356 relations: Acrodynia, Activated carbon, Al-Andalus, Albacore, Alchemical symbol, Alchemy, Alcohol, Alexander Calder, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, Alkyl, Allies of World War II, Alloy, Almadén, Almaden Quicksilver County Park, Aluminium, Aluminium amalgam, Aluminium oxide, Amalgam (chemistry), Amalgam (dentistry), Ammonia, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Anode, Anti-fouling paint, Antidepressant, Antiseptic, Aqua regia, Argon, Aryl, Atomic number, Autism, Ballcock, Barcelona, Barometer, Binary cycle, Biomagnification, Block (periodic table), Blue mass, Bluefin tuna, Boiling point, Brain death, Bromine, Cadmium, Caesium, Calcination, Calomel, Cartridge (firearms), Case-control study, Castner–Kellner process, Catalysis, ..., Cathode, Cement, Chelation therapy, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemistry World, China, Chloralkali process, Chlorine, Chrysopoeia, Cinnabar, Clean Air Act (United States), Clean Water Act, Cognition, Cold cathode, COLEX process, Coolant, Coordination complex, Copernicium, Copper, Corderoite, Corrosion, Cosmetics, Coulomb's law, Cremation, Crust (geology), Daguerreotype, Dartmouth College, Dental restoration, Detonator, Diamagnetism, Diffusion pump, Dimercaprol, Dimercaptosuccinic acid, Dimethylmercury, Disinfectant, Diuretic, Divination, Dropping mercury electrode, Drug overdose, Effective nuclear charge, Electric battery, Electrical ballast, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrically powered spacecraft propulsion, Electrochemistry, Electrode, Electrode potential, Electrolysis, Electron configuration, Electrowinning, Emissions trading, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Environmental Science & Technology, Erethism, Estuary, Ethylmercury, European Union, Explosive material, Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne, Eye drop, Felt, Fish, Flerovium, Fluorescence, Fluorescent lamp, Food and Drug Administration, Food chain, Foshan, Fossil fuel power station, Fresnel lens, Fundació Joan Miró, Galinstan, Gallium, Gas-filled tube, Geochemistry, Germicidal lamp, Glenn Research Center, Gold, Great Lakes, Greek language, Guangzhou, Guizhou, Half-cell, Half-life, Hanging mercury drop electrode, Hatter (Alice's Adventures in Wonderland), Hazardous waste, Heavy metals, Hemoptysis, Herbicide, Hexavalent chromium, HRL Laboratories, HSAB theory, Huancavelica, Hydraulic mining, Hydrogen sulfide, Idrija, Ignitron, Incineration, Infrared detector, Infrared thermometer, Insecticide, International Joint Commission, International Temperature Scale of 1990, Ion thruster, Ionization, Irritant diaper dermatitis, Isotope, Jade, Japan, Joseph Priestley, Khumarawayh ibn Ahmad ibn Tulun, King mackerel, Kyrgyzstan, Lamanai, Lanthanide contraction, Latin, Laxative, Lead, Lewis Carroll, Lighthouse, Liquid mirror telescope, List of industrial disasters, Liver failure, Livingstonite, London, Lye, Mad as a hatter, Maine, Manganese, Mascara, Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor, Maya civilization, McDermitt, Nevada and Oregon, Medical prescription, Melting point, Merbromin, Mercury (mythology), Mercury (planet), Mercury battery, Mercury cadmium telluride, Mercury coulometer, Mercury fountain, Mercury poisoning, Mercury pollution in the ocean, Mercury polycations, Mercury relay, Mercury selenide, Mercury sulfide, Mercury switch, Mercury telluride, Mercury vapour turbine, Mercury zinc telluride, Mercury(I) chloride, Mercury(I) hydride, Mercury(II) chloride, Mercury(II) fulminate, Mercury(II) nitrate, Mercury(II) oxide, Mercury(II) sulfate, Mercury(IV) fluoride, Mercury-arc valve, Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act, Mercury-in-glass thermometer, Mercury-vapor lamp, Mesoamerican ballcourt, Metal, Metallic bonding, Methylation, Methylmercury, Minamata Convention on Mercury, Minamata disease, Minamata, Kumamoto, Mineral, Mirror, Mirrors in Mesoamerican culture, Monte Amiata, Municipal solid waste, NASA, Nasal spray, National Geographic Society, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Natural Resources Defense Council, Neon, Neon sign, Nevada, New Spain, New York City, Nicotiana, Nitric acid, Noble gas, Non-ferrous metal, Norway, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nuclear reactor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Organ (anatomy), Organic compound, Organic synthesis, Organocadmium compound, Organozinc compound, Orogeny, Over-the-counter drug, Oxide, Oxidizing acid, Oxygen, Pan amalgamation, Parts-per notation, Pasteur pipette, Patio process, Penicillamine, Periodic Videos, Peru, Pig iron, Placer mining, Platinum, Plug (fishing), Pneumonitis, Polarography, Pollution, Polymorphism (materials science), Popular Science, Potassium tetraiodomercurate(II), Preservative, Pressure measurement, Prima