

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Integrative psychotherapy

Integrative psychotherapy is the integration of elements from different schools of psychotherapy in the treatment of a client.

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Intellectual disability

Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.

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International Review of Psychiatry

The International Review of Psychiatry is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Taylor & Francis on behalf of the Institute of Psychiatry (King's College London).

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International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems

The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes." Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.

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Interpersonal relationship

An interpersonal relationship is a strong, deep, or close association or acquaintance between two or more people that may range in duration from brief to enduring.

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Involuntary commitment

Involuntary commitment or civil commitment (also known informally as sectioning or being sectioned in some jurisdictions, such as the UK) is a legal process through which an individual who is deemed by a qualified agent to have symptoms of severe mental disorder is court-ordered into treatment in a psychiatric hospital (inpatient) or in the community (outpatient).

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Involuntary treatment

Involuntary treatment (also referred to by proponents as assisted treatment and by critics as forced drugging) refers to medical treatment undertaken without the consent of whomever is treated.

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Iron Man 3

Iron Man 3 (stylized onscreen as Iron Man Three) is a 2013 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character Iron Man, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures.

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Islamic Golden Age

The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.

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Kleptomania or klopemania is the inability to refrain from the urge for stealing items and is usually done for reasons other than personal use or financial gain.

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Kraepelin may refer to.

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Learned helplessness

Learned helplessness is behavior typical of an animal and occurs where the subject endures repeatedly painful or otherwise aversive stimuli which it is unable to escape or avoid.

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Learning disability

Learning disability is a classification that includes several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors.

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Licensed professional counselor

Licensed professional counselor (LPC) is a licensure for mental health professionals in some countries.

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List of counseling topics

Counseling is the activity of the counselor, or a professional who counsels people, especially on personal problems and difficulties.

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Lithium (medication)

Lithium compounds, also known as lithium salts, are primarily used as a psychiatric medication.

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Lobotomy, also known as leucotomy, is a neurosurgical and form of psychosurgery. Operation that involves severing connections in the brain's prefrontal lobe.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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A maladaptation is a trait that is (or has become) more harmful than helpful, in contrast with an adaptation, which is more helpful than harmful.

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Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.

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Mediation (statistics)

In statistics, a mediation model is one that seeks to identify and explain the mechanism or process that underlies an observed relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable via the inclusion of a third hypothetical variable, known as a mediator variable (also a mediating variable, intermediary variable, or intervening variable).

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Medical diagnosis

Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.

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Medical model

Medical model is the term coined by psychiatrist R. D. Laing in his The Politics of the Family and Other Essays (1971), for the "set of procedures in which all doctors are trained".

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Medical sign

A medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a patient or anyone, especially a physician, before or during a physical examination of a patient.

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Medicalization or medicalisation (see spelling differences) is the process by which human conditions and problems come to be defined and treated as medical conditions, and thus become the subject of medical study, diagnosis, prevention, or treatment.

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Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Mental disorder

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

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Mental distress

Mental distress (or psychological distress) is a term used, both by some mental health practitioners and users of mental health services, to describe a range of symptoms and experiences of a person's internal life that are commonly held to be troubling, confusing or out of the ordinary.

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Mental health

Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.

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Mental health professional

A mental health professional is a health care practitioner or community services provider who offers services for the purpose of improving an individual's mental health or to treat mental disorders.

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Mental Illness Awareness Week

Mental Illness Awareness Week (MIAW) (also known as Mental Health Awareness Week) was established in 1990 by the U.S. Congress in recognition of efforts by the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) to educate and increase awareness about mental illness.

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Mental illness portrayed in media

Mental illnesses, also known as psychiatric disorders, can be poorly portrayed in terms of factual accuracy.

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Mental status examination

The mental status examination or mental state examination (MSE) is an important part of the clinical assessment process in psychiatric practice.

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Mentalism (discrimination)

Mentalism or sanism is a form of discrimination and oppression against a mental trait or condition a person has, or is judged to have.

