210 relations: Abbess, Abbey, Abbot, Administration (government), Aldegonde, Alemanni, Amandus, Ancient Diocese of Noyon, Anstrudis, Antagonist, Aregund, Arles, Arnulf of Metz, Audoin (bishop), Austrasia, Austrebertha, Balthild, Basilica of St Denis, Battle of Tertry, Battle of Tolbiac, Battle of Tours, Battle of Vouillé, Begga, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Bishop, Brunhilda of Austrasia, Bureaucracy, Burgundofara, Burgundy, Byzantine coinage, Byzantine Empire, Cabinet des Médailles, Canonization, Carloman (mayor of the palace), Carolingian dynasty, Charles de Gaulle, Charles Knight (publisher), Charles Martel, Charles Oman, Chelles Abbey, Childebert I, Childeric I, Childeric II, Childeric III, Chilperic II, Chlothar II, Christianity, Chronicle of Fredegar, Civil law (legal system), Clotilde, ..., Clovis I, Columbanus, Comes, Count, Crown land, Dagobert I, Dagobert II, Denarius, Diadem, Diocese of Maastricht, Duke, Ebroin, Eustadiola, Faremoutiers Abbey, Feudalism, Fisc, Flinders Petrie, Francia, Frankish language, Franks, Fredegund, French denier, French nationalism, French Third Republic, Frisians, Gallia Aquitania, Gallo-Roman culture, Gaul, Gauls, Genevieve, Germania, Germania Superior, Germanic peoples, Gertrude of Nivelles, Glodesind, Gregory of Tours, Grimoald the Elder, Guntram, Hagiography, History of France, House of Valois, Hubertus, Hundred Years' War, In Search of Lost Time, Italy, Itta of Metz, J. M. Wallace-Hadrill, Jesus bloodline, Justinian I, Karl Ferdinand Werner, Lambert of Maastricht, Laon, Latin, Leo III the Isaurian, Leodegar, Lex Ripuaria, Liber Historiae Francorum, List of bishops and prince-bishops of Liège, List of Frankish kings, List of Frankish synods, List of French monarchs, List of Merovingian monasteries, List of minor characters in the Matrix series, Loire, Lombards, Long hair, Ludibrium, Marcel Proust, Marchiennes, Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik, Maubeuge Abbey, Medieval Latin, Merovech, Merovingian art, Merriam-Webster, Metz, Middle East, Military, Miracle, Missionary, Monastery, Monegundis, Monk, Monnaie de Paris, Mons, Moors, Napoleon, Neustria, Nicene Creed, Nivelles, Old Dutch, Old English, Ostrogoths, Paris, Patrick J. Geary, Patronymic, Pavilly, Pepin of Herstal, Pepin the Short, Pfennig, Pierre Plantard, Pippinids, Poitiers, Pope Stephen II, Pope Zachary, Praejectus, Prætextatus (bishop of Rouen), Priory of Sion, Provence, Pseudohistory, Ptolemy, Quinotaur, Radegund, Radhanite, Raetia, Religious vows, Res publica, Rhine, Rictrude, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Reims, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Rouen, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tours, Roman Catholic Diocese of Autun, Roman Catholic Diocese of Liège, Roman Catholic Diocese of Metz, Roman Empire, Royal household under the Merovingians and Carolingians, Sadalberga, Saint Eligius, Saint Remigius, Salian Franks, Salic law, Saxons, Saxony, Seine, Septimania, Sigebert III, Solidus (coin), Sulpitius the Pious, Syagrius, Tax, Tervel of Bulgaria, The Da Vinci Code, The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail, The Matrix Reloaded, The Matrix Revolutions, Theudebert I, Theuderic IV, Thuringian dialect, Toga, Tongeren, Toulouse, Tournai, Triens, Urban T. Holmes Jr., Visigoths, Vulgar Latin, Waltrude, Webster's Dictionary, Yitzhak Hen. Expand index (160 more) » « Shrink index
In Christianity, an abbess (Latin abbatissa, feminine form of abbas, abbot) is the female superior of a community of nuns, which is often an abbey.
An abbey is a complex of buildings used by members of a religious order under the governance of an abbot or abbess.
Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity.
The term administration, as used in the context of government, differs according to jurisdiction.