materia, Primary cell, Qin dynasty, Qin Shi Huang, Quantum mechanics, Radionuclide, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Rasayana, Red mercury, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive, River Mersey, Roman Empire, Room temperature, Royal Society of Chemistry, Rubidium, Rust, Safe Drinking Water Act, Santa Clara County, California, Semiconductor, SERT-1, Sewage sludge, Shark, Shellfish, Shortness of breath, Silvering, Smelting, Sodium, Sodium amalgam, Sodium chloride, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium-vapor lamp, Spectroscopy, Sphalerite, Sphygmomanometer, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Standard hydrogen electrode, Steel, Sublimation (phase transition), Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Supercritical fluid, Swordfish, Symbol (chemistry), Syphilis, Temple of the Feathered Serpent, Teotihuacan, Teotihuacan, Thames Estuary, Thermistor, Thermometer, Thiomersal, Thiomersal controversy, Thyratron, Tibet, Tilefish, Tobacco smoke, Tobacco smoking, Topical medication, Traditional Chinese medicine, Traditional medicine, Triple point, Tulunids, Ultraviolet, United Nations Environment Programme, United States Department of Energy, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States Geological Survey, United States Public Health Service, United States Senate, Vaccine, Vermilion, Volcano, Wallops Flight Facility, Washington (state), Waste management, Working fluid, World Health Organization, Xenon, Zinc, 2,3-Dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid. 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Acrodynia is a condition of pain and dusky pink discoloration in the hands and feet most often seen in children chronically exposed to heavy metals, especially mercury.
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
The albacore (Thunnus alalunga), known also as the longfin tuna, is a species of tuna of the order Perciformes.
Alchemical symbols, originally devised as part of alchemy, were used to denote some elements and some compounds until the 18th century.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Alexander Calder (July 22, 1898 – November 11, 1976) is widely considered to be one of the most important American sculptors of the 20th century.
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (commonly shortened to Alice in Wonderland) is an 1865 novel written by English author Charles Lutwidge Dodgson under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll.
In organic chemistry, an alkyl substituent is an alkane missing one hydrogen.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Almadén is a town and municipality in the Spanish province of Ciudad Real, within the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha.
Almaden Quicksilver County Park is a 4,163 acres (17 km²) park that includes the grounds of former mercury ("quicksilver") mines adjacent to south San Jose, California, USA.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium can form an amalgam in solution with mercury.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
An amalgam is an alloy of mercury with another metal, which may be a liquid, a soft paste or a solid, depending upon the proportion of mercury.
Dental amalgam is a liquid mercury and metal alloy mixture used in dentistry to fill cavities caused by tooth decay.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
Anti-fouling paint - a category of commercially available highly toxic underwater hull paints (also known as bottom paints) - is a specialized category of coatings applied as the outer (outboard) layer to the hull of a ship or boat, to slow the growth and/or facilitate detachment of subaquatic organisms that attach to the hull and can affect a vessel's performance and durability (see also biofouling).
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.
Aqua regia (from Latin, "royal water" or "king's water") is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, optimally in a molar ratio of 1:3.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
In the context of organic molecules, aryl is any functional group or substituent derived from an aromatic ring, usually an aromatic hydrocarbon, such as phenyl and naphthyl.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
A ballcock (also balltap or float valve) is a mechanism or machine for filling water tanks, such as those found in flush toilets, while avoiding overflow and (in the event of low water pressure) backflow.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
A barometer is a scientific instrument used in meteorology to measure atmospheric pressure.
A binary cycle power plant is a type of geothermal power plant that allows cooler geothermal reservoirs to be used than is necessary for dry steam and flash steam plants.
