142 relations: Afro-Latin Americans, Agence France-Presse, ALBA, Andean Community, Argentina, Argentine passport, Argentine peso, Asian Latin Americans, Associated Press, BBC News, Bolivia, Brazil, Brazilian passport, Brazilian real, Buenos Aires, Central American Integration System, Central bank, Chicago Journal of International Law, Chile, Citizenship of the Mercosur, Civil law (common law), Collateral contract, Colombia, Colonia (United States), Colonia del Sacramento, Committee, Common commercial policy, Congress, Consumer protection, Cost–benefit analysis, Council on Foreign Relations, Customs union, Danilo Astori, Dilma Rousseff, Dispute resolution, Domicile (law), Economic integration, Ecuador, Eladio Loizaga, European Economic Community, European Union, Evo Morales, Exchange rate, Finance minister, Free trade, Free Trade Area of the Americas, Free-trade area, Free-trade zone, Fungibility, Gaucho (currency), ..., General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Global city, Government agency, Guarani language, Guyana, Headquarters, Horacio Cartes, Human rights, Hydropower, Impeachment of Fernando Lugo, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Industrial property, Intergovernmental organization, Intermediation, International Monetary Fund, José Sarney, Köppen climate classification, Language, Latinobarómetro, Lebanon, List of countries and dependencies by population, List of countries by exports, List of countries by GDP (nominal), List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita, List of countries by GDP (PPP), List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita, List of countries by imports, List of country groupings, List of multilateral free-trade agreements, Macroeconomics, Manaus, Mauricio Macri, Mercosur Parliament, Mestizo, Mexico, Michel Temer, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Montevideo, Nationalization, New Zealand, North American Free Trade Agreement, Observer status, Order of succession, Pacific Alliance, Paraguay, Paraguayan guaraní, Paraguayan passport, Pardo, Peru, Polar climate, Portuguese language, President of Argentina, President of Brazil, President of Paraguay, President of Uruguay, President pro tempore, Privilege (law), Pro tempore, Protocol of Ouro Preto, Public, Public law, Purchasing power parity, Raúl Alfonsín, Regional integration, Rio de Janeiro, Road Network of the MERCOSUR, São Paulo, Socioeconomics, South America, Sovereign state, Spanish language, State of Palestine, Subtropics, Supranational union, Suriname, Tabaré Vázquez, The Independent, Tierra del Fuego Province, Argentina, Trade bloc, Trade in services, Treaty of Asunción, Tropical climate, Union of South American Nations, United States dollar, Uruguay, Uruguayan passport, Uruguayan peso, Venezuela, Venezuelan passport, White Latin Americans, 1998–2002 Argentine great depression, 4th Summit of the Americas. Expand index (92 more) » « Shrink index
Afro-Latin Americans or Black Latin Americans refers to Latin American people of significant African ancestry.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
ALBA or ALBA-TCP, formally the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América) or the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America - Peoples’ Trade Treaty (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América - Tratado de Comercio de los Pueblos), is an intergovernmental organization based on the idea of the social, political and economic integration of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.
The Andean Community (Comunidad Andina, CAN) is a customs union comprising the South American countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Argentine passports are issued to citizens of Argentina by the National Registry for People (ReNaPer).
The peso (established as the peso convertible) is the currency of Argentina, identified by the symbol $ preceding the amount in the same way as many countries using dollar currencies.
Asian Latin Americans are Latin Americans of East Asian, Southeast Asian or South Asian descent.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Brazilian passport is the official document for foreign travel issued by the federal government, through the Federal Police.
The Brazilian real (real, pl. reais; sign: R$; code: BRL) is the official currency of Brazil.
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.
The Central American Integration System (Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana, or SICA) has been the economic and political organization of Central American states since February 1, 1993.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
The Chicago Journal of International Law is a semiannual, student-edited law review published by the University of Chicago Law School since spring 2000.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Citizenship of the Mercosur is granted to eligible citizens of the Southern Common Market member states.
Civil law is a branch of the law.
A collateral contract is usually a single term contract, made in consideration of the party for whose benefit the contract operates agreeing to enter into the principal or main contract, which sets out additional terms relating to the same subject matter as the main contract.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
In the United States, colonias are low-income unincorporated housing-areas located along the Mexico–United States border region that began to emerge with the advent of informal housing.
Colonia del Sacramento (formerly the Portuguese Colónia do Sacramento) is a city in southwestern Uruguay, by the Río de la Plata, facing Buenos Aires, Argentina.
A committee (or "commission") is a body of one or more persons that is subordinate to a deliberative assembly.
A common commercial policy is when a group of states co-ordinates some or all aspects of their trade policy.
A congress is a formal meeting of the representatives of different nations, constituent states, organizations (such as trade unions, and political parties), or groups.