Saint Aldegonde (or Adelgonde) (Aldegundis or Adelgundis) (639–684 AD) was a Frankish Benedictine abbess who is honored as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church in France and Eastern Orthodox Church.
The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River.
Amandus (584 – 675 AD), commonly called Saint Amand, was a bishop of Tongeren-Maastricht and one of the great Christian missionaries of Flanders.
The former French Catholic diocese of Noyon lay in the north-east of France, around Noyon.
Saint Anstrudis (Anstrude, Austru, or Austrude) (b. unknown - 688).
An antagonist is a character, group of characters, institution or concept that stands in or represents opposition against which the protagonist(s) must contend.
Aregund, Aregunda, Arnegund, Aregonda, or Arnegonda (c. 515/520–580) was a Frankish queen, the wife of Clotaire I, king of the Franks, and the mother of Chilperic I of Neustria.
Arles (Provençal Arle in both classical and Mistralian norms; Arelate in Classical Latin) is a city and commune in the south of France, in the Bouches-du-Rhône department, of which it is a subprefecture, in the former province of Provence.
Saint Arnulf of Metz (582640) was a Frankish bishop of Metz and advisor to the Merovingian court of Austrasia, who retired to the Abbey of Remiremont.
Audoin (AD 609 – 686; also spelled Audoen, Ouen, Owen; Audoenus; known as Dado to contemporaries) was a Frankish bishop, courtier, chronicler, and Catholic saint.
Austrasia was a territory which formed the northeastern section of the Merovingian Kingdom of the Franks during the 6th to 8th centuries.
Austrebertha (Austreberta, Eustreberta, Austreberta of Pavilly) (Austreberthe) (630–704) is venerated as a saint by the Catholic Church.
Saint Balthild of Ascania (Bealdhild, 'bold sword' or 'bold spear; around 626 – 30 January 680), also called Bathilda, Baudour, or Bauthieult, was queen consort of Burgundy and Neustria by marriage to Clovis II, the king of Burgundy and Neustria (639–658), and regent during the minority of her son.
The Basilica of Saint Denis (Basilique royale de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris.
The Battle of Tertry was an important engagement in Merovingian Gaul between the forces of Austrasia on one side and those of Neustria and Burgundy on the other.
The Battle of Tolbiac was fought between the Franks, who were fighting under Clovis I, and the Alamanni, whose leader is not known.
The Battle of Tours (10 October 732) – also called the Battle of Poitiers and, by Arab sources, the Battle of the Palace of the Martyrs (Ma'arakat Balāṭ ash-Shuhadā’) – was fought by Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel against an army of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-General of al-Andalus.
The Battle of Vouillé — or Vouglé (from Latin Campus Vogladensis) — was fought in the northern marches of Visigothic territory, at Vouillé near Poitiers (Gaul), in the spring of 507 between the Franks commanded by Clovis and the Visigoths commanded by Alaric II.
Saint Begga (also Begue, Begge) (615 – 17 December 693 AD) was the daughter of Pepin of Landen, mayor of the palace of Austrasia, and his wife Itta of Metz.
The (BnF, English: National Library of France) is the national library of France, located in Paris.
A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
Brunhilda (c. 543–613) was a Queen of Austrasia by marriage to the Merovingian King Sigebert I of Austrasia, part of Francia.
Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.
Burgundofara (died 643 or 655), also Saint Fara or Fare, was the founder and first Abbess of the Abbey of Faremoutiers.
Burgundy (Bourgogne) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France.
Byzantine currency, money used in the Eastern Roman Empire after the fall of the West, consisted of mainly two types of coins: the gold solidus and a variety of clearly valued bronze coins.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Cabinet des Médailles,The patriotic Cabinet de France, less redolent of Bourbons, was affected during republican phases of the 19th century and as late as World War I. more formally known as Département des Monnaies, Médailles et Antiques de la Bibliothèque nationale de France, is a department of the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris.
Canonization is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognized saints.
Carloman (between 706 and 716 – 17 August 754) was the eldest son of Charles Martel, majordomo or mayor of the palace and duke of the Franks, and his wife Chrotrud of Treves.
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Charles Knight (15 March 1791 – 9 March 1873) was an English publisher, editor and author.
Charles Martel (c. 688 – 22 October 741) was a Frankish statesman and military leader who as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was the de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death.