Biomagnification, also known as bioamplification or biological magnification, is the increasing concentration of a substance, such as a toxic chemical, in the tissues of tolerant organisms at successively higher levels in a food chain.
A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups.
Blue mass (also known as blue pill or pilula hydrargyri) was the name of a mercury-based medicine formerly common from the 17th to the 19th centuries.
Bluefin tuna is a common name used to refer to several species of tuna of the genus Thunnus.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
Brain death is the complete loss of brain function (including involuntary activity necessary to sustain life).
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
The IUPAC defines calcination as "heating to high temperatures in air or oxygen".
Calomel is a mercury chloride mineral with formula (Hg2)2+Cl2 (see mercury(I) chloride).
A cartridge is a type of firearm ammunition packaging a projectile (bullet, shots or slug), a propellant substance (usually either smokeless powder or black powder) and an ignition device (primer) within a metallic, paper or plastic case that is precisely made to fit within the barrel chamber of a breechloading gun, for the practical purpose of convenient transportation and handling during shooting.
A case-control study is a type of observational study in which two existing groups differing in outcome are identified and compared on the basis of some supposed causal attribute.
Definition: The Castner–Kellner process is a method of electrolysis on an aqueous alkali chloride solution (usually sodium chloride solution) to produce the corresponding alkali hydroxide,Pauling, Linus; General Chemistry 1970 ed.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.
Chelation therapy is a medical procedure that involves the administration of chelating agents to remove heavy metals from the body.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chemistry World is a monthly chemistry news magazine published by the Royal Society of Chemistry.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The chloralkali process (also chlor-alkali and chlor alkali) is an industrial process for the electrolysis of sodium chloride.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
In alchemy, the term chrysopoeia (χρυσοποιία, khrusopoiia) means transmutation into gold (from the Greek χρυσός, khrusos, "gold", and ποιεῖν, poiein, "to make").
Cinnabar and cinnabarite, likely deriving from the κιννάβαρι (kinnabari), refer to the common bright scarlet to brick-red form of mercury(II) sulfide (HgS) that is the most common source ore for refining elemental mercury, and is the historic source for the brilliant red or scarlet pigment termed vermilion and associated red mercury pigments.
The Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C.) is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level.
The Clean Water Act (CWA) is the primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
A cold cathode is a cathode that is not electrically heated by a filament.
The COLEX process (or COLEX separation) is a chemical method of isotopic separation of lithium-6 and lithium-7, based on the use of mercury.
A coolant is a substance, typically liquid or gas, that is used to reduce or regulate the temperature of a system.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Copernicium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Cn and atomic number 112.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Corderoite is an extremely rare mercury sulfide chloride mineral with formula Hg3S2Cl2.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.
Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.
Cremation is the combustion, vaporization, and oxidation of cadavers to basic chemical compounds, such as gases, ashes and mineral fragments retaining the appearance of dry bone.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
The Daguerreotype (daguerréotype) process, or daguerreotypy, was the first publicly available photographic process, and for nearly twenty years it was the one most commonly used.
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States.
A dental restoration or dental filling is a treatment to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of missing tooth structure resulting from caries or external trauma as well as to the replacement of such structure supported by dental implants.
A detonator, frequently a blasting cap, is a device used to trigger an explosive device.
Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force.
Diffusion pumps use a high speed jet of vapor to direct gas molecules in the pump throat down into the bottom of the pump and out the exhaust.
Dimercaprol, also called British anti-Lewisite (BAL), is a medication used to treat acute poisoning by arsenic, mercury, gold, and lead.
Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), also called succimer, is a medication used to treat lead, mercury, and arsenic poisoning.
Dimethylmercury ((CH3)2Hg) is an organomercury compound.
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.
The dropping mercury electrode (DME) is a working electrode made of mercury and used in polarography.
The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.
The effective nuclear charge (often symbolized as Z_ or Z^\ast) is the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a polyelectronic atom.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
An electrical ballast is a device placed in line with the load to limit the amount of current in an electrical circuit.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
An electrically-powered spacecraft propulsion system uses electrical energy to change the velocity of a spacecraft.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
Electrode potential, E, in chemistry or electrochemistry, according to a IUPAC definition, is the electromotive force of a cell built of two electrodes.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
Electrowinning, also called electroextraction, is the electrodeposition of metals from their ores that have been put in solution via a process commonly referred to as leaching.
