68 relations: Abortifacient, Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Adenosine monophosphate, Adverse drug reaction, Allopurinol, Amidophosphoribosyltransferase, Antimetabolite, Autoimmune disease, Azathioprine, Bone marrow, Bone marrow suppression, Breathing, Cancer, Chemical weapon, Chromosome, Chronic myelogenous leukemia, Cornelius P. Rhoads, Crohn's disease, Cytotoxicity, Developing country, Dizziness, DNA, Fever, Genetic testing, Genetic variation, George H. Hitchings, Gertrude B. Elion, GlaxoSmithKline, Guanine, Health system, Hepatotoxicity, Human feces, Hypoxanthine, Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, Immunization, Inosinic acid, Itch, Kidney, Melena, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Methotrexate, Methylation, National Health Service, Nitrogen mustard, Nucleotide, NUDT15, Pancreatitis, Pharmacogenetics, Poliomyelitis, Pregnancy, ..., Purine, Rash, Red blood cell, RNA, Sore throat, Swelling (medical), Thiopurine, Thiopurine methyltransferase, Tuckahoe (village), New York, Ulcerative colitis, Urine, Vaccination, Vacuum aspiration, White blood cell, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, Xanthine oxidase, Xanthosine monophosphate, Zygosity. Expand index (18 more) » « Shrink index
An abortifacient ("that which will cause a miscarriage" from Latin: abortus "miscarriage" and faciens "making") is a substance that induces abortion.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the lymphoid line of blood cells characterized by the development of large numbers of immature lymphocytes.
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide.
An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an injury caused by taking a medication.
Allopurinol, sold under the brand name Zyloprim among others, is a medication used to decrease high blood uric acid levels.
Amidophosphoribosyltransferase (ATase), also known as glutamine phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase (GPAT), is an enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) into 5-phosphoribosyl-1-amine (PRA), using the ammonia group from a glutamine side-chain.
An antimetabolite is a chemical that inhibits the use of a metabolite, which is another chemical that is part of normal metabolism.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
Azathioprine (AZA), sold under the brand name Imuran among others, is an immunosuppressive medication.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
Bone marrow suppression also known as myelotoxicity or myelosuppression, is the decrease in production of cells responsible for providing immunity (leukocytes), carrying oxygen (erythrocytes), and/or those responsible for normal blood clotting (thrombocytes).
Breathing (or respiration, or ventilation) is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange with the internal environment, mostly by bringing in oxygen and flushing out carbon dioxide.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), also known as chronic myeloid leukemia, is a cancer of the white blood cells.
Cornelius Packard "Dusty" Rhoads (June 9, 1898 – August 13, 1959) was an American pathologist, oncologist, and hospital administrator.
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.
Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Genetic testing, also known as DNA testing, allows the determination of bloodlines and the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases.
Genetic variation means that biological systems – individuals and populations – are different over space.
George Herbert Hitchings (April 18, 1905 – February 27, 1998) was an American doctor who shared the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Sir James Black and Gertrude Elion "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment," Hitchings specifically for his work on chemotherapy.
Gertrude Belle Elion (January 23, 1918 – February 21, 1999) was an American biochemist and pharmacologist, who shared the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with George H. Hitchings and Sir James Black.
GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK) is a British pharmaceutical company headquartered in Brentford, London.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.
Human feces (or faeces in British English; fæx) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, but has been rotted down by bacteria in the large intestine.
Hypoxanthine is a naturally occurring purine derivative.
Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) is an enzyme encoded in humans by the HPRT1 gene.
Immunization, or immunisation, is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent (known as the immunogen).
Inosinic acid or inosine monophosphate (IMP) is a nucleoside monophosphate.
Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Melena or melæna refers to the dark black, tarry feces that are associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK or MSKCC) is a cancer treatment and research institution in New York City, founded in 1884 as the New York Cancer Hospital.
Methotrexate (MTX), formerly known as amethopterin, is a chemotherapy agent and immune system suppressant.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
Nitrogen mustards are cytotoxic chemotherapy agents derived from mustard gas.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Nudix hydrolase 15 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NUDT15 gene.
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas.
Pharmacogenetics is the study of inherited genetic differences in drug metabolic pathways which can affect individual responses to drugs, both in terms of therapeutic effect as well as adverse effects.
Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
A rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
Sore throat, also known as throat pain, is pain or irritation of the throat.
In medical parlance, swelling, turgescence or tumefaction is a transient abnormal enlargement of a body part or area not caused by proliferation of cells.
The thiopurine drugs are purine antimetabolites widely used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, autoimmune disorders (e.g., Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis), and organ transplant recipients.
Thiopurine methyltransferase or thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TPMT gene.
Tuckahoe is a village in the town of Eastchester in Westchester County, New York, United States.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
Vacuum or suction aspiration uses aspiration to remove uterine contents through the cervix.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
Xanthine oxidase (XO, sometimes XAO) is a form of xanthine oxidoreductase, a type of enzyme that generates reactive oxygen species.
Xanthosine monophosphate is an intermediate in purine metabolism.
Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.
6 MP, 6 mercaptopurine, 6-MP, 6-Mercaptopurine, 6-mercaptopurine, 6MP, ATC code L01BB02, ATCvet code QL01BB02, Ismipur, Leukerin, Leupurin, Mercaleukim, Mercaleukin, Puri-Nethol, Purimethol, Purinethiol, Purinethol, Purinetol.