Sir Charles William Chadwick Oman, KBE, FBA (12 January 1860 – 23 June 1946) was a British military historian.
Chelles Abbey (Abbaye Notre-Dame-des-Chelles) was a Frankish monastery founded c. 658 during the early medieval period.
Childebert I (c. 496 – 13 December 558) was a Frankish King of the Merovingian dynasty, as third of the four sons of Clovis I who shared the kingdom of the Franks upon their father's death in 511.
Childeric I (Childéric; Childericus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hildirīk; – 481) was a Frankish leader in the northern part of imperial Roman Gaul and a member of the Merovingian dynasty, described as a King (Latin Rex), both on his Roman-style seal ring, which was buried with him, and in fragmentary later records of his life.
Childeric II (c. 653 – 675) was the king of Austrasia from 662 and of Neustria and Burgundy from 673 until his death, making him sole King of the Franks for the final two years of his life.
Childeric III (c. 717 – c. 754) was King of Francia from 743 until he was deposed by Pope Zachary in March 751 at the instigation of Pepin the Short.
Chilperic II (c. 672 – 13 February 721), known as Daniel prior to his coronation, was the youngest son of Childeric II and his cousin Bilichild, king of Neustria from 715 and sole king of the Franks from 718 until his death.
Chlothar II (or Chlotar, Clothar, Clotaire, Chlotochar, or Hlothar; 584–629), called the Great or the Young, was King of Neustria and King of the Franks, and the son of Chilperic I and his third wife, Fredegund.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Chronicle of Fredegar is the conventional title used for a 7th-century Frankish chronicle that was probably written in Burgundy.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
Saint Clotilde (475–545), also known as Clothilde, Clotilda, Clotild, Rotilde etc.
Clovis (Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hlōdowig; 466 – 27 November 511) was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs.
Columbanus (Columbán, 543 – 21 November 615), also known as St.
"Comes", plural "comites", is the Latin word for "companion", either individually or as a member of a collective denominated a "comitatus", especially the suite of a magnate, being in some instances sufficiently large and/or formal to justify specific denomination, e. g. a "cohors amicorum".
Count (Male) or Countess (Female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility.
Crown land, also known as royal domain or demesne, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies the Crown.
Dagobert I (Dagobertus; 603/605 – 19 January 639 AD) was the king of Austrasia (623–634), king of all the Franks (629–634), and king of Neustria and Burgundy (629–639).
Dagobert II (Dagobertus; 650 – December 23, 679 AD) was the king of Austrasia (676–79), the son of Sigebert III and Chimnechild of Burgundy.
The denarius (dēnāriī) was the standard Roman silver coin from its introduction in the Second Punic War c. 211 BC to the reign of Gordian III (AD 238-244), when it was gradually replaced by the Antoninianus.
A diadem is a type of crown, specifically an ornamental headband worn by monarchs and others as a badge of royalty.
The Diocese of Maastricht (Latin Traiectum ad Mosam) was a Roman Catholic jurisdiction in parts of present Netherlands (including the see Maastricht) and Belgium, which has been nominally revived as a Latin titular bishopric.
A duke (male) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.
Ebroin (died 680 or 681) was the Frankish mayor of the palace of Neustria on two occasions; firstly from 658 to his deposition in 673 and secondly from 675 to his death in 680 or 681.
Eustadiola (594–684) was an independent woman of Bourges who lived a life of piety apart from any formal rule and was subsequently regarded as a saint.
Faremoutiers Abbey (Abbaye Notre-Dame de Faremoutiers) was an important Merovingian Benedictine nunnery (re-established in the 20th century) in the present Seine-et-Marne department of France.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
Under the Merovingians and Carolingians, the fisc (from Latin fiscus, whence we derive "fiscal") applied to the royal demesne which paid taxes, entirely in kind, from which the royal household was meant to be supported, though it rarely was.
Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie, FRS, FBA (3 June 1853 – 28 July 1942), commonly known as Flinders Petrie, was an English Egyptologist and a pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology and preservation of artifacts.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
Frankish (reconstructed Frankish: *italic), Old Franconian or Old Frankish was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Fredegund or Fredegunda (Latin: Fredegundis; French: Frédégonde; died 8 December 597) was the Queen consort of Chilperic I, the Merovingian Frankish king of Soissons.
