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Mesopotamia

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders. [1]

348 relations: Abrahamic religions, Achaemenid Assyria, Achaemenid Empire, Adad-apla-iddina, Adiabene, Agglutinative language, Agriculture, Akitu, Akkadian Empire, Akkadian language, Alalakh, Aleppo, Alexander the Great, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Egyptian medicine, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient Greek astronomy, Ancient Greek philosophy, Ancient Mesopotamian religion, Ancient Near East, Ancient Rome, Antiguo Oriente, Anu, Apple, Aramaic language, Archaeology, Archimedes' screw, Armavir, Armenia, Arpad, Syria, Art of ancient Egypt, Asōristān, Ashur, Ashur-uballit II, Assur, Assyria, Assyria (Roman province), Assyrian people, Astronomy, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, Axiom, É (temple), Babylon, Babylonia, Babylonian astronomy, Babylonian calendar, Backgammon, Baghdad, Baghdad Battery, Bandage, ..., Bank, Barley, Bastam, Beer, Belief, Berlin, Beth Nahrain, Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, Boğazkale, Book of Genesis, Borsippa, Boxing, Brill Publishers, British Museum, Bronze Age, Burial, Burney Relief, Byzantine Empire, Caliphate, Carchemish, Carpet, Cemetery, Central Asia, Century, Chapel, China, City-state, Classical antiquity, Code of Hammurabi, Cooking, Copper Bull, Cream (pharmaceutical), Crop, Cult image, Cuneiform script, Curse, Cursive, Cylinder seal, Dam, Damascus, Degree (angle), Dialectic, Dialogue, Dialogue of Pessimism, Disease, Divorce, Diyala River, DjVu, DNA, Dur-Sharrukin, Dynasty, E. A. Wallis Budge, Eannatum, Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia), Early Muslim conquests, Early Period (Assyria), Earth's rotation, Ebla, Eclipse cycle, Economy, Egypt, Elam, Empiricism, Energy returned on energy invested, Enlil, Ensi (Sumerian), Epic of Gilgamesh, Epic poetry, Epilepsy, Equinox, Ergodicity, Eridu, Esagil-kin-apli, Ethics, Etiology, Euphratensis, Euphrates, Eurasia, Eurocentrism, Europe, Exorcism, Fertile Crescent, First Babylonian dynasty, Folklore, Food security, Frustum, Generation, George Sarton, Germany, Gilgamesh, Giorgio Buccellati, God, Grape, Grave, Guennol Lioness, Halaf culture, Hammurabi, Handedness, Hanging Gardens of Babylon, Hassuna culture, Hatra, Heaven, Heliocentrism, Hellenistic philosophy, Henri Frankfort, Heraclitus, Historical region, History of astronomy, History of cartography, History of Iraq, Housekeeping, Humbaba, Hunting, Hurro-Urartian languages, Hymn, Image, Indian astronomy, Indian subcontinent, Indus Valley Civilisation, Innovation, Inspection, Ionians, Iran, Iran–Iraq border, Iraq, Iron Age, Irrigation, Ishtar Gate, Jean Bottéro, Jemdet Nasr period, John Maynard Keynes, John Peter Oleson, Karatepe, Kassites, Kültepe, Ki (goddess), Kuwait, Lagash, Lamassu, Language isolate, Late antiquity, Late Bronze Age collapse, Limestone, Limmu, Lipit-Ishtar, Logic, Logogram, Lower Mesopotamia (region), Lower Paleolithic, Lugalbanda, Lunar phase, Lute, Lyres of Ur, Lyrics, Mace (bludgeon), Mari, Syria, Marketplace, Mathematics, Medical diagnosis, Medical prescription, Medicine, Mesopotamia (Roman province), Middle Assyrian Empire, Minoan eruption, Monarch, Muslim conquest of Persia, Muslim conquest of the Levant, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Neo-Babylonian Empire, Neolithic Revolution, New Year, Nile, Nimrud, Nineveh, Nippur, Numeral system, Nuzi, Observation, Old Aramaic language, Old Assyrian Empire, Onion, Ontology, Open system (systems theory), Osroene, Otto E. Neugebauer, Oud, Oxford University Press, Palmyrene Empire, Pantheon (religion), Parthian Empire, Patient, Patriarchy, Pergamon Museum, Persian Gulf, Philosophy, Philosophy of science, Physical examination, Pictogram, Plato, Plough, Plutarch, Polo, Polytheism, Post-Keynesian economics, Pre-Pottery Neolithic A, Pre-Pottery Neolithic B, Prognosis, Property, Prose, Proverb, Province, Ram in a Thicket, Rationality, Reason, Recorded history, Rights, River valley civilization, Royal Game of Ur, Rugby football, Samaria, Samarra culture, Sargon of Akkad, Sasanian Empire, Saudi Arabia, Sîn-lēqi-unninni, Scribe, Seleucid Empire, Seleucus of Seleucia, Semitic languages, Senet, Septuagint, Settler, Sexagesimal, Shepherd, Sin (mythology), Slavery, Social structure, Socratic method, Soil, Solstice, Sophist, Sovereign state, Sprachbund, Square pyramid, Stele, Stele of the Vultures, Subartu, Sumer, Sumerian language, Sun, Syllabary, Symptom, Syria, Syria–Turkey border, Syro-Hittite states, Tablet (pharmacy), Tanakh, Taurus Mountains, Tell Halaf, Terracotta, Thales of Miletus, The Anabasis of Alexander, Therapy, Third Dynasty of Ur, Tiglath-Pileser I, Tigris, Tigris–Euphrates river system, Turkey, Turnip, Tushpa, Ubaid period, Ugarit, Umma, United Kingdom, Universe, Upper Mesopotamia, Ur, Ur-Nammu, Urartian language, Uruk, Uruk period, Urukagina, Variety (linguistics), Villein, Votive offering, Warka Vase, Western Asia, Western Europe, Wheel, Wine, Wisdom, Wrestling, Writing, Yellow River, Yerevan, Zagros Mountains, Ziggurat, 2nd millennium BC. Expand index (298 more) »

Abrahamic religions

The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.