Emissions trading, or cap and trade, is a government, market-based approach to controlling pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants.
Environment and Climate Change Canada (or simply its former name, Environment Canada, or EC) (Environnement et Changement climatique Canada), legally incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act (R.S., 1985, c. E-10), is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and renewable resources.
Environmental Science & Technology is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published since 1967 by the American Chemical Society.
Erethism or erethism mercurialis is a neurological disorder which affects the whole central nervous system, as well as a symptom complex derived from mercury poisoning.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
Ethylmercury (sometimes ethyl mercury) is a cation composed of an organic CH3CH2- species (an ethyl group) bound to a mercury(II) centre, making it a type of organometallic cation, and giving it a chemical formula is C2H5Hg+.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
The Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne (International Exposition of Art and Technology in Modern Life) was held from 25 May to 25 November 1937 in Paris, France.
Eye drops are saline-containing drops used as an ocular route to administer.
Felt is a textile material that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibers together.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Flerovium is a superheavy artificial chemical element with symbol Fl and atomic number 114.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
Foshan, formerly romanized as Fatshan, is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong Province in southeastern China.
A fossil fuel power station is a power station which burns a fossil fuel such as coal, natural gas, or petroleum to produce electricity.
A Fresnel lens is a type of compact lens originally developed by French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel for lighthouses.
The ("Joan Miró Foundation, Centre of Studies of Contemporary Art") is a museum of modern art honoring Joan Miró located on the hill called Montjuïc in Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain).
Galinstan is a brand-name and a common name for a liquid metal alloy whose composition is part of a family of eutectic alloys mainly consisting of gallium, indium, and tin.
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
A gas-filled tube, also known as a discharge tube, is an arrangement of electrodes in a gas within an insulating, temperature-resistant envelope.
Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.
A germicidal lamp is a special type of lamp which produces ultraviolet (UVC) light.
NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field is a NASA center, located within the cities of Brook Park and Cleveland between Cleveland Hopkins International Airport and the Rocky River Reservation of Cleveland Metroparks, with a subsidiary facility in Sandusky, Ohio.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
Guizhou, formerly romanized as Kweichow, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country.
A half-cell is a structure that contains a conductive electrode and a surrounding conductive electrolyte separated by a naturally occurring Helmholtz double layer.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
The hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE or HDME) is a working electrode variation on the dropping mercury electrode (DME).
The Hatter is a fictional character in Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass.
Hazardous waste is waste that has substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or blood-stained mucus from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs.
Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.
Hexavalent chromium (chromium(VI), Cr(VI), chromium 6) is any chemical compound that contains the element chromium in the +6 oxidation state (thus hexavalent).
HRL Laboratories (formerly Hughes Research Laboratories), was the research arm of Hughes Aircraft.
HSAB concept is an initialism for "hard and soft (Lewis) acids and bases".
Huancavelica or Wankawilka in Quechua is a city in Peru.
Hydraulic mining, or hydraulicking, is a form of mining that uses high-pressure jets of water to dislodge rock material or move sediment.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Idrija (Italian and German: IdriaLeksikon občin kraljestev in dežel zastopanih v državnem zboru, vol. 6: Kranjsko. 1906. Vienna: C. Kr. Dvorna in Državna Tiskarna, p. 124.) is a town in western Slovenia.
An ignitron is a type of gas-filled tube used as a controlled rectifier and dating from the 1930s.
Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials.
An infrared detector is a detector that reacts to infrared (IR) radiation.
An infrared thermometer is a thermometer which infers temperature from a portion of the thermal radiation sometimes called black-body radiation emitted by the object being measured.
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.
The International Joint Commission (Commission mixte internationale) is a bi-national organization established by the governments of the United States and Canada under the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909.
The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) published by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry (CCT) of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) is an equipment calibration standard for making measurements on the Kelvin and Celsius temperature scales.
An ion thruster or ion drive is a form of electric propulsion used for spacecraft propulsion.
Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.
Irritant diaper dermatitis is a generic term applied to skin rashes in the diaper area that are caused by various skin disorders and/or irritants.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Jade is an ornamental mineral, mostly known for its green varieties, which is featured prominently in ancient Asian art.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Joseph Priestley FRS (– 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, chemist, innovative grammarian, multi-subject educator, and liberal political theorist who published over 150 works.