The denier (denarius;. d.) or penny was a medieval coin which takes its name from the Frankish coin first issued in the late seventh century; in English it is sometimes referred to as a silver penny.
French nationalism promotes the cultural unity of the French nation.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
The Frisians are a Germanic ethnic group indigenous to the coastal parts of the Netherlands and northwestern Germany.
Gallia Aquitania, also known as Aquitaine or Aquitaine Gaul, was a province of the Roman Empire.
The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
Saint Genevieve (Sainte Geneviève; Sancta Genovefa, Genoveva; from Gaullish geno "race, lineage" and uida "sage") (Nanterre, 419/422 AD – Paris 502/512 AD), is the patron saint of Paris in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions.
"Germania" was the Roman term for the geographical region in north-central Europe inhabited mainly by Germanic peoples.
Germania Superior ("Upper Germania") was an imperial province of the Roman Empire.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Gertrude of Nivelles, O.S.B. (also spelled Geretrude, Geretrudis, Gertrud; c. 626 – March 17, 659) was a 7th-century abbess who, with her mother Itta, founded the Abbey of Nivelles located in present-day Belgium.
Glodesind (died 608) was a Frankish abbess.
Saint Gregory of Tours (30 November c. 538 – 17 November 594) was a Gallo-Roman historian and Bishop of Tours, which made him a leading prelate of the area that had been previously referred to as Gaul by the Romans. He was born Georgius Florentius and later added the name Gregorius in honour of his maternal great-grandfather. He is the primary contemporary source for Merovingian history. His most notable work was his Decem Libri Historiarum (Ten Books of Histories), better known as the Historia Francorum (History of the Franks), a title that later chroniclers gave to it, but he is also known for his accounts of the miracles of saints, especially four books of the miracles of St. Martin of Tours. St. Martin's tomb was a major pilgrimage destination in the 6th century, and St. Gregory's writings had the practical effect of promoting this highly organized devotion.
Grimoald I (616–657), called the Elder (in French, Grimaud l'Ainé), was the Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia from 643 to 656.
Saint Gontrand (c. AD 532 in Soissons – 28 January AD 592 in Chalon-sur-Saône), also called Gontran, Gontram, Guntram, Gunthram, Gunthchramn, and Guntramnus, was the king of the Kingdom of Orleans from AD 561 to AD 592.
A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader.
The first written records for the history of France appeared in the Iron Age.
The House of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty.
Saint Hubertus or Hubert (656 – 30 May 727) became Bishop of Liège in 708 AD.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
In Search of Lost Time (À la recherche du temps perdu) – previously also translated as Remembrance of Things Past – is a novel in seven volumes, written by Marcel Proust (1871–1922).
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Itta of Metz, O.S.B. (also Ida, Itte or Iduberga; 592–8 May 652) was the wife of Pepin of Landen, Mayor of the Palace of the Kingdom of Austrasia.
John Michael Wallace-Hadrill CBE, FBA (29 September 1916 – 3 November 1985) was a senior academic and one of the foremost historians of the early Merovingian period.
The Jesus bloodline is a hypothetical sequence of lineal descendants of the historical Jesus, often by Mary Magdalene, usually portrayed as his wife.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Karl Ferdinand Werner (Neunkirchen, Saarland 1924 – Tegernsee 2008) was a German historian.
Saint Lambert (Landebertus/Lambertus; c. 636 – c. 705) was the bishop of Maastricht-Liège (Tongeren) from about 670 until his death.
Laon is the capital city of the Aisne department in Hauts-de-France, northern France.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leo III the Isaurian, also known as the Syrian (Leōn III ho Isauros; 675 – 18 June 741), was Byzantine Emperor from 717 until his death in 741.
Leodegar of Poitiers (Leodegarius; Léger; 615 – October 2, 679 AD) was a martyred Burgundian Bishop of Autun.
The Lex Ripuaria or Ribuaria is a 7th-century collection of Germanic law, the laws of the Ripuarian Franks.
Liber Historiae Francorum ("The Book of the History of the Franks") is a chronicle anonymously written during the 8th century.
This is a list of the bishops and prince-bishops of Liège.
The Franks were originally led by dukes (military leaders) and reguli (petty kings).
A list of church synods held in the Frankish kingdom and its immediate predecessors in the Frankish area, including the Visigothic Kingdom, the Ostrogothic Kingdom, and the Kingdom of Burgundy.