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Mentally ill people in United States jails and prisons

Mentally ill people are overrepresented in United States jail and prison populations relative to the general population.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Michael Polanyi

Michael Polanyi, (11 March 1891 – 22 February 1976) was a Hungarian-British polymath, who made important theoretical contributions to physical chemistry, economics, and philosophy.

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The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.

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Minority group

A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.

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Model organism

A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.

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Mood disorder

Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.

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Mood stabilizer

A mood stabilizer is a psychiatric pharmaceutical drug used to treat mood disorders characterized by intense and sustained mood shifts, typically bipolar disorder type I or type II, borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia.

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Moral treatment

Moral treatment was an approach to mental disorder based on humane psychosocial care or moral discipline that emerged in the 18th century and came to the fore for much of the 19th century, deriving partly from psychiatry or psychology and partly from religious or moral concerns.

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Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.

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Music therapy

Music therapy is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approved music therapy program.

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Narcissistic personality disorder

Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a personality disorder with a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by exaggerated feelings of self-importance, an excessive need for admiration, and a lack of empathy.

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National Institute of Mental Health

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is one of 27 institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

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Neglect is a form of abuse where the perpetrator, who is responsible for caring for someone who is unable to care for themselves, fails to do so.

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Neurasthenia is a term that was first used at least as early as 1829 to label a mechanical weakness of the nerves and would become a major diagnosis in North America during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries after neurologist George Miller Beard reintroduced the concept in 1869.

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Neurodevelopmental disorder

Neurodevelopmental disorder is a mental disorder.

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Neurological disorder

A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.

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Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

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Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.

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Objectivity (science)

Objectivity in science is a value that informs how science is practiced and how scientific truths are discovered.

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Obsessive–compulsive disorder

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").

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Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder

Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a general pattern of concern with orderliness, perfectionism, excessive attention to details, mental and interpersonal control, and a need for control over one's environment, at the expense of flexibility, openness to experience, and efficiency.

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Off-label use

Off-label use is the use of pharmaceutical drugs for an unapproved indication or in an unapproved age group, dosage, or route of administration.

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Oppositional defiant disorder

Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is defined by the DSM-5 as "a pattern of angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, or vindictiveness" in children and adolescents.

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Outpatient commitment

Outpatient commitment—also called Assisted Outpatient Treatment (AOT) or a Community Treatment Order (CTO)—refers to a civil court procedure wherein a judge orders an individual diagnosed with severe a mental disorder who is experiencing a psychiatric crisis that requires intervention to adhere to an outpatient treatment plan designed to prevent further deterioration that is harmful to themselves or others.

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Panic disorder

Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring unexpected panic attacks.

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Paranoia is an instinct or thought process believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.

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Paranoid personality disorder

Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is a mental disorder characterized by paranoia and a pervasive, long-standing suspiciousness and generalized mistrust of others.

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Paraphilia (previously known as sexual perversion and sexual deviation) is the experience of intense sexual arousal to atypical objects, situations, fantasies, behaviors, or individuals.

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Parenting or child rearing is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood.

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Parity of esteem

Parity of esteem is a concept which can be applied in a variety of contexts.

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Passive–aggressive personality disorder

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders revision IV (DSM-IV) describes passive–aggressive personality disorder as a "pervasive pattern of negativistic attitudes and passive resistance to demands for adequate performance in social and occupational situations." Passive-aggressive behavior is the obligatory symptom of the passive–aggressive personality disorder.

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Pathological jealousy

Pathological jealousy, also known as Morbid jealousy, Othello syndrome or delusional jealousy, is a psychological disorder in which a person is preoccupied with the thought that their spouse or sexual partner is being unfaithful without having any real proof, along with socially unacceptable or abnormal behaviour related to these thoughts.

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Patient advocacy

Patient advocacy is an area of specialization in health care concerned with advocacy for patients, survivors, and carers.

