202 relations: Abraham Lincoln, Acetylcysteine, Acrodynia, Adrenaline, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Albacore, Alfred Stock, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, Amalgam (dentistry), American Academy of Pediatrics, Amnesia, Anorexia (symptom), Antioxidant, Autism, Autoimmunity, Ayurveda, Ballcock, Bioaccumulation, Bioconcentration, Biomagnification, Biomonitoring, Birth defect, Blood–brain barrier, Blue mass, Brain damage, Calomel, Cardiac arrest, Case-control study, Catabolism, Catechol-O-methyltransferase, Cement, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Central nervous system, Centre for Science and Environment, Cheek, Chelation, Chelation therapy, Chemical element, Chinese alchemical elixir poisoning, Cinnabar, Circulatory system, Coal, Coma, Coronary artery disease, Cremation, Cyanide, Cyanide poisoning, Dartmouth College, Dental amalgam controversy, Dental restoration, ..., Desquamation, Development of the nervous system, Diagnosis Mercury, Diffusion pump, Dimercaprol, Dimercaptosuccinic acid, Dimethylmercury, Emotional lability, Emperor Xuanzong of Tang (9th century), Encephalopathy, Environmental toxicants and fetal development, Erethism, Ethylmercury, European Union, Fanconi syndrome, Federal Security Service, Felt, Fetus, Fluorescent lamp, Food and Drug Administration, Food chain, Food web, Formication, Fossil fuel power station, French language, Fungicide, Galamsey, Gastrointestinal tract, Gilding, Glial fibrillary acidic protein, Glutathione, Gold mining, Got Mercury?, Greek language, Hair, Hatmaking, Hatter (Alice's Adventures in Wonderland), Heavy metals, Hepatitis, HMS Triumph (1764), Hokkaido University, Human nose, Hypertension, Hypocalcaemia, Hypotonia, Ileus, Infant, Influenza vaccine, Inorganic compound, Insomnia, Iraq, Itch, Jack Pickford, Japan, Jeremy Piven, Karen Wetterhahn, Karinna Moskalenko, Kawasaki disease, Kidney, Kidney failure, King mackerel, Lead poisoning, Lewis Carroll, Limb (anatomy), Linoleum, Lipoic acid, Litre, Mad as a hatter, Marina Kalashnikova, Mary Pickford, Memory, Mercury (element), Mercury in fish, Mercury vacuum, Mercury(II) chloride, Mercury(II) cyanide, Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act, Metal toxicity, Methylmercury, Minamata disease, Minamata, Kumamoto, Muscle weakness, Myelin, Myelin basic protein, Nail (anatomy), National Academy of Medicine, Niigata Minamata disease, Niigata Prefecture, Non-ferrous metal, Norwich, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Olive Thomas, Ontario Minamata disease, Organic compound, Organomercury, Orlop deck, Oxidation state, Oxidative stress, Pain, Paresthesia, Parts-per notation, Paul Offit, Penicillamine, People (magazine), Peripheral neuropathy, Pheochromocytoma, Pig iron, Polyneuropathy, Precautionary principle, Pressure measurement, Pseudobulbar affect, Qin Shi Huang, Respiratory tract, Russia, S-Adenosyl methionine, Saint Isaac's Cathedral, Salt, Selenium, Shark, Ship's doctor, Skin whitening, Sodium hydroxide, Solubility, Steel, Suicide, Sulfur, Swordfish, Syphilis, Tachycardia, Taiji, Wakayama, Tang dynasty, The Washington Post, Theophilus Carter, Thiomersal, Thioredoxin reductase, Tilefish, Tooth, Toxicology, Traditional Chinese medicine, Tremor, Tuna, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Vapor, Ventilation (architecture), Viktor Kalashnikov, Volcano, Washington, D.C., Waste management, Whale meat, Young's syndrome, 1971 Iraq poison grain disaster, 2,3-Dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid. Expand index (152 more) » « Shrink index
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
Acetylcysteine, also known as N-acetylcysteine (NAC), is a medication that is used to treat paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose, and to loosen thick mucus in individuals with cystic fibrosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Acrodynia is a condition of pain and dusky pink discoloration in the hands and feet most often seen in children chronically exposed to heavy metals, especially mercury.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a federal public health agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services.
The albacore (Thunnus alalunga), known also as the longfin tuna, is a species of tuna of the order Perciformes.
Alfred Stock (July 16, 1876 – August 12, 1946) was a German inorganic chemist.
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (commonly shortened to Alice in Wonderland) is an 1865 novel written by English author Charles Lutwidge Dodgson under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll.
Dental amalgam is a liquid mercury and metal alloy mixture used in dentistry to fill cavities caused by tooth decay.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an American professional association of pediatricians, headquartered in Itasca, Illinois.
Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.
Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.
Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.
A ballcock (also balltap or float valve) is a mechanism or machine for filling water tanks, such as those found in flush toilets, while avoiding overflow and (in the event of low water pressure) backflow.
Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.
Bioconcentration is the accumulation of a chemical in or on an organism when the source of chemical is solely water.
Biomagnification, also known as bioamplification or biological magnification, is the increasing concentration of a substance, such as a toxic chemical, in the tissues of tolerant organisms at successively higher levels in a food chain.
In analytical chemistry, biomonitoring is the measurement of the body burden of toxic chemical compounds, elements, or their metabolites, in biological substances.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Blue mass (also known as blue pill or pilula hydrargyri) was the name of a mercury-based medicine formerly common from the 17th to the 19th centuries.
Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.
Calomel is a mercury chloride mineral with formula (Hg2)2+Cl2 (see mercury(I) chloride).
Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.
A case-control study is a type of observational study in which two existing groups differing in outcome are identified and compared on the basis of some supposed causal attribute.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is one of several enzymes that degrade catecholamines (such as dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine), catecholestrogens, and various drugs and substances having a catechol structure.
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) is a not-for-profit public interest research and advocacy organisation based in New Delhi, India.
Cheeks (buccae) constitute the area of the face below the eyes and between the nose and the left or right ear.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
Chelation therapy is a medical procedure that involves the administration of chelating agents to remove heavy metals from the body.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
In Chinese alchemy, elixir poisoning refers to the toxic effects from elixirs of immortality that contained metals and minerals such as mercury and arsenic.
Cinnabar and cinnabarite, likely deriving from the κιννάβαρι (kinnabari), refer to the common bright scarlet to brick-red form of mercury(II) sulfide (HgS) that is the most common source ore for refining elemental mercury, and is the historic source for the brilliant red or scarlet pigment termed vermilion and associated red mercury pigments.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Cremation is the combustion, vaporization, and oxidation of cadavers to basic chemical compounds, such as gases, ashes and mineral fragments retaining the appearance of dry bone.
A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.
Cyanide poisoning is poisoning that results from exposure to a number of forms of cyanide.
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States.
This discussion of the dental amalgam controversy outlines the debate over whether dental amalgam (the mercury alloy in dental fillings) should be used.
A dental restoration or dental filling is a treatment to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of missing tooth structure resulting from caries or external trauma as well as to the replacement of such structure supported by dental implants.
Desquamation, also called skin peeling, is the shedding of the outermost membrane or layer of a tissue, such as the skin.
Development of the nervous system refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to adulthood.
Diagnosis Mercury: Money, Politics and Poison is a 2008 book by Jane Hightower.
Diffusion pumps use a high speed jet of vapor to direct gas molecules in the pump throat down into the bottom of the pump and out the exhaust.
Dimercaprol, also called British anti-Lewisite (BAL), is a medication used to treat acute poisoning by arsenic, mercury, gold, and lead.
Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), also called succimer, is a medication used to treat lead, mercury, and arsenic poisoning.
Dimethylmercury ((CH3)2Hg) is an organomercury compound.
In medicine and psychology, emotional lability is a sign or symptom typified by exaggerated changes in mood or affect in quick succession.
Emperor Xuānzong of Tang (July 27, 810 – September 7, 859) (reigned April 25, 846 – September 7, 859) was an emperor in the latter part of the Tang dynasty of China.
Encephalopathy (from ἐγκέφαλος "brain" + πάθος "suffering") means any disorder or disease of the brain, especially chronic degenerative conditions.
Environmental toxicants and fetal development is the impact of different toxic substances from the environment on the development of the fetus.
Erethism or erethism mercurialis is a neurological disorder which affects the whole central nervous system, as well as a symptom complex derived from mercury poisoning.
Ethylmercury (sometimes ethyl mercury) is a cation composed of an organic CH3CH2- species (an ethyl group) bound to a mercury(II) centre, making it a type of organometallic cation, and giving it a chemical formula is C2H5Hg+.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Fanconi syndrome or Fanconi's syndrome is a syndrome of inadequate reabsorption in the proximal renal tubules of the kidney.
The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (FSB; fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnəjə ˈsluʐbə bʲɪzɐˈpasnəstʲɪ rɐˈsʲijskəj fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjɪ) is the principal security agency of Russia and the main successor agency to the USSR's Committee of State Security (KGB).
Felt is a textile material that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibers together.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
A food web (or food cycle) is a natural interconnection of food chains and a graphical representation (usually an image) of what-eats-what in an ecological community.
In medicine, formication is the sensation that resembles that of small insects crawling on (or under) the skin.