In regulatory jurisdictions that provide for this (a list including most or all developed countries with free market economies) consumer protection is a group of laws and organizations designed to ensure the rights of consumers, as well as fair trade, competition, and accurate information in the marketplace.
Cost–benefit analysis (CBA), sometimes called benefit costs analysis (BCA), is a systematic approach to estimate the strengths and weaknesses of alternatives (for example in transactions, activities, functional business requirements or projects investments); it is used to determine options that provide the best approach to achieve benefits while preserving savings.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
A customs union was defined by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade as a type of trade bloc which is composed of a free trade area with a common external tariff.
Danilo Ángel Astori Saragosa (born April 23, 1940) is a Uruguayan social democratic politician who was Vice President of Uruguay from 2010 to 2015.
Dilma Vana Rousseff (often known mononymously as Dilma; born 14 December 1947) is a Brazilian economist and politician who served as the 36th President of Brazil, holding the position from 2011 until her impeachment and removal from office on 31 August 2016, becoming the first democratically-elected female President in the world to be impeached and removed.
Dispute resolution is the process of resolving disputes between parties.
In law, domicile is the status or attribution of being a lawful permanent resident in a particular jurisdiction.
Economic integration is the unification of economic policies between different states through the partial or full abolition of tariff and non-tariff restrictions on trade taking place among them prior to their integration.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Eladio Loizaga Caballero (born 17 March 1949) is a Paraguayan lawyer and diplomat.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26, 1959), popularly known as Evo, is a Bolivian politician and cocalero activist who has served as President of Bolivia since 2006.
In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another.
A finance minister is an executive or cabinet position in charge of one or more of government finances, economic policy and financial regulation.
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
The Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA; Área de Libre Comercio de las Américas, ALCA; Zone de libre-échange des Amériques, ZLÉA; Área de Livre Comércio das Américas, ALCA; Vrijhandelszone van Amerika) was a proposed agreement to eliminate or reduce the trade barriers among all countries in the Americas, excluding Cuba.
A free-trade area is the region encompassing a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a free-trade agreement (FTA).
A free-trade zone (FTZ) is a specific class of special economic zone.
In economics, fungibility is the property of a good or a commodity whose individual units are essentially interchangeable.
The Gaucho was the name of a currency intended to be used by Argentina and Brazil in the context of the Argentina-Brazil Integration and Economics Cooperation Program or PICE (Spanish: Programa de Integración y Cooperación Económica Argentina-Brasil) to make interregional payments.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was a legal agreement between many countries, whose overall purpose was to promote international trade by reducing or eliminating trade barriers such as tariffs or quotas.
A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network.
A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversight and administration of specific functions, such as an intelligence agency.
Guarani, specifically the primary variety known as Paraguayan Guarani (endonym avañe'ẽ 'the people's language'), is an indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupi–Guarani family of the Tupian languages.
Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.
Headquarters (commonly referred to as HQ or HD) is/are the locations where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are coordinated.
Horacio Manuel Cartes Jara OSC (born 5 July 1956) is a Paraguayan businessman currently serving as the President of Paraguay, as of the Paraguayan general election, 2013.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
Fernando Lugo, elected President of Paraguay in 2008, was impeached and removed from office by the Congress of Paraguay in June 2012.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Industrial property takes a range of forms, these include patents for inventions, industrial designs (aesthetic creations related to the appearance of industrial products), trademarks, service marks, layout-designs of integrated circuits, commercial names and designations, geographical indications and protection against unfair competition.
An intergovernmental organization or international governmental organisation (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as member states), or of other intergovernmental organizations.
Intermediation involves the "matching" of lenders with savings to borrowers who need money by an agent or third party, such as a bank.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
José Sarney de Araújo Costa (born April 24, 1930 as José Ribamar Ferreira de Araújo Costa) is a Brazilian politician, lawyer, and writer who served as 31st President of Brazil from March 15, 1985 to March 15, 1990.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Latinobarómetro Corporation is a private non-profit organization, based in Providencia, Chile.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.
This is a list of countries by merchandise exports, based on The World Factbook of the CIA.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
The world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.
This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).
Three lists of countries below calculate gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.
This is a list of countries by merchandise imports, based on The World Factbook of the CIA.
Groups of countries or regions are often referred to by a single term (word, phrase, or abbreviation).
This is a list of multilateral free-trade agreements, between several countries all treated equally.
Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.
Manaus or Manaós before 1939 or (formerly) Barra do Rio Negro, is the capital city of the state of Amazonas in the North Region of Brazil.
Mauricio Macri (born 8 February 1959) is the current President of Argentina and has been in office since 2015.