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Paula Caplan

Paula Joan Caplan (born July 7, 1947 in Springfield, Missouri) is a clinical and research psychologist, activist, social justice and human rights advocate, nonfiction writer, award-winning playwright, screenwriter, actor, and director.

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Peer support

Peer support occurs when people provide knowledge, experience, emotional, social or practical help to each other.

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A pejorative (also called a derogatory term, a slur, a term of abuse, or a term of disparagement) is a word or grammatical form expressing a negative connotation or a low opinion of someone or something, showing a lack of respect for someone or something.

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A person is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as kinship, ownership of property, or legal responsibility.

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Personality development

Personality development is the relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that distinguish individuals from one another.

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Personality disorder

Personality disorders (PD) are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating from those accepted by the individual's culture.

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Peter Breggin

Peter Roger Breggin (born May 11, 1936) is an American psychiatrist and critic of shock treatment and psychiatric medication.

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Pharmaceutical marketing

Pharmaceutical marketing, sometimes called medico-marketing or pharma marketing in some countries, is the business of advertising or otherwise promoting the sale of pharmaceutical drugs.

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A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder, defined by a persistent and excessive fear of an object or situation.

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A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.

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Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.

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Posttraumatic stress disorder

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.

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Premenstrual dysphoric disorder

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe and disabling form of premenstrual syndrome affecting 3–8% of menstruating women.

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A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").

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A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from.

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Psychiatric hospital

Psychiatric hospitals, also known as mental hospitals, mental health units, mental asylums or simply asylums, are hospitals or wards specializing in the treatment of serious mental disorders, such as clinical depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder.

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Psychiatric medication

A psychiatric medication is a licensed psychoactive drug taken to exert an effect on the chemical makeup of the brain and nervous system.

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Psychiatric service dog

A psychiatric service dog is a specific type of service dog trained to assist their handler with a psychiatric disability or a mental disability, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder.

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Psychiatric survivors movement

The psychiatric survivors movement (more broadly peer/consumer/survivor/ex-patient movement) is a diverse association of individuals who either currently access mental health services (known as consumers or service users), or who are survivors of interventions by psychiatry, or who are ex-patients of mental health services.

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Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.

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Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.

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Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual

The Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM) is a diagnostic handbook similar to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) or the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).

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Psychoeducation is an evidence-based therapeutic intervention for patients and their loved ones that provides information and support to better understand and cope with illness.

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Psychological evaluation

Psychological evaluation is defined as a way of assessing an individual's behavior, personality, cognitive abilities, and several other domains.

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Psychological testing

Psychological testing is the administration of psychological tests, which are designed to be "an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior".

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Psychological trauma

Psychological trauma is a type of damage to the mind that occurs as a result of a severely distressing event.

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Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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Psychometrics is a field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement.

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Psychomotor agitation

Psychomotor agitation is a set of signs and symptoms that stem from mental tension and anxiety.

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Psychopathology is the scientific study of mental disorders, including efforts to understand their genetic, biological, psychological, and social causes; effective classification schemes (nosology); course across all stages of development; manifestations; and treatment.

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Psychopathy, sometimes considered synonymous with sociopathy, is traditionally defined as a personality disorder characterized by persistent antisocial behavior, impaired empathy and remorse, and bold, disinhibited, and egotistical traits.

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Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.

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Psychosurgery, also called neurosurgery for mental disorder (NMD), is the neurosurgical treatment of mental disorder.

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Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.

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Public health

Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".

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Pyromania is an impulse control disorder in which individuals repeatedly fail to resist impulses to deliberately start fires, in order to relieve tension or for instant gratification.

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R. D. Laing

Ronald David Laing (7 October 1927 – 23 August 1989), usually cited as R. D. Laing, was a Scottish psychiatrist who wrote extensively on mental illnessin particular, the experience of psychosis.

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Race (human categorization)

A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.