Abu 'l-Jaysh Khumārawayh ibn Aḥmad ibn Ṭūlūn (أبو الجيش خمارويه بن أحمد بن طولون; 864 – 18 January 896) was a son of the founder of the Tulunid dynasty, Ahmad ibn Tulun.
The king mackerel or kingfish (Scomberomorus cavalla) is a migratory species of mackerel of the western Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
Lamanai (from Lama'anayin, "submerged crocodile" in Yucatec Maya) is a Mesoamerican archaeological site, and was once a major city of the Maya civilization, located in the north of Belize, in Orange Walk District.
The lanthanide contraction is the greater-than-expected decrease in ionic radii of the elements in the lanthanide series from atomic number 57, lanthanum, to 71, lutetium, which results in smaller than otherwise expected ionic radii for the subsequent elements starting with 72, hafnium.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon, and photographer.
A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses and to serve as a navigational aid for maritime pilots at sea or on inland waterways.
Liquid mirror telescopes are telescopes with mirrors made with a reflective liquid.
This article lists notable industrial disasters, which are disasters caused by industrial companies, either by accident, negligence or incompetence.
Liver failure or hepatic insufficiency is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic function as part of normal physiology.
Livingstonite is a mercury antimony sulfosalt mineral.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
A lye is a metal hydroxide traditionally obtained by leaching ashes (containing largely potassium carbonate or "potash"), or a strong alkali which is highly soluble in water producing caustic basic solutions.
"Mad as a hatter" is a colloquial English phrase used in conversation to suggest (lightheartedly) that a person is suffering from insanity.
Maine is a U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Mascara is a cosmetic commonly used to enhance the eyelashes.
The Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor (Qin Shi Huang) is located in Lintong District, Xi'an, Shaanxi province of China.
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
McDermitt is an unincorporated community straddling the Nevada–Oregon border, in Humboldt County, Nevada, and Malheur County, Oregon, United States.
A prescription is a health-care program implemented by a physician or other qualified health care practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Merbromin (marketed as Mercurochrome, Merbromine, Sodium mercurescein, Asceptichrome, Supercrome, Brocasept and Cinfacromin) is a topical antiseptic used for minor cuts and scrapes.
Mercury (Latin: Mercurius) is a major god in Roman religion and mythology, being one of the Dii Consentes within the ancient Roman pantheon.
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.
A mercury battery (also called mercuric oxide battery, or mercury cell) is a non-rechargeable electrochemical battery, a primary cell.
HgCdTe or mercury cadmium telluride (also cadmium mercury telluride, MCT, MerCad Telluride, MerCadTel, MerCaT or CMT) is an alloy of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and mercury telluride (HgTe) with a tunable bandgap spanning the shortwave infrared to the very long wave infrared regions.
A mercury coulometer is an electroanalytical chemistry device using mercury to determine the amount of matter transformed (in coulombs) during the following reaction: These oxidation/reduction processes have 100% efficiency with the wide range of the current densities.
A mercury fountain is a fountain constructed for use with mercury rather than water.
Mercury poisoning is a type of metal poisoning due to mercury exposure.
Mercury is a toxic heavy metal which cycles through atmosphere, water, and soil in various forms to different parts of the world.
Mercury polycations are polyatomic cations that contain only mercury atoms.
A mercury relay (mercury displacement relay, mercury contactor) is a relay that uses mercury as the switching element.
Mercury selenide (HgSe) is a chemical compound of mercury and selenium.
Mercury sulfide, mercuric sulfide, mercury sulphide, or mercury(II) sulfide is a chemical compound composed of the chemical elements mercury and sulfur.
A mercury switch is an electrical switch that opens and closes a circuit when a small amount of the liquid metal mercury connects metal electrodes to close the circuit.
Mercury telluride (HgTe) is a binary chemical compound of mercury and tellurium.
A mercury vapour turbine is a form of heat engine that uses mercury to drive the thermal cycle.
Mercury zinc telluride (HgZnTe, MZT) is a telluride of mercury and zinc, an alloy of mercury telluride and zinc telluride.
Mercury(I) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula Hg2Cl2.
Mercury(I) hydride (systematically named mercury hydride) is an inorganic compound with the empirical chemical formula HgH.
Mercury(II) chloride or mercuric chloride (archaically, corrosive sublimate) is the chemical compound of mercury and chlorine with the formula HgCl2.
Mercury(II) fulminate, or Hg(CNO)2, is a primary explosive.