A fossil fuel power station is a power station which burns a fossil fuel such as coal, natural gas, or petroleum to produce electricity.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill parasitic fungi or their spores.
A galamsey, derived from the phrase "gather them and sell", is a local Ghanaian term which means illegal small-scale gold mining in Ghana, West Africa; such workers are known as galamseyers or orpailleurs in neighboring francophone nations.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gilding is any decorative technique for applying fine gold leaf or powder to solid surfaces such as wood, stone, or metal to give a thin coating of gold.
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a protein that is encoded by the GFAP gene in humans.
Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea.
Gold mining is the resource extraction of gold by mining.
Got Mercury? is a public awareness campaign about mercury levels in seafood.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis.
Hatmaking or millinery is the design, manufacture and sale of hats and head-wear.
The Hatter is a fictional character in Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
HMS Triumph was a 74-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 3 March 1764 at Woolwich.
, or, is a Japanese national university in Sapporo, Hokkaido.
The human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypocalcaemia, also spelled hypocalcemia, is low calcium levels in the blood serum.
Hypotonia, commonly known as floppy baby syndrome, is a state of low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to stretch in a muscle), often involving reduced muscle strength.
Ileus is a disruption of the normal propulsive ability of the gastrointestinal tract.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots or flu jabs, are vaccines that protect against infection by Influenza viruses.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.
Jack Pickford (born John Charles Smith; August 18, 1896 – January 3, 1933) was a Canadian-born American actor, film director and producer.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jeremy Samuel Piven (born July 26, 1965) is an American actor and producer.
Karen Wetterhahn (October 16, 1948 – June 8, 1997) was an American professor of chemistry at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, who specialized in toxic metal exposure.
Karinna Akopovna Moskalenko (Кари́нна Ако́повна Москале́нко) (born February 9, 1954 in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR, USSR) is Russia's leading human rights lawyer, and a member of Moscow Helsinki Group who defended, amongst others, Mikhail Khodorkovsky, Garry Kasparov and Alexander Litvinenko.
Kawasaki disease, also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, is a disease in which blood vessels throughout the body become inflamed.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
The king mackerel or kingfish (Scomberomorus cavalla) is a migratory species of mackerel of the western Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico.
Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon, and photographer.
A limb (from the Old English lim), or extremity, is a jointed, or prehensile (as octopus arms or new world monkey tails), appendage of the human or other animal body.
Linoleum, also called Lino, is a floor covering made from materials such as solidified linseed oil (linoxyn), pine rosin, ground cork dust, wood flour, and mineral fillers such as calcium carbonate, most commonly on a burlap or canvas backing.
Lipoic acid (LA), also known as α-lipoic acid and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) and thioctic acid is an organosulfur compound derived from caprylic acid (octanoic acid).
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
"Mad as a hatter" is a colloquial English phrase used in conversation to suggest (lightheartedly) that a person is suffering from insanity.
Marina Kalashnikova (died 3 August 2013) was a Russian historian and freelance journalist.
Gladys Louise Smith (April 8, 1892 – May 29, 1979), known professionally as Mary Pickford, was a Canadian-born film actress and producer.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Fish and shellfish concentrate mercury in their bodies, often in the form of methylmercury, a highly toxic organic compound of mercury.
A mercury vacuum is a vacuum cleaner specifically designed to collect mercury, for instance to clean up spills of the element.
Mercury(II) chloride or mercuric chloride (archaically, corrosive sublimate) is the chemical compound of mercury and chlorine with the formula HgCl2.
Mercury(II) cyanide, also known as mercuric cyanide, is a coordination compound of nitrogen, carbon and mercury.
In the United States, the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act (the Battery Act) (Public law 104-142) was signed into law on May 13, 1996.
Metal toxicity or metal poisoning is the toxic effect of certain metals in certain forms and doses on life.
Methylmercury (sometimes methyl mercury) is an organometallic cation with the formula.
, sometimes referred to as, is a neurological syndrome caused by severe mercury poisoning.
is a city located in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan.
Muscle weakness or myasthenia (my- from Greek μυο meaning "muscle" + -asthenia ἀσθένεια meaning "weakness") is a lack of muscle strength.
Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.
Myelin basic protein (MBP) is a protein believed to be important in the process of myelination of nerves in the nervous system.
A nail is a horn-like envelope covering the tips of the fingers and toes in most primates and a few other mammals.
The National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly called the Institute of Medicine (IoM), is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
is a neurological syndrome caused by severe mercury poisoning.
is a prefecture located in the Chūbu region of Japan.
In metallurgy, a non-ferrous metal is a metal, including alloys, that does not contain iron (ferrite) in appreciable amounts.
Norwich (also) is a city on the River Wensum in East Anglia and lies approximately north-east of London.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
Olive Thomas (born Olive R. Duffy; October 20, 1894 – September 10, 1920) was an American silent film actress and model.
Ontario Minamata disease is a neurological syndrome caused by severe mercury poisoning.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organomercury refers to the group of organometallic compounds that contain mercury.
The orlop is the lowest deck in a ship (except for very old ships).
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Paresthesia is an abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling, pricking, numbness or burning of a person's skin with no apparent physical cause.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Paul A. Offit (born 27 March 1951) is an American pediatrician specializing in infectious diseases, vaccines, immunology, and virology.
Penicillamine, sold under the trade names of Cuprimine among others, is a medication primarily used for the treatment of Wilson's disease.
People is an American weekly magazine of celebrity and human-interest stories, published by Meredith Corporation.
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.
Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue that failed to involute after birth, that secretes high amounts of catecholamines, mostly norepinephrine, plus epinephrine to a lesser extent.
Pig iron is an intermediate product of the iron industry.
Polyneuropathy (poly- + neuro- + -pathy) is damage or disease affecting peripheral nerves (peripheral neuropathy) in roughly the same areas on both sides of the body, featuring weakness, numbness, and burning pain.
The precautionary principle (or precautionary approach) generally defines actions on issues considered to be uncertain, for instance applied in assessing risk management.
Pressure measurement is the analysis of an applied force by a fluid (liquid or gas) on a surface.
Pseudobulbar affect (PBA), or emotional incontinence, is a type of emotional disturbance characterized by uncontrollable episodes of crying and/or laughing, or other emotional displays.
Qin Shi Huang (18 February 25910 September 210) was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China.
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
S-Adenosyl methionineSAM-e, SAMe, SAM, S-Adenosyl-L-methionine, AdoMet, ademetionine is a common cosubstrate involved in methyl group transfers, transsulfuration, and aminopropylation.
Saint Isaac's Cathedral or Isaakievskiy Sobor (Исаа́киевский Собо́р) in Saint Petersburg, Russia, is the largest Russian Orthodox cathedral (sobor) in the city.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.
A ship's doctor or ship's surgeon (frequently also called a navy surgeon or naval surgeon) is the person responsible for the health of the people aboard a ship at sea.
Skin whitening is the practice of using substances, mixtures, or physical treatments to lighten skin color.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), also known as broadbills in some countries, are large, highly migratory, predatory fish characterized by a long, flat bill.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
is a town located in Higashimuro District, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Theophilus Carter (1824–1904) was an eccentric British furniture dealer thought by some to be an inspiration for the illustration by Sir John Tenniel of Lewis Carroll's characters the Mad Hatter in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Hatta in Through the Looking-Glass.
Thiomersal (INN), or thimerosal (USAN, JAN), is an organomercury compound.
Thioredoxin reductases (TR, TrxR) are the only known enzymes to reduce thioredoxin (Trx).
Tilefishes are mostly small perciform marine fish comprising the family Malacanthidae.
A tooth (plural teeth) is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food.
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
A tuna is a saltwater fish that belongs to the tribe Thunnini, a sub-grouping of the mackerel family (Scombridae).
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
In physics a vapor (American) or vapour (British and Canadian) is a substance in the gas phase at a temperature lower than its critical temperature,R.
Ventilation is the intentional introduction of ambient air into a space and is mainly used to control indoor air quality by diluting and displacing indoor pollutants; it can also be used for purposes of thermal comfort or dehumidification.
Viktor Kalashnikov (Виктор Калашников) is a Russian freelance journalist and a former KGB colonel.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Waste management or waste disposal are all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal.
Whale meat, broadly speaking, may include all cetaceans (whales, dolphions, porpoises) and all parts of the animal: muscle (meat), organs (offal), and fat (blubber).
Young's syndrome, also known as azoospermia sinopulmonary infections, sinusitis-infertility syndrome and Barry-Perkins-Young syndrome, is a rare condition that encompasses a combination of syndromes such as bronchiectasis, rhinosinusitis and reduced fertility.
The 1971 Iraq poison grain disaster was a mass methylmercury poisoning incident that began in late 1971.
2,3-Dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (abbreviated DMPS) and its sodium salt (known as Unithiol) are chelating agents that form complexes with various heavy metals.
Calomel disease, Erythredema, Erythredemic polyneuropathy, Hunter-Russell Syndrome, Hunter-Russell syndrome, Hydrargyria, Infantile acrodynia, Mercurialism, Mercury Poisoning, Mercury exposure, Mercury poisoning, nervous system, Mercury toxicity, Micromercurialism, Pink's Disease, Quicksilver poisoning, Selter's, Swift-Feer disease, Toxic effect of mercury and its compounds.