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Reasonable accommodation

A reasonable accommodation is an adjustment made in a system to accommodate or make fair the same system for an individual based on a proven need.

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Recovery approach

Psychological recovery or recovery model or the recovery approach to mental disorder or substance dependence emphasizes and supports a person's potential for recovery.

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Relational disorder

According to Michael First of the DSM-5 working committee the focus of a relational disorder, in contrast to other DSM-IV disorders, "is on the relationship rather than on any one individual in the relationship".

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Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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Religion and schizophrenia

The relationship between religion and schizophrenia is of particular interest to psychiatrists because of the similarities between religious experiences and psychotic episodes; religious experiences often involve auditory and/or visual hallucinations, and those with schizophrenia commonly report similar hallucinations, along with a variety of beliefs that are commonly recognized by modern medical practitioners as delusional.

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Robert Spitzer (psychiatrist)

Robert Leopold Spitzer (May 22, 1932 – December 25, 2015) was a psychiatrist and professor of psychiatry at Columbia University in New York City.

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Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Rosalynn Carter

Eleanor Rosalynn Carter (née Smith; born August 18, 1927) served as First Lady of the United States from 1977 to 1981, as the wife of President Jimmy Carter.

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Rosenhan experiment

The Rosenhan experiment or Thud experiment was an experiment conducted to determine the validity of psychiatric diagnosis.

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Sadistic personality disorder

Sadistic personality disorder is a personality disorder involving sadism which appeared in an appendix of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R).

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Schizoaffective disorder

Schizoaffective disorder (SZA, SZD or SAD) is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal thought processes and deregulated emotions.

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Schizoid personality disorder

Schizoid personality disorder (often abbreviated as SPD or SzPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary or sheltered lifestyle, secretiveness, emotional coldness, detachment, and apathy.

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Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.

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Schizotypal personality disorder

Schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) or schizotypal disorder is a mental disorder characterized by severe social anxiety, thought disorder, paranoid ideation, derealization, transient psychosis, and often unconventional beliefs.

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In psychology, schizotypy is a theoretical concept that posits a continuum of personality characteristics and experiences, ranging from normal dissociative, imaginative states to extreme states of mind related to psychosis, especially schizophrenia.

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R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.

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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.

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Self-defeating personality disorder

Self-defeating personality disorder (also known as masochistic personality disorder) was a proposed personality disorder.

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Self-harm, also known as self-injury, is defined as the intentional, direct injuring of body tissue, done without suicidal intentions.

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Self-help or self-improvement is a self-guided improvementAPA Dictionary of Physicology, 1st ed., Gary R. VandenBos, ed., Washington: American Psychological Association, 2007.

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Self-help groups for mental health

Self-help groups for mental health are voluntary associations of people who share a common desire to overcome mental illness or otherwise increase their level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing.

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Services for mental disorders

Services for mental disorders offer treatments, support or advocacy to people judged to have mental disorders (mental illnesses).

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Sexual dysfunction

Sexual dysfunction (or sexual malfunction or sexual disorder) is difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including physical pleasure, desire, preference, arousal or orgasm.

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Shared decision-making in medicine

Shared decision-making in medicine (SDM) is a process in which both the patient and physician contribute to the medical decision-making process.

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Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.

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Sleep disorder

A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal.

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Social anxiety disorder

Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.

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Social exclusion

Social exclusion, or social marginalization, is the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society.

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Social firm

Social firm is the British term for a work integration social enterprise (WISE), a business created to employ people who have a disability or are otherwise disadvantaged in the labour market.

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Social movement

A social movement is a type of group action.

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Social norm

From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.

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Social stigma

Social stigma is disapproval of (or discontent with) a person based on socially characteristic grounds that are perceived.

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Social stress

Social stress is stress that stems from one's relationships with others and from the social environment in general.

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Social welfare model

A social welfare model is a system of social welfare provision and its accompanying value system.