The Mercosur Parliament (Parlamento del Mercosur, Parlamento do Mercosul), known also as Parlasur, or Parlasul, is the parliamentary institution of the Mercosur trade bloc.
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Michel Miguel Elias Temer Lulia (born 23 September 1940) is a Brazilian lawyer and politician serving as the 37th and current President of Brazil.
In many countries, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the government department responsible for the state's diplomacy as well as for providing support for a country's citizens who are abroad.
Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
Observer status is a privilege granted by some organizations to non-members to give them an ability to participate in the organization's activities.
An order of succession is the sequence of those entitled to hold a high office such as head of state or an honour such as a title of nobility in the order in which they stand in line to it when it becomes vacated.
The Pacific Alliance (Alianza del Pacífico) is a Latin American trade bloc, formed by — Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, which all border the Pacific Ocean.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
The guaraní (plural: guaraníes; sign: ₲; code: PYG) is the national currency unit of Paraguay.
Paraguayan passports are issued to Paraguayan citizens to travel outside Paraguay.
Pardo is a term used in the Portuguese and Spanish colonies in the Americas to refer to the triracial descendants of Europeans, Indigenous Americans, and West Africans.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
The polar climate regions are characterized by a lack of warm summers.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The President of the Argentine Nation (Presidente de la Nación Argentina), usually known as the President of Argentina, is both head of state and head of government of Argentina.
The President of Brazil, officially the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil) or simply the President of the Republic, is both the head of state and the head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazil.
The President of Paraguay (Presidente de la República del Paraguay) is according to the Constitution of Paraguay the head of the executive branch of the Government of Paraguay, both head of state and head of government.
The President of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (Presidente de la República Oriental del Uruguay) is the head of state and head of government of Uruguay.
A president pro tempore or speaker pro tempore is a constitutionally recognized officer of a legislative body who presides over the chamber in the absence of the normal presiding officer.
A privilege is a certain entitlement to immunity granted by the state or another authority to a restricted group, either by birth or on a conditional basis.
Pro tempore, abbreviated pro tem or p.t., is a Latin phrase which best translates to "for the time being" in English.
The 1994 Protocol of Ouro Preto was the continuation of economic policies setting up a customs union, as set forth four years earlier in the Treaty of Asunción by the four original Mercosur states.
In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings.
Public law is that part of law which governs relationships between individuals and the government, and those relationships between individuals which are of direct concern to society.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín Foulkes (12 March 1927 – 31 March 2009) was an Argentine lawyer and statesman who served as the President of Argentina from 10 December 1983 to 8 July 1989.
Regional Integration is a process in which neighboring states enter into an agreement in order to upgrade cooperation through common institutions and rules.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
The road network of the MERCOSUR (Eje Vial Cono Sur), is a network of roads and highways in South America, that constitute a transnational system and links Mercosur main cities and access points.
São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.
Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
A supranational union is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states.
Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
Tabaré Ramón Vázquez Rosas (born 17 January 1940) is a Uruguayan politician serving as the 41st and current President of Uruguay since 2015.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
Tierra del Fuego (Spanish for "Land of Fire";; officially Provincia de Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur) is an Argentine province.
A trade block is a type of intergovernmental agreement, often part of a regional intergovernmental organization, where barriers to trade (tariffs and others) are reduced or eliminated among the participating states.
Trade in Services refers to the sale and delivery of an intangible product, called a service, between a producer and consumer.
The Treaty of Asunción was a treaty between the countries of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay signed on March 26, 1991.
A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of at least.
The Union of South American Nations (USAN; Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR; União de Nações Sul-Americanas, UNASUL; Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties, UZAN; and sometimes referred to as the South American Union) is an intergovernmental regional organization comprising twelve South American countries.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
Uruguayan passports are issued to Uruguayan citizens to travel outside Uruguay.
Uruguayan peso (peso uruguayo) has been a name of the Uruguayan currency since Uruguay's settlement by Europeans.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Venezuelan passports are issued to citizens of Venezuela to travel outside the country.
White Latin Americans or European Latin Americans are Latin Americans who are considered white, typically due to European, or in some cases Levantine, descent.
The 1998–2002 Argentine Great Depression was an economic depression in Argentina, which began in the third quarter of 1998 and lasted until the second quarter of 2002.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 4th Summit of the Americas was held at Mar del Plata, about southeast of Buenos Aires in Argentina, on November 4–5, 2005.
Common Commercial Policy (MERCOSUR), Common commercial policy (MERCOSUR), MERCOSUL, MERCOSUR, MerCoSur, Mercado Comum do Sul, Mercado Comun del Sur, Mercado Común del Sur, Mercasur, MercoSur, Mercocity, Mercosul, Mercusor, Mercusur, Southern Common Market, Southern Cone Common Market, Ñemby Ñemuha.