The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.
This is a list of monasteries founded during the Merovingian period, between the years c. 500 and c. 750.
This is a list of minor characters from ''The Matrix'' franchise universe.
The Loire (Léger; Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
Long hair is a hairstyle where the head hair is allowed to grow to a considerable length.
Ludibrium is a word derived from Latin ludus (plural ludi), meaning a plaything or a trivial game.
Valentin Louis Georges Eugène Marcel Proust (10 July 1871 – 18 November 1922), known as Marcel Proust, was a French novelist, critic, and essayist best known for his monumental novel À la recherche du temps perdu (In Search of Lost Time; earlier rendered as Remembrance of Things Past), published in seven parts between 1913 and 1927.
Marchiennes is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik (in Greek sources Μασαλμᾶς, Masalmas) was an Umayyad prince and one of the most prominent Arab generals of the early decades of the 8th century, leading several campaigns against the Byzantine Empire and the Khazar Khaganate.
Maubeuge Abbey (Abbaye de Maubeuge) was a women's monastery in Maubeuge, in the County of Hainaut, now northern France, close to the modern border with Belgium.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
Merovech (c.411-c.458) is the semi-legendary founder of the Merovingian dynasty of the Salian Franks (although either Childeric I, his supposed son, or Clovis I, his supposed grandson, can also be considered the founder), which later became the dominant Frankish tribe.
Merovingian art is the art of the Merovingian dynasty of the Franks, which lasted from the 5th century to the 8th century in present-day France, Benelux and a part of Germany.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
Metz (Lorraine Franconian pronunciation) is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
A miracle is an event not explicable by natural or scientific laws.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
Monegundis (Monegund, Monegundes) (died 570 AD) was a Frankish hermit and saint.
A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.
The Monnaie de Paris (Paris Mint) is a government-owned institution responsible for producing France's euro coins.
Mons (Bergen; Mont; Mont) is a Walloon city and municipality, and the capital of the Belgian province of Hainaut.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Neustria, or Neustrasia, (meaning "western land") was the western part of the Kingdom of the Franks.
The Nicene Creed (Greek: or,, Latin: Symbolum Nicaenum) is a statement of belief widely used in Christian liturgy.
Nivelles (Nijvel) is a Walloon city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Walloon Brabant.
In linguistics, Old Dutch or Old Low Franconian is the set of Franconian dialects (i.e. dialects that evolved from Frankish) spoken in the Low Countries during the Early Middle Ages, from around the 5th to the 12th century.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were the eastern branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths).
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Patrick J. Geary (born September 26, 1948) is an American medieval historian and Professor of Western Medieval History at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.
A patronymic, or patronym, is a component of a personal name based on the given name of one's father, grandfather (i.e., an avonymic), or an even earlier male ancestor.
Pavilly is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France.
Pepin II (c. 635 – 16 December 714), commonly known as Pepin of Herstal, was a Frankish statesman and military leader who de facto ruled Francia as the Mayor of the Palace from 680 until his death.
Pepin the Short (Pippin der Kurze, Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was the King of the Franks from 751 until his death.
The pfennig (. pfennigs or; symbol Pf. or ₰) or penny is a former German coin or note, which was official currency from the 9th century until the introduction of the euro in 2002.
Pierre Plantard de Saint-Clair (born Pierre Athanase Marie Plantard, 18 March 1920 – 3 February 2000) was a French draughtsman, best known for being the principal perpetrator of the Priory of Sion hoax, by which he claimed from the 1960s onwards that he was a direct and legitimate male line Merovingian descendant of Dagobert II and the "Great Monarch" prophesied by Nostradamus.
The Pippinids or Arnulfings are the members of a family of Frankish nobles in the Pippinid dynasty.
Poitiers is a city on the Clain river in west-central France.