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Social work

Social work is an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with individuals, families, groups and communities in an effort to enhance social functioning and overall well-being.

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A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

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Socioeconomic status

Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family's economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.

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Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes.

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Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.

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for studio album by Missy Higgins, see Solastalgia Solastalgia (/sɒləˈstældʒə/) is a neologism that describes a form of psychic or existential distress caused by environmental change.

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Somatization disorder

Somatization disorder (also Briquet's syndrome) is a mental disorder characterized by recurring, multiple, and current, clinically significant complaints about somatic symptoms, although it is no longer considered a clinical diagnosis.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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Spectrum disorder

A spectrum disorder is a mental disorder that includes a range of linked conditions, sometimes also extending to include singular symptoms and traits.

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Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.

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In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people.

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A stereotypy is a repetitive or ritualistic movement, posture, or utterance.

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Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.

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Stress (biology)

Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.

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Stuart A. Kirk

Stuart A. Kirk holds the Marjorie Crump Chair in Social Welfare at UCLA and is a former psychiatric social worker.

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A subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates itself from the parent culture to which it belongs, often maintaining some of its founding principles.

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Substance abuse

Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.

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Substance dependence

Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.

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Substance use disorder

A substance use disorder (SUD), also known as a drug use disorder, is a condition in which the use of one or more substances leads to a clinically significant impairment or distress.

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Substituted amphetamine

Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.

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Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.

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Supportive housing

Supportive housing is a combination of housing and services intended as a cost-effective way to help people live more stable, productive lives, and is an active "community services and funding" stream across the United States.

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Supreme court

A supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions.

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Surrogate decision-maker

A surrogate decision maker, also known as a health care proxy or as agents, is an advocate for incompetent patients.

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A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.

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A syndrome is a set of medical signs and symptoms that are correlated with each other and, often, with a particular disease or disorder.

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A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.

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Systemic therapy (psychotherapy)

In psychotherapy, systemic therapy seeks to address people not only on the individual level, as had been the focus of earlier forms of therapy, but also as people in relationships, dealing with the interactions of groups and their interactional patterns and dynamics.

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Systems psychology

Systems psychology is a branch of both theoretical psychology and applied psychology that studies human behaviour and experience in complex systems.

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The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.

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The Myth of Mental Illness

The Myth of Mental Illness: Foundations of a Theory of Personal Conduct is a 1961 book by the psychiatrist Thomas Szasz, in which the author criticizes psychiatry and argues against the concept of mental illness.

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Therapeutic relationship

The therapeutic relationship (also therapeutic alliance, the helping alliance, or the working alliance) refers to the relationship between a healthcare professional and a client (or patient).

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Thomas Szasz

Thomas Stephen Szasz (Szász Tamás István; 15 April 1920 – 8 September 2012) was a Hungarian-American academic, psychiatrist and psychoanalyst.

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Thought disorder

Thought disorder (TD) or formal thought disorder (FTD) refers to disorganized thinking as evidenced by disorganized speech.

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The transpersonal is a term used by different schools of philosophy and psychology in order to describe experiences and worldviews that extend beyond the personal level of the psyche, and beyond mundane worldly events.

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Trust (emotion)

In a social context, trust has several connotations.

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Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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Utu later worshipped by East Semitic peoples as Shamash, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of the sun, justice, morality, and truth, and the twin brother of the goddess Inanna, the Queen of Heaven.

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Value (ethics)

In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.

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Victimology is the study of victimization, including the psychological effects on victims, relationships between victims and offenders, the interactions between victims and the criminal justice system—that is, the police and courts, and corrections officials—and the connections between victims and other social groups and institutions, such as the media, businesses, and social movements.

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WebMD is an American corporation known primarily as an online publisher of news and information pertaining to human health and well-being.

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A workplace is a location where someone works for his or her employer, a place of employment.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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World Mental Health Day

World Mental Health Day (10 October) is a day for global mental health education, awareness and advocacy against social stigma.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mental_disorder

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