Mercury(II) nitrate is a toxic colorless or white soluble crystalline mercury(II) salt of nitric acid.
Mercury(II) oxide, also called mercuric oxide or simply mercury oxide, has a formula of HgO.
Mercury(II) sulfate, commonly called mercuric sulfate, is the chemical compound HgSO4.
Mercury(IV) fluoride, HgF4, is the first mercury compound to be reported with mercury in the oxidation state IV.
A mercury-arc valve or mercury-vapor rectifier or (UK) mercury-arc rectifier is a type of electrical rectifier used for converting high-voltage or high-current alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC).
In the United States, the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act (the Battery Act) (Public law 104-142) was signed into law on May 13, 1996.
The mercury-in-glass or mercury thermometer was invented by physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit in Amsterdam (1714).
A mercury-vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp that uses an electric arc through vaporized mercury to produce light.
A Mesoamerican ballcourt is a large masonry structure of a type used in Mesoamerica for over 2,700 years to play the Mesoamerican ballgame, particularly the hip-ball version of the ballgame.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that arises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
Methylmercury (sometimes methyl mercury) is an organometallic cation with the formula.
The Minamata Convention on Mercury is an international treaty designed to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury and mercury compounds.
, sometimes referred to as, is a neurological syndrome caused by severe mercury poisoning.
is a city located in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light, called specular reflection.
The use of mirrors in Mesoamerican culture was associated with the idea that they served as portals to a realm that could be seen but not interacted with.
Mount Amiata is the largest of the lava domes in the Amiata lava dome complex located about 20 km northwest of Lake Bolsena in the southern Tuscany region of Italy.
Municipal solid waste (MSW), commonly known as trash or garbage in the United States and rubbish in Britain, is a waste type consisting of everyday items that are discarded by the public.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Nasal sprays, or nasal drops, are used as local treatments for conditions such as nasal congestion and allergic rhinitis.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is a United States-based, non-profit international environmental advocacy group, with its headquarters in New York City and offices in Washington, D.C.; San Francisco; Los Angeles; New Delhi, India; Chicago; Bozeman, Montana; and Beijing, China.
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
In the signage industry, neon signs are electric signs lighted by long luminous gas-discharge tubes that contain rarefied neon or other gases.
Nevada (see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nicotiana is a genus of herbaceous plants and shrubs of the family Solanaceae, that is indigenous to the Americas, Australia, south west Africa and the South Pacific.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
In metallurgy, a non-ferrous metal is a metal, including alloys, that does not contain iron (ferrite) in appreciable amounts.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
An organocadmium compound is an organometallic compound containing a carbon to cadmium chemical bond.
Organozinc compounds in organic chemistry contain carbon to zinc chemical bonds.
An orogeny is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between plate tectonics.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
An oxidizing acid is a Brønsted acid that is a strong oxidizing agent.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The Pan amalgamation process is a method to extract silver from ore, using salt and copper(II) sulfate in addition to mercury.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Pasteur pipettes, also known as droppers or eye droppers, are used to transfer small quantities of liquids.
The patio process is a process for extracting silver from ore.
Penicillamine, sold under the trade names of Cuprimine among others, is a medication primarily used for the treatment of Wilson's disease.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Pig iron is an intermediate product of the iron industry.
Placer mining is the mining of stream bed (alluvial) deposits for minerals.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Plugs are a popular type of hard-bodied fishing lure.
Pneumonitis or pulmonitis is an inflammation of lung tissue due to factors other than microorganisms.
Polarography is a type of voltammetry where the working electrode is a dropping mercury electrode (DME) or a static mercury drop electrode (SMDE), which are useful for their wide cathodic ranges and renewable surfaces.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
In materials science, polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure.
Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.
Potassium tetraiodomercurate(II) is an inorganic compound consisting of potassium cations and the tetraiodomercurate(II) anion.
A preservative is a substance or a chemical that is added to products such as food, beverages, pharmaceutical drugs, paints, biological samples, cosmetics, wood, and many other products to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.
Pressure measurement is the analysis of an applied force by a fluid (liquid or gas) on a surface.
In alchemy, Prima materia, materia prima or first matter, is the ubiquitous starting material required for the alchemical magnum opus and the creation of the philosopher's stone.
A primary cell is a battery that is designed to be used once and discarded, and not recharged with electricity and reused like a secondary cell (rechargeable battery).