Pope Stephen II (Stephanus II (or III); 714-26 April 757 a Roman aristocrat was Pope from 26 March 752 to his death in 757. He succeeded Pope Zachary following the death of Pope-elect Stephen (sometimes called Stephen II). Stephen II marks the historical delineation between the Byzantine Papacy and the Frankish Papacy. The safety of Rome was facing invasion by the Kingdom of the Lombards. Pope Stephen II traveled all the way to Paris to seek assistance against the Lombard threat from Pepin the Short. Pepin had been anointed a first time in 751 in Soissons by Boniface, archbishop of Mainz, but named his price. With the Frankish nobles agreeing to campaign in Lombardy, the Pope consecrated Pepin a second time in a lavish ceremony at the Basilica of St Denis in 754, bestowing upon him the additional title of Patricius Romanorum (Latin for "Patrician of the Romans") in the first recorded crowning of a civil ruler by a Pope. Pepin defeated the Lombards – taking control of northern Italy – and made a gift (called the Donation of Pepin) of the properties formerly constituting the Exarchate of Ravenna to the pope, eventually leading to the establishment of the Papal States.
Pope Zachary (Zacharias; 679 – 15 March 752) reigned from 3 December or 5 December 741 to his death in 752.
Saint Praejectus, Prejectus or Projectus (Saint Pry, Prie, Prix, Priest, Prest, Preils; url.))) (625–676) was a bishop of Clermont, who was killed together with Amarinus. Born in the Auvergne to the lesser nobility, he studied under Genesius of Clermont. He was ordained a priest and, with the approval of Childeric II, became bishop of Clermont in 666. Praejectus founded monasteries, hospitals, and churches. He was killed as a result of political struggles of the day. Hector, lord of Marseilles, had been accused of various crimes, and at the order of Childeric, had been arrested and executed. Agritius, the man who killed Praejectus, believed that the bishop had been responsible for Hector’s death. At Volvic, the assassin thus stabbed to death Praejectus and Amarinus, abbot of a monastery in the area. The death of Praejectus was linked to that of Saint Leger (Leodegarius). St. Leger was an opponent of Ebroin, mayor of the palace of Neustria on two occasions; firstly from 658 to his deposition in 673 and secondly from 675 to his death in 680 or 681. In a violent and despotic career, he strove to impose the authority of Neustria, which was under his control, over Burgundy and Austrasia. Ebroin’s supporters, which included Praejectus, St. Reol of Rheims, St. Agilbert of Paris, and St. Ouen of Rouen, held a council of bishops that sat in judgment on Leger, at Marly, near Paris. Praejectus’ murderer may have been a supporter of Leger, who was later murdered on October 2, 679.Barbara H. Rosenwein, Emotional Communities in the Early Middle Ages (New York: Cornell University Press, 2006), 170.
Saint Prætextatus (died 25 February 586), also spelled Praetextatus, Pretextat(us), and known as Saint Prix, was the bishop of Rouen from 549 until his assassination in 586.
The Prieuré de Sion, translated as Priory of Sion, is a fringe fraternal organisation, founded and dissolved in France in 1956 by Pierre Plantard as part of a hoax.
Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
Pseudohistory is a form of pseudoscholarship that attempts to distort or misrepresent the historical record, often using methods resembling those used in legitimate historical research.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
The Quinotaur (Lat. Quinotaurus) is a mythical sea creature mentioned in the 7th century Frankish Chronicle of Fredegar.
Radegund (Radegunda; also spelled Rhadegund, Radegonde, or Radigund; 520 — 13 August 587) was a Thuringian princess and Frankish queen, who founded the Abbey of the Holy Cross at Poitiers.
The Radhanites (also Radanites, Arabic الرذنية ar-Raðaniyya; Hebrew sing. רדהני Radhani, pl. רדהנים Radhanim) were medieval Jewish merchants.
Raetia (also spelled Rhaetia) was a province of the Roman Empire, named after the Rhaetian (Raeti or Rhaeti) people.
Religious vows are the public vows made by the members of religious communities pertaining to their conduct, practices, and views.
Res publica is a Latin phrase, loosely meaning 'public affair'.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Rictrude (Rictrudis, Richtrudis, Richrudis) (c. 614–688) was abbess of Marchiennes Abbey, in Flanders.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Reims (Archidioecesis Remensis; French: Archidiocèse de Reims) is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Rouen (Latin: Archidioecesis Rothomagensis; French: Archidiocèse de Rouen) is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tours (Latin: Archidioecesis Turonensis; French: Archidiocèse de Tours) is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Autun (–Chalon-sur-Saône–Mâcon–Cluny) (Latin: Dioecesis Augustodunensis (–Cabillonensis–Matisconensis–Cluniacensis); French: Diocèse d'Autun (–Chalon-sur-Saône–Mâcon–Cluny)), more simply known as the Diocese of Autun, is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Liège (Dioecesis Leodiensis) is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Belgium.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Metz (Latin: Dioecesis Metensis; French: Diocèse de Metz) is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The royal household of the early kings of the Franks is the subject of considerable discussion and remains controversial.