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Achaemenid Assyria

Athura (𐎠𐎰𐎢𐎼𐎠 Aθurā), also called Assyria Babylonia, was a geographical area within the Persian Achaemenid Empire held by the last nobility of Aššur (Akkadian), known as Athura (Neo-Aramaic) or Atouria (Greek), during the period of 539 BC to 330 BC as a military protectorate state of Persia under the rule of Cyrus the Great.

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Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.

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Adad-apla-iddina

Adad-apla-iddina, typically inscribed in cuneiform mdIM-DUMU.UŠ-SUM-na, mdIM-A-SUM-namdAdad-àpla-idinnana.

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Adiabene

Adiabene (from the Ancient Greek Ἀδιαβηνή, Adiabene, itself derived from ܚܕܝܐܒ, or, Middle Persian: Nodshēragān, Armenian: Նոր Շիրական, Nor Shirakan) was an ancient kingdom in Assyria, with its capital at Arbela (modern-day Erbil, Iraq).

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Agglutinative language

An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.

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Agriculture

Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Akitu

Akitu or Akitum (Sumerian:, akiti-šekinku,, "the barley-cutting", akiti-šununum, "barley-sowing"; Akkadian: akitu or rêš-šattim, "head of the year") was a spring festival in ancient Mesopotamia.The Babylonian Akitu festival has played a pivotal role in the development of theories of religion, myth and ritual, yet the purpose of the festival remains a point of contention among both historians of religion and Assyriologists.

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Akkadian Empire

The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient Semitic-speaking empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia in the Bible.

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Akkadian language

Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.

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Alalakh

Alalakh (Hittite: Alalaḫ) was an ancient city-state, a late Bronze Age capital in the Amuq River valley of Turkey's Hatay Province.

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Aleppo

Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Egyptian medicine

The medicine of the ancient Egyptians is some of the oldest documented.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Ancient Greek astronomy

Greek astronomy is astronomy written in the Greek language in classical antiquity.

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Ancient Greek philosophy

Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.

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Ancient Mesopotamian religion

Mesopotamian religion refers to the religious beliefs and practices of the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, particularly Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia between circa 3500 BC and 400 AD, after which they largely gave way to Syriac Christianity.

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Ancient Near East

The ancient Near East was the home of early civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq, southeast Turkey, southwest Iran, northeastern Syria and Kuwait), ancient Egypt, ancient Iran (Elam, Media, Parthia and Persia), Anatolia/Asia Minor and Armenian Highlands (Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region, Armenia, northwestern Iran, southern Georgia, and western Azerbaijan), the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, and Jordan), Cyprus and the Arabian Peninsula.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Antiguo Oriente

Antiguo Oriente is an annual peer-reviewed academic journal published by the Center of Studies of Ancient Near Eastern History (CEHAO) (Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina, Buenos Aires).

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Anu

Anu (𒀭𒀭, Anu‹m› or Ilu) or An (𒀭, from 𒀭 an "Sky, Heaven") is the divine personification of the sky, supreme God, and ancestor of all the deities in ancient Mesopotamian religion.

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Apple

An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).

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Aramaic language

Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Archaeology

Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

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Archimedes' screw

An Archimedes' screw, also known by the name the Archimedean screw or screw pump, is a machine historically (and also currently) used for transferring water from a low-lying body of water into irrigation ditches.

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Armavir, Armenia

Armavir (Արմավիր), is a town and urban municipal community located in the west of Armenia serving as the administrative centre of Armavir Province.

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Arpad, Syria

Arpad (probably modern Tell Rifaat, Syria) was an ancient Aramaean Syro-Hittite city located in north-western Syria, north of Aleppo.

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Art of ancient Egypt

Ancient Egyptian art is the painting, sculpture, architecture and other arts produced by the civilization of ancient Egypt in the lower Nile Valley from about 3000 BC to 30 AD.

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Asōristān

Asōristān (𐭠𐭮𐭥𐭥𐭮𐭲𐭭 Asōrestān, Āsūrestān) was the name of the Sasanian provinces of Mesopotamia from 226 to 637.

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Ashur

Ashur (אַשּׁוּר) was the second son of Shem, the son of Noah.

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Ashur-uballit II

Ashur-uballit II (Aššur-uballiṭ II) was the last king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, succeeding Sin-shar-ishkun (623–612 BC).

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Assur

Aššur (Akkadian; ܐܫܘܪ 'Āšūr; Old Persian Aθur, آشور: Āšūr; אַשּׁוּר:, اشور: Āšūr, Kurdish: Asûr), also known as Ashur and Qal'at Sherqat, was an Assyrian city, capital of the Old Assyrian Empire (2025–1750 BC), of the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1050 BC), and for a time, of the Neo-Assyrian Empire of 911–608 BC.

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Assyria

Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.

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Assyria (Roman province)

Assyria was a Roman province that lasted only two years (116–118 AD).

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Assyrian people

Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.

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Astronomy

Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world

Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (9th–13th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language.

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Axiom

An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.

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É (temple)

É (Cuneiform) is the Sumerian word or symbol for house or temple.

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Babylon

Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.

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Babylonia

Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).

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Babylonian astronomy

The history of astronomy in Mesopotamia, and the world, begins with the Sumerians who developed the earliest writing system—known as cuneiform—around 3500–3200 BC.

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Babylonian calendar

The Babylonian calendar was a lunisolar calendar with years consisting of 12 lunar months, each beginning when a new crescent moon was first sighted low on the western horizon at sunset, plus an intercalary month inserted as needed by decree.

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Backgammon

Backgammon is one of the oldest known board games.

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Baghdad

Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.

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Baghdad Battery

The Baghdad Battery or Parthian Battery is a set of three artifacts which were found together: a ceramic pot, a tube of copper, and a rod of iron.

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Bandage

A bandage is a piece of material used either to support a medical device such as a dressing or splint, or on its own to provide support to or to restrict the movement of a part of the body.

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Bank

A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.

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Barley

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.

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Bastam

Bastam (بسطام, also romanized as Basṭām; also known as Busṭām and Bisṭām) is a city in and capital of the Bastam District of Shahrud County, Semnan Province, Iran.

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Beer

Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.

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Belief

Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.

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Berlin

Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Beth Nahrain

Beth Nahrain or Bet Nahrain or (Bêṯ Nahrayn; "House of Two Rivers" is the name for the region known as Mesopotamia in the Syriac language. Geographically, it refers to the areas between and surrounding the Euphrates and Tigris rivers (as well as their tributaries). The Aramaic name loosely describes the area of the rivers, not only literally between the rivers. The area is considered by Assyrians as their homeland. This area roughly encompasses almost all of present-day Iraq, parts of southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, and, more recently, northeastern Syria. The Assyrians are considered to be indigenous inhabitants of Beth Nahrain. "Nahrainean" or "Nahrainian" is the Anglicized name for "Nahrāyā", which is the Aramaic equivalent of "Mesopotamian".

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Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III is a black limestone Assyrian sculpture with many scenes in bas-relief and inscriptions.

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Boğazkale

Boğazkale ("Gorge Fortress") is a district of Çorum Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey, located from the city of Çorum.

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Book of Genesis

The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.

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Borsippa

Borsippa (Sumerian: BAD.SI.(A).AB.BAKI; Akkadian: Barsip and Til-Barsip): Vol.

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Boxing

Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.

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Brill Publishers

Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.

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British Museum

The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Burial

Burial or interment is the ritual act of placing a dead person or animal, sometimes with objects, into the ground.

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Burney Relief

The Burney Relief (also known as the Queen of the Night relief) is a Mesopotamian terracotta plaque in high relief of the Isin-Larsa or Old-Babylonian period, depicting a winged, nude, goddess-like figure with bird's talons, flanked by owls, and perched upon two lions.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Caliphate

A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).

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Carchemish

Carchemish, also spelled Karkemish (Hittite: Karkamiš; Turkish: Karkamış; Greek: Εὔρωπος; Latin: Europus), was an important ancient capital in the northern part of the region of Syria.

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Carpet

A carpet is a textile floor covering typically consisting of an upper layer of pile attached to a backing.

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Cemetery

A cemetery or graveyard is a place where the remains of dead people are buried or otherwise interred.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Century

A century (from the Latin centum, meaning one hundred; abbreviated c.) is a period of 100 years.

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Chapel

The term chapel usually refers to a Christian place of prayer and worship that is attached to a larger, often nonreligious institution or that is considered an extension of a primary religious institution.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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City-state

A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Code of Hammurabi

The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology).

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Cooking

Cooking or cookery is the art, technology, science and craft of preparing food for consumption.

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Copper Bull

The Copper Bull is a copper sculpture found at the site of Tell al-`Ubaid near the ancient city of Ur, now in southern Iraq, by Sir Leonard Woolley in 1923.

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Cream (pharmaceutical)

A cream is a preparation usually for application to the skin.

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Crop

A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence.

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Cult image

In the practice of religion, a cult image is a human-made object that is venerated or worshipped for the deity, spirit or daemon that it embodies or represents.

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Cuneiform script

Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.

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Curse

A curse (also called an imprecation, malediction, execration, malison, anathema, or commination) is any expressed wish that some form of adversity or misfortune will befall or attach to some other entity: one or more persons, a place, or an object.

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Cursive

Cursive (also known as script or longhand, among other names) is any style of penmanship in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing faster.

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Cylinder seal

A cylinder seal is a small round cylinder, typically about one inch in length, engraved with written characters or figurative scenes or both, used in ancient times to roll an impression onto a two-dimensional surface, generally wet clay.

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Dam

A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams.

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Damascus

Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.

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Degree (angle)

A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually denoted by ° (the degree symbol), is a measurement of a plane angle, defined so that a full rotation is 360 degrees.

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Dialectic

Dialectic or dialectics (διαλεκτική, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.

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Dialogue

Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English) is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, and a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange.

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Dialogue of Pessimism

The Dialogue of Pessimism is an ancient Mesopotamian dialogue between a master and his servant that expresses the futility of human action.

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Disease

A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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Divorce

Divorce, also known as dissolution of marriage, is the termination of a marriage or marital union, the canceling or reorganizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, thus dissolving the bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of the particular country or state.

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Diyala River

The Diyala River, is a river and tributary of the Tigris.

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DjVu

DjVu (like English "déjà vu") is a computer file format designed primarily to store scanned documents, especially those containing a combination of text, line drawings, indexed color images, and photographs.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Dur-Sharrukin

Dur-Sharrukin ("Fortress of Sargon"; دور شروكين), present day Khorsabad, was the Assyrian capital in the time of Sargon II of Assyria.

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Dynasty

A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family,Oxford English Dictionary, "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.

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E. A. Wallis Budge

Sir Ernest Alfred Thompson Wallis Budge (27 July 185723 November 1934) was an English Egyptologist, Orientalist, and philologist who worked for the British Museum and published numerous works on the ancient Near East.

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Eannatum

Eannatum (𒂍𒀭𒈾𒁺) was a Sumerian king of Lagash; he established one of the first verifiable empires in history.

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Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia)

The Early Dynastic period (abbreviated ED period or ED) is an archaeological culture in Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) that is generally dated to c. 2900–2350 BC and was preceded by the Uruk and Jemdet Nasr periods.

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Early Muslim conquests

The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.

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Early Period (Assyria)

The Early Period refers to the history of Assyrian civilization of Mesopotamia between 2500 BCE and 2025 BCE.

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Earth's rotation

Earth's rotation is the rotation of Planet Earth around its own axis.

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Ebla

Ebla (إبلا., modern: تل مرديخ, Tell Mardikh) was one of the earliest kingdoms in Syria.

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Eclipse cycle

Eclipses may occur repeatedly, separated by certain intervals of time: these intervals are called eclipse cycles.

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Economy

An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Elam

Elam (Elamite: haltamti, Sumerian: NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.

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Empiricism

In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.

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Energy returned on energy invested

In physics, energy economics, and ecological energetics, energy returned on energy invested (EROEI or ERoEI); or energy return on investment (EROI), is the ratio of the amount of usable energy (the exergy) delivered from a particular energy resource to the amount of exergy used to obtain that energy resource.

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Enlil

Enlil, later known as Elil, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of wind, air, earth, and storms.

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Ensi (Sumerian)

Ensi (cuneiform:, "lord of the plowland"; Emesal dialect: umunsik; italic) was a Sumerian title designating the ruler or prince of a city-state.

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Epic of Gilgamesh

The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia that is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature.

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Epic poetry

An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.

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Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.

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Equinox

An equinox is commonly regarded as the moment the plane (extended indefinitely in all directions) of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 22-23 September.

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Ergodicity

In probability theory, an ergodic dynamical system is one that, broadly speaking, has the same behavior averaged over time as averaged over the space of all the system's states in its phase space.

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Eridu

Eridu (Sumerian:, NUN.KI/eridugki; Akkadian: irîtu; modern Arabic: Tell Abu Shahrain) is an archaeological site in southern Mesopotamia (modern Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq).

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Esagil-kin-apli

Esagil-kin-apli was the ummânū, or chief scholar, of Babylonian king Adad-apla-iddina, 1067–1046 BC, as he appears on the Uruk List of Sages and ScholarsW 20030,7 the Seleucid List of Sages and Scholars,” obverse line 16, recovered from Anu’s Bīt Rēš temple during the 1959/60 excavation.

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Ethics

Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

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Etiology

Etiology (alternatively aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation, or origination.

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Euphratensis

Euphratensis (Latin for "Euphratean"; Εὑφρατησία, Euphratēsía), fully Augusta Euphratensis, was a late Roman and then Byzantine province in Syrian region, part of the Byzantine Diocese of the East.

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Euphrates

The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.

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Eurasia

Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.

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Eurocentrism

Eurocentrism (also Western-centrism) is a worldview centered on and biased towards Western civilization.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Exorcism

Exorcism (from Greek εξορκισμός, exorkismós "binding by oath") is the religious or spiritual practice of evicting demons or other spiritual entities from a person, or an area, that are believed to be possessed.

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Fertile Crescent

The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.

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First Babylonian dynasty

The chronology of the first dynasty of Babylonia (also First Babylonian Empire) is debated as there is a Babylonian King List A and a Babylonian King List B. In this chronology, the regnal years of List A are used due to their wide usage.

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Folklore

Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.

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Food security

Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.

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Frustum

In geometry, a frustum (plural: frusta or frustums) is the portion of a solid (normally a cone or pyramid) that lies between one or two parallel planes cutting it.

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Generation

A generation is "all of the people born and living at about the same time, regarded collectively." It can also be described as, "the average period, generally considered to be about thirty years, during which children are born and grow up, become adults, and begin to have children of their own." In kinship terminology, it is a structural term designating the parent-child relationship.

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George Sarton

George Alfred Leon Sarton (31 August 1884 – 22 March 1956), was a Belgian-born American chemist and historian.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Gilgamesh

Gilgamesh was a historical king of the Sumerian city-state of Uruk, a major hero in ancient Mesopotamian mythology, and the protagonist of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem written in Akkadian during the late second millennium BC.

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Giorgio Buccellati

Giorgio Buccellati is a Professor Emeritus in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures and the Department of History at UCLA.

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God

In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.

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Grape

A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.

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Grave

A grave is a location where a dead body (typically that of a human, although sometimes that of an animal) is buried.

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Guennol Lioness

The Guennol Lioness is a 5,000-year-old Mesopotamian statue found near Baghdad, Iraq.

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Halaf culture

The Halaf culture is a prehistoric period which lasted between about 6100 BCE and 5100 BCE.

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Hammurabi

Hammurabi was the sixth king of the First Babylonian Dynasty, reigning from 1792 BC to 1750 BC (according to the Middle Chronology).

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Handedness

In human biology, handedness is a better, faster, or more precise performance or individual preference for use of a hand, known as the dominant hand; the less capable or less preferred hand is called the non-dominant hand.

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Hanging Gardens of Babylon

The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World as listed by Hellenic culture, described as a remarkable feat of engineering with an ascending series of tiered gardens containing a wide variety of trees, shrubs, and vines, resembling a large green mountain constructed of mud bricks, and said to have been built in the ancient city of Babylon, near present-day Hillah, Babil province, in Iraq.

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Hassuna culture

The Hassuna culture is a Neolithic archaeological culture in northern Mesopotamia dating to the early sixth millennium BC.

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Hatra

Hatra الحضر was an ancient city in the Ninawa Governorate and al-Jazira region of Iraq.

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Heaven

Heaven, or the heavens, is a common religious, cosmological, or transcendent place where beings such as gods, angels, spirits, saints, or venerated ancestors are said to originate, be enthroned, or live.

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Heliocentrism

Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.

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Hellenistic philosophy

Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy that was developed in the Hellenistic civilization following Aristotle and ending with the beginning of Neoplatonism.

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Henri Frankfort

Henri "Hans" Frankfort (24 February 1897 – 16 July 1954) was a Dutch Egyptologist, archaeologist and orientalist.

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Heraclitus

Heraclitus of Ephesus (Hērákleitos ho Ephésios) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part of the Persian Empire.

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Historical region

Historical regions (or historical countries) are geographic areas which at some point in time had a cultural, ethnic, linguistic or political basis, regardless of present-day borders.

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History of astronomy

Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, dating back to antiquity, with its origins in the religious, mythological, cosmological, calendrical, and astrological beliefs and practices of prehistory: vestiges of these are still found in astrology, a discipline long interwoven with public and governmental astronomy, and not completely disentangled from it until a few centuries ago in the Western World (see astrology and astronomy).

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History of cartography

Cartography, or mapmaking, has been an integral part of the human history for thousands of years.

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History of Iraq

The territory of the modern state of Iraq was defined in 1920 as Mandatory Iraq.

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Housekeeping

Housekeeping refers to the management of duties and chores involved in the running of a household, such as cleaning, cooking, home maintenance, shopping, laundry and bill pay.

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Humbaba

In Ancient Mesopotamian religion, Humbaba (Assyrian spelling), also spelled Huwawa (Sumerian spelling) and surnamed the Terrible, was a monstrous giant of immemorial age raised by Utu, the Sun.

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Hunting

Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so.

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Hurro-Urartian languages

The Hurro-Urartian languages are an extinct language family of the Ancient Near East, comprising only two known languages: Hurrian and Urartian, both of which were spoken in the Taurus mountains area.

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Hymn

A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.

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Image

An image (from imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception, for example, a photo or a two-dimensional picture, that has a similar appearance to some subject—usually a physical object or a person, thus providing a depiction of it.

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Indian astronomy

Indian astronomy has a long history stretching from pre-historic to modern times.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Indus Valley Civilisation

The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.

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Innovation

Innovation can be defined simply as a "new idea, device or method".

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Inspection

An inspection is, most generally, an organized examination or formal evaluation exercise.

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Ionians

The Ionians (Ἴωνες, Íōnes, singular Ἴων, Íōn) were one of the four major tribes that the Greeks considered themselves to be divided into during the ancient period; the other three being the Dorians, Aeolians, and Achaeans.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iran–Iraq border

The Iran–Iraq boundary runs for 1,458 kilometers, from the Shatt al-Arab (known as Arvand Rud in Iran) waterway to the tripoint boundary with Turkey at the Kuh e-Dalanper.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Iron Age

The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.

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Irrigation

Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.

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Ishtar Gate

The Ishtar Gate (بوابة عشتار) was the eighth gate to the inner city of Babylon.

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Jean Bottéro

Jean Bottéro (30 August 1914 – 15 December 2007) was a French historian born in Vallauris.

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Jemdet Nasr period

The Jemdet Nasr Period is an archaeological culture in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).

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John Maynard Keynes

John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.

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John Peter Oleson

John Peter Oleson (born 1946) is a Canadian classical archaeologist and historian of ancient technology.

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Karatepe

Karatepe (Turkish for "Black Hill"; Hittite: Azatiwataya) is a late Hittite fortress and open-air museum in Osmaniye Province in southern Turkey lying at a distance of about 23 km from the district center of Kadirli.

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Kassites

The Kassites were people of the ancient Near East, who controlled Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire c. 1531 BC and until c. 1155 BC (short chronology).

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Kültepe

Kültepe (Turkish: "Ash Hill") is an archaeological site in Kayseri Province, Turkey.

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Ki (goddess)

Ki was the earth goddess in Sumerian mythology, chief consort of the sky god An.

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Kuwait

Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.

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Lagash

Lagash (cuneiform: LAGAŠKI; Sumerian: Lagaš) is an ancient city located northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, about east of the modern town of Ash Shatrah, Iraq.

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Lamassu

A lamassu (Cuneiform:,; Sumerian: lammař; Akkadian: lamassu; sometimes called a lamassus) is an Assyrian protective deity, often depicted as having a human's head, a body of a bull or a lion, and bird's wings.

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Language isolate

A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.

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Late antiquity

Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.

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Late Bronze Age collapse

The Late Bronze Age collapse involved a dark-age transition period in the Near East, Asia Minor, Aegean region, North Africa, Caucasus, Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, a transition which historians believe was violent, sudden, and culturally disruptive.

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Limestone

Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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Limmu

Limmu was an Assyrian eponym.

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Lipit-Ishtar

Lipit-Ishtar (Akkadian: Lipit-Ištar; fl. c. 1870 BC — c. 1860 BC by the short chronology of the ancient near east) was the 5th king of the First Dynasty of Isin, according to the "Sumerian King List" (SKL).

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Logic

Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.

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Logogram

In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.

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Lower Mesopotamia (region)

Lower Mesopotamia is a historical region of Iraq.

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Lower Paleolithic

The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.

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Lugalbanda

Lugalbanda (𒈗𒌉𒁕, young/fierce king) is a character found in Sumerian mythology and literature.

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Lunar phase

The lunar phase or phase of the Moon is the shape of the directly sunlit portion of the Moon as viewed from Earth.

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Lute

A lute is any plucked string instrument with a neck (either fretted or unfretted) and a deep round back enclosing a hollow cavity, usually with a sound hole or opening in the body.

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Lyres of Ur

The Lyres of Ur or Harps of Ur are considered to be the world's oldest surviving stringed instruments.

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Lyrics

Lyrics are words that make up a song usually consisting of verses and choruses.

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Mace (bludgeon)

A mace is a blunt weapon, a type of club or virge that uses a heavy head on the end of a handle to deliver powerful blows.

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Mari, Syria

Mari (modern Tell Hariri, تل حريري) was an ancient Semitic city in modern-day Syria.

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Marketplace

A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other goods.

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Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Medical diagnosis

Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.

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Medical prescription

A prescription is a health-care program implemented by a physician or other qualified health care practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient.

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Medicine

Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Mesopotamia (Roman province)

Mesopotamia was the name of two distinct Roman provinces, the one a short-lived creation of the Roman Emperor Trajan in 116–117 and the other established by Emperor Septimius Severus in ca.

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Middle Assyrian Empire

The Middle Assyrian Empire is the period in the history of Assyria between the fall of the Old Assyrian Empire in the 14th century BC and the establishment of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 10th century BC.

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Minoan eruption

The Minoan eruption of Thera, also referred to as the Thera eruption, Santorini eruption, or Late Bronze Age eruption, was a major catastrophic volcanic eruption with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 6 or 7 and a dense-rock equivalent (DRE) of, Dated to the mid-second millennium BCE, the eruption was one of the largest volcanic events on Earth in recorded history.

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Monarch

A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.

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Muslim conquest of Persia

The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).

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Muslim conquest of the Levant

The Muslim conquest of the Levant (اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْإٍسْـلَامِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, Al-Faṫṫḥul-Islāmiyyuash-Shām) or Arab conquest of the Levant (اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْـعَـرَبِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, Al-Faṫṫḥul-ʿArabiyyu Lish-Shām) occurred in the first half of the 7th century,"Syria." Encyclopædia Britannica.

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Neo-Assyrian Empire

The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.

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Neo-Babylonian Empire

The Neo-Babylonian Empire (also Second Babylonian Empire) was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.

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Neolithic Revolution

The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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Nile

The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.

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Nimrud

Nimrud (النمرود) is the name that Carsten NiebuhrNiebuhr wrote on:: "Bei Nimrud, einem verfallenen Castell etwa 8 Stunden von Mosul, findet man ein merkwürdigeres Werk.

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Nineveh

Nineveh (𒌷𒉌𒉡𒀀 URUNI.NU.A Ninua); ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul in modern-day northern Iraq.

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Nippur

Nippur (Sumerian: Nibru, often logographically recorded as, EN.LÍLKI, "Enlil City;": Vol. 1, Part 1. Accessed 15 Dec 2010. Akkadian: Nibbur) was among the most ancient of Sumerian cities.

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Numeral system

A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system for expressing numbers; that is, a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using digits or other symbols in a consistent manner.

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Nuzi

Nuzi (or Nuzu; Akkadian Gasur; modern Yorghan Tepe, Iraq) was an ancient Assyrian Mesopotamian city southwest of the major Assyrian city of Arrapha (Karka modern Kirkuk in modern Al Ta'amim Governorate of Iraq), located near the Tigris river.

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Observation

Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.

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Old Aramaic language

Old Aramaic (code: oar) refers to the earliest stage of the Aramaic language, considered to give way to Middle Aramaic by the 3rd century (a conventional date is the rise of the Sasanian Empire in 224 CE).

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Old Assyrian Empire

The Old Assyrian Empire is one of four periods in which the history of Assyria is divided, the other three being the Early Assyrian Period, the Middle Assyrian Period, and the New Assyrian Period.

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Onion

The onion (Allium cepa L., from Latin cepa "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable that is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium.

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Ontology

Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.

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Open system (systems theory)

An open system is a system that has external interactions.

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Osroene

Osroene, also spelled Osroëne and Osrhoene (مملكة الرها; ܡܠܟܘܬܐ ܕܒܝܬ ܐܘܪܗܝ "Kingdom of Urhay"; Ὀσροηνή) and sometimes known by the name of its capital city, Edessa (now Şanlıurfa, Turkey), was a historical kingdom in Upper Mesopotamia, which was ruled by a dynasty of Arab origin.

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Otto E. Neugebauer

Otto Eduard Neugebauer (May 26, 1899 – February 19, 1990) was an Austrian American mathematician and historian of science who became known for his research on the history of astronomy and the other exact sciences in antiquity and into the Middle Ages.

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Oud

The oud (عود) is a short-neck lute-type, pear-shaped stringed instrument (a chordophone in the Hornbostel-Sachs classification of instruments) with 11 or 13 strings grouped in 5 or 6 courses, commonly used in Egyptian, Syrian, Palestinian, Lebanese, Iraqi, Arabian, Jewish, Persian, Greek, Armenian, Turkish, Azerbaijani, North African (Chaabi, Classical, and Spanish Andalusian), Somali, and various other forms of Middle Eastern and North African music.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Palmyrene Empire

The Palmyrene Empire was a splinter state centered at Palmyra which broke away from the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.

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Pantheon (religion)

A pantheon (from Greek πάνθεον pantheon, literally "(a temple) of all gods", "of or common to all gods" from πᾶν pan- "all" and θεός theos "god") is the particular set of all gods of any polytheistic religion, mythology, or tradition.

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Parthian Empire

The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.

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Patient

A patient is any recipient of health care services.

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Patriarchy

Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property.

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Pergamon Museum

The Pergamon Museum (Pergamonmuseum) is situated on the Museum Island in Berlin.

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Persian Gulf

The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.

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Philosophy

Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Philosophy of science

Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.

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Physical examination

A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.

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Pictogram

A pictogram, also called a pictogramme, pictograph, or simply picto, and in computer usage an icon, is an ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object.

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Plato

Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Plough

A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.

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Plutarch

Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.

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Polo

Polo is a team sport played on horseback.

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Polytheism

Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.

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Post-Keynesian economics

Post-Keynesian economics is a school of economic thought with its origins in The General Theory of John Maynard Keynes, with subsequent development influenced to a large degree by Michał Kalecki, Joan Robinson, Nicholas Kaldor, Sidney Weintraub, Paul Davidson, Piero Sraffa and Jan Kregel.

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Pre-Pottery Neolithic A

Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) denotes the first stage in early Levantine and Anatolian Neolithic culture, dating BP.

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Pre-Pottery Neolithic B

Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) is a Neolithic culture centered in upper Mesopotamia.

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Prognosis

Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).

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Property

Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.

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Prose

Prose is a form of language that exhibits a natural flow of speech and grammatical structure rather than a rhythmic structure as in traditional poetry, where the common unit of verse is based on meter or rhyme.

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Proverb

A proverb (from proverbium) is a simple and concrete saying, popularly known and repeated, that expresses a truth based on common sense or experience.

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Province

A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state.

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Ram in a Thicket

The Ram in a Thicket is one of a pair of figures excavated in Ur, in southern Iraq, and which date from about 2600–2400 BC.

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Rationality

Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.

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Reason

Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.

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Recorded history

Recorded history or written history is a historical narrative based on a written record or other documented communication.

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Rights

Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people, according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory.

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River valley civilization

A river civilization or river culture is an agricultural nation or civilization situated beside and drawing sustenance from a river.

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Royal Game of Ur

The Royal Game of Ur, also known as the Game of Twenty Squares or simply the Game of Ur, is a two-player strategy race board game that was first played in ancient Mesopotamia during the early third millennium BC.

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Rugby football

Rugby football refers to the team sports rugby league and rugby union.

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Samaria

Samaria (שֹׁמְרוֹן, Standard, Tiberian Šōmərôn; السامرة, – also known as, "Nablus Mountains") is a historical and biblical name used for the central region of ancient Land of Israel, also known as Palestine, bordered by Galilee to the north and Judaea to the south.

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Samarra culture

The Samarra culture is a Chalcolithic archaeological culture in northern Mesopotamia that is roughly dated to 5500–4800 BCE.

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Sargon of Akkad

Sargon of Akkad (Akkadian Šarru-ukīn or Šarru-kēn, also known as Sargon the Great) was the first ruler of the Semitic-speaking Akkadian Empire, known for his conquests of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th to 23rd centuries BC.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Sîn-lēqi-unninni

Sîn-lēqi-unninni (𒁹𒀭𒌍𒋾𒀀𒅆) was a mašmaššu who lived in Mesopotamia in the period between 1300 BC and 1000 BC.

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Scribe

A scribe is a person who serves as a professional copyist, especially one who made copies of manuscripts before the invention of automatic printing.

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Seleucid Empire

The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.

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Seleucus of Seleucia

Seleucus of Seleucia (Σέλευκος Seleukos; born c. 190 BC; fl. c. 150 BC) was a Hellenistic astronomer and philosopher.

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Semitic languages

The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.

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Senet

Senet (or Senat) is a board game from ancient Egypt whose original rules are the subject of conjecture.

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Septuagint

The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.

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Settler

A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize the area.

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Sexagesimal

Sexagesimal (base 60) is a numeral system with sixty as its base.

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Shepherd

A shepherd or sheepherder is a person who tends, herds, feeds, or guards herds of sheep.

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Sin (mythology)

Sin (Akkadian: 𒂗𒍪 Su'en, Sîn) or Nanna (Sumerian: 𒀭𒋀𒆠 DŠEŠ.KI, DNANNA) was the god of the moon in the Mesopotamian mythology of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia.

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Slavery

Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.

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Social structure

In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals.

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Socratic method

The Socratic method, also can be known as maieutics, method of elenchus, elenctic method, or Socratic debate, is a form of cooperative argumentative dialogue between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to draw out ideas and underlying presumptions.

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Soil

Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.

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Solstice

A solstice is an event occurring when the Sun appears to reach its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere.

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Sophist

A sophist (σοφιστής, sophistes) was a specific kind of teacher in ancient Greece, in the fifth and fourth centuries BC.

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Sovereign state

A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

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Sprachbund

A sprachbund ("federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact.

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Square pyramid

In geometry, a square pyramid is a pyramid having a square base.

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Stele

A steleAnglicized plural steles; Greek plural stelai, from Greek στήλη, stēlē.

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Stele of the Vultures

The Stele of the Vultures is a monument from the Early Dynastic III period (2600–2350 BC) in Mesopotamia celebrating a victory of the city-state of Lagash over its neighbour Umma.

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Subartu

The land of Subartu (Akkadian Šubartum/Subartum/ina Šú-ba-ri, Assyrian mât Šubarri) or Subar (Sumerian Su-bir4/Subar/Šubur) is mentioned in Bronze Age literature.

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Sumer

SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".

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Sumerian language

Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).

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Sun

The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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Syllabary

A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more frequently) moras which make up words.

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Symptom

A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.

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Syria

Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Syria–Turkey border

The border between the Syrian Arab Republic and the Republic of Turkey is about long.

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Syro-Hittite states

The states that are called Neo-Hittite or, more recently, Syro-Hittite were Luwian-, Aramaic- and Phoenician-speaking political entities of the Iron Age in northern Syria and southern Anatolia that arose following the collapse of the Hittite Empire in around 1180 BC and lasted until roughly 700 BC.

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Tablet (pharmacy)

A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form.

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Tanakh

The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.

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Taurus Mountains

The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros Dağları, Armenian: Թորոս լեռներ, Ancient Greek: Ὄρη Ταύρου) are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, separating the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau.

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Tell Halaf

Tell Halaf (تل حلف) is an archaeological site in the Al Hasakah governorate of northeastern Syria, near the Turkish border, just opposite Ceylanpınar.

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Terracotta

Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta (Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin terra cocta), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.

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Thales of Miletus

Thales of Miletus (Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer from Miletus in Asia Minor (present-day Milet in Turkey).

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The Anabasis of Alexander

The Anabasis of Alexander (Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἀνάβασις, Alexándrou Anábasis; Anabasis Alexandri) was composed by Arrian of Nicomedia in the second century AD, most probably during the reign of Hadrian.

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Therapy

Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.

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Third Dynasty of Ur

The terms "Third Dynasty of Ur" and "Neo-Sumerian Empire" refer to both a 22nd to 21st century BC (middle chronology) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state which some historians consider to have been a nascent empire.

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Tiglath-Pileser I

Tiglath-Pileser I (from the Hebraic form of 𒆪𒋾𒀀𒂍𒊹𒊏 Tukultī-apil-Ešarra, "my trust is in the son of Ešarra") was a king of Assyria during the Middle Assyrian period (1114–1076 BC).

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Tigris

Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.

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Tigris–Euphrates river system

The Tigris and Euphrates, with their tributaries, form a major river system in Western Asia.

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turnip

The turnip or white turnip (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa) is a root vegetable commonly grown in temperate climates worldwide for its white, bulbous taproot.

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Tushpa

Tushpa (Տոսպ Tosp, Assyrian: Turuspa, Tuşpa) was the 9th-century BC capital of Urartu, later becoming known as Van which is derived from Biainili the native name of Urartu.

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Ubaid period

The Ubaid period (c. 6500 to 3800 BC) is a prehistoric period of Mesopotamia.

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Ugarit

Ugarit (𐎜𐎂𐎗𐎚, ʼUgart; أُوغَارِيت Ūġārīt, alternatively أُوجَارِيت Ūǧārīt) was an ancient port city in northern Syria.

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Umma

Umma (𒄑𒆵𒆠; modern Umm al-Aqarib, Dhi Qar Province in Iraq) was an ancient city in Sumer.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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Universe

The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.

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Upper Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East.

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Ur

Ur (Sumerian: Urim; Sumerian Cuneiform: KI or URIM5KI; Akkadian: Uru; أور; אור) was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia, located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar (تل المقير) in south Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.

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Ur-Nammu

Ur-Nammu (or Ur-Namma, Ur-Engur, Ur-Gur, Sumerian:, ca. 2047-2030 BC short chronology) founded the Sumerian Third Dynasty of Ur, in southern Mesopotamia, following several centuries of Akkadian and Gutian rule.

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Urartian language

The Urartian or Vannic language was spoken by the inhabitants of the ancient kingdom of Urartu, located in the region of Lake Van, with its capital near the site of the modern town of Van, in the Armenian Highland, modern-day Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.

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Uruk

Uruk (Cuneiform: URUUNUG; Sumerian: Unug; Akkadian: Uruk; وركاء,; Aramaic/Hebrew:; Orḥoē, Ὀρέχ Oreḥ, Ὠρύγεια Ōrugeia) was an ancient city of Sumer (and later of Babylonia), situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the dried-up, ancient channel of the Euphrates, some 30 km east of modern Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq.

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Uruk period

The Uruk period (ca. 4000 to 3100 BC) existed from the protohistoric Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age period in the history of Mesopotamia, following the Ubaid period and succeeded by the Jemdet Nasr period.

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Urukagina

Uru-ka-gina, Uru-inim-gina, or Iri-ka-gina (𒌷𒅗𒄀𒈾; 24th century BC, short chronology) was a ruler (''ensi'') of the city-state Lagash in Mesopotamia.

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Variety (linguistics)

In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.

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Villein

A villein, otherwise known as cottar, torpare, crofter, is a serf tied to the land in the feudal system.

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Votive offering

A votive deposit or votive offering is one or more objects displayed or deposited, without the intention of recovery or use, in a sacred place for broadly religious purposes.

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Warka Vase

The Warka Vase is a carved alabaster stone vessel found in the temple complex of the Sumerian goddess Inanna in the ruins of the ancient city of Uruk, located in the modern Al Muthanna Governorate, in southern Iraq.

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Western Asia

Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Wheel

A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle bearing.

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Wine

Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.

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Wisdom

Wisdom or sapience is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense, and insight, especially in a mature or utilitarian manner.

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Wrestling

Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.

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Writing

Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols.

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Yellow River

The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.

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Yerevan

Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.

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Zagros Mountains

The Zagros Mountains (کوه‌های زاگرس; چیاکانی زاگرۆس) form the largest mountain range in Iran, Iraq and southeastern Turkey.

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Ziggurat

A ziggurat (Akkadian: ziqqurat, D-stem of zaqāru "to build on a raised area") is a type of massive stone structure built in ancient Mesopotamia.

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2nd millennium BC

The 2nd millennium BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC.

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Ancient Iraq, Ancient Mesopotamia, Ancient Mesopotamia Info, Armani (toponym), Armânum, Assyria and Babylonia contrasted, Bablyonia, Babylonia & Assyria, Babylonia and Assyria, Babylonia and assyria, Babylonian science, Bilad Al-Rafidayn, Bilād ar-Rāfidayn, Biritum, Higher Mesopotamia, Iraq (region), Land between the rivers, Lower Mesopotamia, Mesapotamia, Mesopatamia, Mesopetamia, Mesopotamia's Hierarchy, Mesopotamian, Mesopotamian civilization, Mesopotamian flood control, Mesopotamian science, Mesopotamians, Mesopotamic, Mesopotania, Mesopotanian, Mesopotemia, Mesoptamia, Mespotamia, Social life in Babylonia and Assyria, The Two Rivers, Tigris Valley, Tigris-Euphrates Valley.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesopotamia

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