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
Qin Shi Huang (18 February 25910 September 210) was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
Rasāyana, रसायन is a Sanskrit word, with the literal meaning: Path (āyana) of essence (rasa).
Red mercury is a substance of uncertain composition purportedly used in the creation of nuclear bombs, as well as a variety of unrelated weapons systems.
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), enacted in 1976, is the principal federal law in the United States governing the disposal of solid waste and hazardous waste.
The Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive 2002/95/EC, (RoHS 1), short for Directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment, was adopted in February 2003 by the European Union.
The River Mersey is a river in the North West of England.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37.
Rust is an iron oxide, a usually red oxide formed by the redox reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture.
The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) is the principal federal law in the United States intended to ensure safe drinking water for the public.
Santa Clara County, officially the County of Santa Clara, is California's 6th most populous county, with a population was 1,781,642, as of the 2010 census.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
SERT-1 (Space Electric Rocket Test) was a NASA probe used to test electrostatic ion thruster design and was built by NASA's Lewis Research Center (now NASA Glenn).
Sewage sludge refers to the residual, semi-solid material that is produced as a by-product during sewage treatment of industrial or municipal wastewater.
Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.
Shellfish is a food source and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
Silvering is the chemical process of coating glass with a reflective substance.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium amalgam, commonly denoted Na(Hg), is an alloy of mercury and sodium.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
A sodium-vapor lamp is a gas-discharge lamp that uses sodium in an excited state to produce light at a characteristic wavelength near 589 nm.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
Sphalerite ((Zn, Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc.
A sphygmomanometer, also known as a blood pressure meter, blood pressure monitor, or blood pressure gauge, is a device used to measure blood pressure, composed of an inflatable cuff to collapse and then release the artery under the cuff in a controlled manner, and a mercury or mechanical manometer to measure the pressure.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
The Standard hydrogen electrode (abbreviated SHE), is a redox electrode which forms the basis of the thermodynamic scale of oxidation-reduction potentials.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
A supercritical fluid (SCF) is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point, where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist.
Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), also known as broadbills in some countries, are large, highly migratory, predatory fish characterized by a long, flat bill.
In relation to the chemical elements, a symbol is a code for a chemical element.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
The Temple of the Feathered Serpent is the third largest pyramid at Teotihuacan, a pre-Columbian site in central Mexico (the term Teotihuacan (or Teotihuacano) is also used for the whole civilization and cultural complex associated with the site).
Teotihuacan, (in Spanish: Teotihuacán), is an ancient Mesoamerican city located in a sub-valley of the Valley of Mexico, located in the State of Mexico northeast of modern-day Mexico City, known today as the site of many of the most architecturally significant Mesoamerican pyramids built in the pre-Columbian Americas.
The Thames Estuary is the estuary in which the River Thames meets the waters of the North Sea, in the south-east of Great Britain.
A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance is dependent on temperature, more so than in standard resistors.
A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.
Thiomersal (INN), or thimerosal (USAN, JAN), is an organomercury compound.
The thiomersal controversy describes claims that vaccines containing the mercury-based preservative thiomersal contribute to the development of autism and other brain development disorders.
A thyratron is a type of gas-filled tube used as a high-power electrical switch and controlled rectifier.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
Tilefishes are mostly small perciform marine fish comprising the family Malacanthidae.
Cigarette smoke is an aerosol produced by the incomplete combustion of tobacco during the smoking of cigarettes.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.
In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.
The Tulunids, were a dynasty of Turkic origin and were the first independent dynasty to rule Islamic Egypt, as well as much of Syria.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The Public Health Service Act of 1944 structured the United States Public Health Service (PHS), founded in 1798, as the primary division of the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW; which was established in 1953), which later became the United States Department of Health and Human Services in 1979–1980 (when the Education agencies were separated into their own U.S. Department of Education).
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Vermilion (sometimes spelled vermillion) is both a brilliant red or scarlet pigment originally made from the powdered mineral cinnabar and the name of the resulting color.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), located on the Eastern Shore of Virginia, United States, approximately north-northeast of Norfolk, is operated by the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, primarily as a rocket launch site to support science and exploration missions for NASA and other Federal agencies.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
Waste management or waste disposal are all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal.
A working fluid is a pressurized gas or liquid that actuates a machine.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
2,3-Dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (abbreviated DMPS) and its sodium salt (known as Unithiol) are chelating agents that form complexes with various heavy metals.
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