Saint Sadalberga (or Salaberga) (died 665) was the daughter of Gundoin, Duke of Alsace and his wife Saretrude.
Saint Eligius (also Eloy or Loye) (Éloi) (11 June 588 – 1 December 660) is the patron saint of goldsmiths, other metalworkers, and coin collectors.
Saint Remigius, Remy or Remi, (Saint Rémi or Saint Rémy; Remigio; Remigio; Romieg; Remigiusz; Remig and Remigijus), was Bishop of Reims and Apostle of the Franks, (437 – January 13, AD 533).
The Salian Franks, also called the Salians (Latin: Salii; Greek: Σάλιοι Salioi), were a northwestern subgroup of the earliest Franks who first appear in the historical records in the third century.
The Salic law (or; Lex salica), or the was the ancient Salian Frankish civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis.
The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
Septimania (Septimanie,; Septimània,; Septimània) was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigoths in 462, when Septimania was ceded to their king, Theodoric II.
Sigebert III (630–656) was the Merovingian king of Austrasia from 633 to his death around 656.
The solidus (Latin for "solid"; solidi), nomisma (νόμισμα, nómisma, "coin"), or bezant was originally a relatively pure gold coin issued in the Late Roman Empire.
Sulpitius (or Sulpicius) the Pious or "the Débonnaire" (died 17 January 644) was a 7th-century bishop of Bourges and saint.
Syagrius (430 – 486 or 487) was the last Roman military commander of a Roman rump state in northern Gaul, now called the Kingdom of Soissons.
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
Khan Tervel (Тервел) also called Tarvel, or Terval, or Terbelis in some Byzantine sources, was the Khan of Bulgaria during the First Bulgarian Empire at the beginning of the 8th century.
The Da Vinci Code is a 2003 mystery thriller novel by Dan Brown.
The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail (published as Holy Blood, Holy Grail in the United States) is a book by Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh and Henry Lincoln.
The Matrix Reloaded is a 2003 science fiction action film, the first sequel to The Matrix, and the second installment in ''The Matrix'' trilogy, written and directed by The Wachowski Brothers.
The Matrix Revolutions is a 2003 science fiction action film written and directed by The Wachowski Brothers.
Theudebert I (Thibert/Théodebert) (c. 503 – 547 or 548) was the Merovingian king of Austrasia from 533 to his death in 548.
Theuderic IV (c. 712 – 737) or Theuderich, Theoderic, or Theodoric; in French, Thierry was the Merovingian King of the Franks from 721 until his death in 737.
Thuringian is an East Central German dialect group spoken in much of the modern German Free State of Thuringia north of the Rennsteig ridge, southwestern Saxony-Anhalt and adjacent territories of Hesse and Bavaria.
The toga, a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome, was a roughly semicircular cloth, between in length, draped over the shoulders and around the body.
Tongeren (Tongres, Tongern) is a city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg, in the southeastern corner of the Flemish region of Belgium.
Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.
Tournai (Latin: Tornacum, Picard: Tornai), known in Dutch as Doornik and historically as Dornick in English, is a Walloon municipality of Belgium, southwest of Brussels on the river Scheldt.
The triens (plural trientes) was an Ancient Roman bronze coin produced during the Roman Republic valued at one-third of an as (4 unciae).
Urban Tigner Holmes Jr. (July 13, 1900 – May 12, 1972) was an American scholar focusing on medieval literature and romance philology.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
Saint Waltrude (Waudru; Waldetrudis; Waltraud; Valdetrudis, Valtrudis, Waltrudis; died April 9, 688 AD) is the patron saint of Mons, Belgium, where she is known in French as Sainte Waudru, and of Herentals, Belgium, where she is known in Dutch as Sint-Waldetrudis or -Waltrudis.
Webster's Dictionary is any of the dictionaries edited by Noah Webster in the early nineteenth century, and numerous related or unrelated dictionaries that have adopted the Webster's name.
Yitzhak Hen (born 1963) is Anna and Sam Lopin Professor of History at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel).