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Mesopotamian campaign

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The Mesopotamian campaign was a campaign in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I fought between the Allies represented by the British Empire, mostly troops from Britain, Australia and the British Indian, and the Central Powers, mostly of the Ottoman Empire. [1]

125 relations: Abadan, Iran, Action of Khan Baghdadi, Al-Faw, Alexander Cobbe, Ali İhsan Sâbis, Allies of World War I, Anglo-Persian Oil Company, Archibald Murray, Armistice of Mudros, Arthur Barrett (Indian Army officer), Austen Chamberlain, Australia, Baghdad, Basra, Battle of Basra (1914), Battle of Ctesiphon (1915), Battle of Dujaila, Battle of Es Sinn, Battle of Hanna, Battle of Istabulat, Battle of Megiddo (1918), Battle of Mount Hamrin, Battle of Nasiriyah (1915), Battle of Qurna, Battle of Shaiba, Battle of Sharqat, Battle of Sheikh Sa'ad, Battle of Wadi (1916), Battles of Ramadi (1917), Bergmann Offensive, Berlin–Baghdad railway, British Empire, British Indian Army, British Mandate for Mesopotamia (legal instrument), British Raj, Caucasus Campaign, Central Powers, Charles Townshend (British Army officer), Chief of the General Staff (United Kingdom), Cholera, Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz, Committee of Union and Progress, Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon, Enver Pasha, Euphrates, Fall of Baghdad (1917), Fao Landing, Feodosia, First Army (Ottoman Empire), ..., Fourth Army (Ottoman Empire), Frederick Stanley Maude, G. F. Gorringe, Gallipoli Campaign, George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, George Younghusband, Guardians of Independence, Halil Kut, Hīt, Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, Hillah, Indian Army during World War I, Iraq, Iraq Area Command (Ottoman Empire), Iraqi revolt against the British, Istanbul, John Nixon (Indian Army officer), Karbala, Kâzım Karabekir, Kifri, Kut, Kuwait, Lionel Dunsterville, Little Zab, Mesopotamia, Middle Eastern theatre of World War I, Misak-ı Millî, Mosul, Mosul Vilayet, Mubarak Al-Sabah, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Najaf, Nureddin Pasha, Occupation of Constantinople, Ottoman Empire, Partition of the Ottoman Empire, Percy Cox, Percy Lake, Persian Campaign, Persian Empire, Political officer (British Empire), Pursuit of Goeben and Breslau, RAF Iraq Command, Said Halim Pasha, Samarrah Offensive, Süleyman Askerî, Second Army (Ottoman Empire), Second Battle of Kut, Second Constitutional Era, Secretary of State for India, Sergey Sazonov, Shatt al-Arab, Shia Islam, Siege of Kut, Sinai and Palestine Campaign, Sir Fenton Aylmer, 13th Baronet, Sir William Robertson, 1st Baronet, Sixth Army (Ottoman Empire), SS Julnar, Sunni Islam, Tanzimat, Third Army (Ottoman Empire), Tigris, Treaty of Sèvres, Turkey, Typhus, Ulama, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, War Office, William Marshall (British Army officer), World War I, XII Corps (Ottoman Empire), XIII Corps (Ottoman Empire), Young Turks, 6th (Poona) Division. Expand index (75 more) »

Abadan, Iran

Abadan (آبادان Ābādān) is a city and capital of Abadan County, Khuzestan Province which is located in southwest of Iran.

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Action of Khan Baghdadi

The Action of Khan Baghdadi was an engagement during the Mesopotamian Campaign in World War I.

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Al-Faw

Al-Faw (الفاو; sometimes transliterated as Fao) is a port town situated on the Al Faw Peninsula in Iraq near the Shatt al-Arab and the Persian Gulf.

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Alexander Cobbe

General Sir Alexander Stanhope Cobbe (6 June 1870 – 29 June 1931) was a senior British Indian Army officer and a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

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Ali İhsan Sâbis

Ali İhsan Sâbis (1882 – 9 December 1957) was the commander for the Sixth Army of the Ottoman Empire.

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Allies of World War I

The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.

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Anglo-Persian Oil Company

The Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) was a British company founded in 1908 following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran.

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Archibald Murray

General Sir Archibald James Murray, (23 April 1860 – 21 January 1945) was a British Army officer who served in the Second Boer War and the First World War.

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Armistice of Mudros

The Armistice of Mudros (Mondros Mütarekesi), concluded on 30 October 1918, ended the hostilities, at noon the next day, in the Middle Eastern theatre between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies of World War I. It was signed by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe, on board HMS ''Agamemnon'' in Moudros harbor on the Greek island of Lemnos.

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Arthur Barrett (Indian Army officer)

Field Marshal Sir Arthur Arnold Barrett (3 June 1857 – 20 October 1926) was a British officer of the Indian Army.

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Austen Chamberlain

Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain, KG (16 October 1863 – 16 March 1937) was a British statesman, son of Joseph Chamberlain and half-brother of Neville Chamberlain.

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Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Baghdad

Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.

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Basra

Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.

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Battle of Basra (1914)

The Battle of Basra was a battle of World War I which took place south of the city of Basra (modern-day Iraq) between British and Ottoman troops from November 11 to November 21, 1914.

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Battle of Ctesiphon (1915)

The Battle of Ctesiphon (Turkish: Selman-ı Pak Muharebesi) was fought in November 1915 by the British Empire and British India, against the Ottoman Empire, within the Mesopotamian Campaign of World War I. Indian Expeditionary Force D, mostly made up of Indian units and under the command of Gen.

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Battle of Dujaila

The Battle of Dujaila (Sâbis Muharebesi) was fought on 8 March 1916, between British and Ottoman forces during the First World War.

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Battle of Es Sinn

The Battle of Es Sinn was a World War I military engagement between Anglo-Indian and Ottoman forces.

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Battle of Hanna

The First Battle of Hanna (Turkish: Felahiye Muharebesi) was a World War I battle fought on the Mesopotamian front on 21 January 1916 between Ottoman Army and Anglo-Indian forces.

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Battle of Istabulat

The Battle of Istabulat was a part of the Samarrah Campaign during the First World War occurring when the British Empire attempted to further its strategic position after the capture of Baghdad from the Ottoman Empire.

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Battle of Megiddo (1918)

The Battle of Megiddo (Megiddo Muharebesi) also known in Turkish as the Nablus Hezimeti ("Rout of Nablus"), or the Nablus Yarması ("Breakthrough at Nablus") was fought between 19 and 25 September 1918, on the Plain of Sharon, in front of Tulkarm, Tabsor and Arara in the Judean Hills as well as on the Esdralon Plain at Nazareth, Afulah, Beisan, Jenin and Samakh.

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Battle of Mount Hamrin

The Battle of Mount Hamrin was an unsuccessful British effort to cut off part of the Ottoman Sixth Army after the capture of Baghdad during the Mesopotamia campaign during the First World War.

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Battle of Nasiriyah (1915)

The Battle of Nasiriyah was a battle in World War 1 that took place in the Mesopotamian city of Nasiriyah between British and Ottoman forces in July 1915.

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Battle of Qurna

The Battle of Qurna, (3 to 9 December 1914) was between British forces and Ottoman forces that had retreated from Basra, which they lost at the Battle of Basra (1914) during the Mesopotamian campaign of World War I.

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Battle of Shaiba

The Battle of Shaiba, 12–14 April 1915 was between British forces and Ottoman forces that were trying to retake the city of Basra from the British.

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Battle of Sharqat

The Battle of Sharqat (October 23–30, 1918) was fought between the British and the Ottoman Empire in the Mesopotamian Campaign in World War I, which became the last conflict in the between the belligerents before of the signing of the Armistice of Mudros.

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Battle of Sheikh Sa'ad

The Battle of Sheikh Sa'ad (Turkish: Sağ Sahil) occurred between 6–8 January 1916 during the Mesopotamian Campaign of the First World War.

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Battle of Wadi (1916)

The Battle of Wadi, occurring on 13 January 1916, was an unsuccessful attempt by British forces fighting in Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq) during World War I to relieve beleaguered forces under Sir Charles Townshend then under siege by the Ottoman Sixth Army at Kut-al-Amara.

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Battles of Ramadi (1917)

The two Battles of Ramadi were fought between the forces of the British and Ottoman Empires in July and September 1917 during World War I. The two sides contested the town of Ramadi in central Iraq, about 100 km (62 miles) west of Baghdad on the south bank of the Euphrates River, where an important Ottoman garrison was quartered.

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Bergmann Offensive

The Bergmann Offensive (Bergmann Atağı; Берхманнский прорыв; in Russian literature Кёприкейская операция, "Köprüköy operation") was the first engagement of the Caucasus Campaign during World War I. General Georgy Bergmann, commander of I Caucasian Army Corps, took the initiative against the Ottoman Empire.

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Berlin–Baghdad railway

The Baghdad railway, also known as the Berlin–Baghdad railway (Bağdat Demiryolu, Bagdadbahn, سكة حديد بغداد, Chemin de Fer Impérial Ottoman de Bagdad), was built from 1903 to 1940 to connect Berlin with the (then) Ottoman Empire city of Baghdad, from where the Germans wanted to establish a port in the Persian Gulf, with a line through modern-day Turkey, Syria, and Iraq, linked to Europe by a bridge crossing the Bosphorous.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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British Indian Army

The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.

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British Mandate for Mesopotamia (legal instrument)

The British Mandate for Mesopotamia (الانتداب البريطاني على العراق) was a Mandate proposed to be entrusted to Britain at the San Remo, Italy-based conference,The new Cambridge modern history.

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British Raj

The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.

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Caucasus Campaign

The Caucasus Campaign comprised armed conflicts between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire, later including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, the German Empire, the Central Caspian Dictatorship and the British Empire as part of the Middle Eastern theatre during World War I. The Caucasus Campaign extended from the South Caucasus to the Armenian Highlands region, reaching as far as Trabzon, Bitlis, Mush and Van.

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Central Powers

The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).

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Charles Townshend (British Army officer)

Major General Sir Charles Vere Ferrers Townshend, (21 February 1861 – 18 May 1924) was a British Imperial soldier who during the First World War led an overreaching military campaign in Mesopotamia, which led to the defeat and destruction of his command.

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Chief of the General Staff (United Kingdom)

Chief of the General Staff (CGS) has been the title of the professional head of the British Army since 1964.

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Cholera

Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

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Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz

Freiherr Wilhelm Leopold Colmar von der Goltz (12 August 1843 – 19 April 1916), also known as Goltz Pasha, was a Prussian Field Marshal and military writer.

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Committee of Union and Progress

The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (İttihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti إتحاد و ترقى جمیعتی), later Party of Union and Progress (İttihad ve Terakki Fırkası, Birlik ve İlerleme Partisi) began as a secret society established as the "Committee of Ottoman Union" (İttihad-ı Osmanî Cemiyeti) in Istanbul on February 6, 1889 by medical students Ibrahim Temo, Mehmed Reshid, Abdullah Cevdet, İshak Sükuti, Ali Hüseyinzade, Kerim Sebatî, Mekkeli Sabri Bey, Nazım Bey, Şerafettin Mağmumi, Cevdet Osman and Giritli Şefik.

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Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire

The period of the defeat and end of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922) began with the Second Constitutional Era with the Young Turk Revolution.

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Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon

Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon, KG, PC, DL, FZS (25 April 1862 – 7 September 1933), better known as Sir Edward Grey (he was the 3rd Baronet Grey of Fallodon), was a British Liberal statesman.

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Enver Pasha

Ismail Enver Pasha (اسماعیل انور پاشا; İsmail Enver Paşa; 22 November 1881 – 4 August 1922) was an Ottoman military officer and a leader of the 1908 Young Turk Revolution.

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Euphrates

The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.

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Fall of Baghdad (1917)

The Fall of Baghdad (11 March 1917) occurred during the Mesopotamia Campaign, fought between the forces of the British Empire and the Ottoman Turkish Empire in the First World War.

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Fao Landing

The Fao Landing occurred from November 6, 1914 to November 8, 1914 with British forces attacking the Ottoman stronghold of Fao and its fortress.

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Feodosia

Feodosia (Феодо́сия, Feodosiya; Феодо́сія, Feodosiia; Crimean Tatar and Turkish: Kefe), also called Theodosia (from), is a port and resort, a town of regional significance in Crimea on the Black Sea coast.

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First Army (Ottoman Empire)

The First Army or First Guards Army of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Birinci Ordu or Hassa Ordusu) was one of the field armies of the Ottoman Army.

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Fourth Army (Ottoman Empire)

The Fourth Army of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Dördüncü Ordu) was one of the field armies of the Ottoman Army.

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Frederick Stanley Maude

Lieutenant General Sir Frederick Stanley Maude KCB, CMG, DSO (24 June 1864 – 18 November 1917) was a British Army officer.

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G. F. Gorringe

Lieutenant General Sir George Frederick Gorringe (10 February 1868 – 24 October 1945) served as an active field commander in the British Army during the Anglo-Boer War, World War I, on the Palestine and Western Fronts.

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Gallipoli Campaign

The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli, or the Battle of Çanakkale (Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 17 February 1915 and 9 January 1916.

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George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston

George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, (11 January 1859 – 20 March 1925), known as Lord Curzon of Kedleston between 1898 and 1911 and as Earl Curzon of Kedleston between 1911 and 1921, and commonly as Lord Curzon, was a British Conservative statesman.

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George Younghusband

Sir George John Younghusband, (9 July 1859 – 30 September 1944) was a cavalry officer and major-general in the British Indian Army.

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Guardians of Independence

The Guardians of Independence (Arabic: حارس الاستقلال; Haras al Istiqlal) were a secretive, clandestine political group established in early 1919 to oppose the British occupation of Iraq following World War I. Jafar abu al-Timman was its main organizer and leader.

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Halil Kut

Halil Kut (1881 – 20 August 1957) was an Ottoman-born Turkish regional governor and military commander.

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Hīt

Hīt, also spelled Heet (هيت), ancient name Is, is an Iraqi city in Al-Anbar province.

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Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener

Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916), was a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator who won notoriety for his imperial campaigns, most especially his scorched earth policy against the Boers and his establishment of concentration camps during the Second Boer War, and later played a central role in the early part of the First World War.

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Hillah

Hillah (الحلة al-Ḥillah), also spelled Hilla, is a city in central Iraq on the Hilla branch of the Euphrates River, south of Baghdad.

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Indian Army during World War I

The Indian Army during World War I contributed a large number of divisions and independent brigades to the European, Mediterranean and the Middle East theatres of war in World War I. Over one million Indian troops served overseas, of whom 62,000 died and another 67,000 were wounded.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Iraq Area Command (Ottoman Empire)

The Iraq Area Command or Iraq Regional Command of the Ottoman Empire (Irak ve Havalisi Genel Komutanlığı) was one of the military formation of the Ottoman Army. It was formed in Iraq in the initial stage of World War I.

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Iraqi revolt against the British

The Iraqi revolt against the British, also known as the 1920 Iraqi Revolt or Great Iraqi Revolution, started in Baghdad in the summer of 1920 with mass demonstrations by Iraqis, including protests by embittered officers from the old Ottoman army, against the British occupation of Iraq.

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Istanbul

Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.

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John Nixon (Indian Army officer)

General Sir John Eccles Nixon, GCMG, KCB (16 August 1857 – 15 December 1921) was senior commander of the British Indian Army.

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Karbala

Karbala (كَرْبَلَاء, Karbalā’, Persian: کربلاء) is a city in central Iraq, located about southwest of Baghdad, and a few miles east of Lake Milh.

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Kâzım Karabekir

Musa Kâzım Karabekir (also spelled Kiazim Karabekir in English; 23 July 1882 – 26 January 1948) was a Turkish general and politician.

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Kifri

Kifri (كفري, Kifri) is a town in Iraq and the seat of Kifri District, in the north of the Diyala Governorate.

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Kut

Al-Kūt (الكوت Al Kūt), also spelled Kut al-Imara or Kut El Amara, is a city in eastern Iraq, on the left bank of the Tigris River, about south east of Baghdad.

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Kuwait

Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.

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Lionel Dunsterville

Major General Lionel Charles Dunsterville (9 November 1865 – 18 March 1946) was a British general, who led the Dunsterforce across present-day Iraq and Iran towards Caucasus and oil-rich Baku.

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Little Zab

The Little Zab or Lower Zab (al-Zāb al-Asfal; or Zêyê Biçûk;, Zâb-e Kuchak;, Zāba Taḥtāya) originates in Iran and joins the Tigris just south of Al Zab in the Kurdistan region of Iraq.

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Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Middle Eastern theatre of World War I

The Middle Eastern theatre of World War I saw action between 29 October 1914 and 30 October 1918.

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Misak-ı Millî

Misak-ı Millî (National Pact or National Oath) is the set of six decisions made by the last term of the Ottoman Parliament.

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Mosul

Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.

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Mosul Vilayet

The Mosul Vilayet (ولايت موصل, Vilâyet-i Musul) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire.

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Mubarak Al-Sabah

Sheikh Mubarak bin Sabah Al-Sabah, KCSI, KCIE (1837 – November 28, 1915) (الشيخ مبارك بن صباح الصباح) "the Great" was the seventh ruler of Kuwait from May 18, 1896 until his death on November 28, 1915.

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Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.

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Najaf

Najaf (اَلـنَّـجَـف; BGN: An-Najaf) or An Najaf Al Ashraf (النّجف الأشرف) is a city in central-south Iraq about 160 km (100 mi) south of Baghdad.

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Nureddin Pasha

Nureddin Ibrahim Pasha (Nurettin Paşa, Nureddin İbrahim Paşa; 1873 – 18 February 1932), known as Nureddin İbrahim Konyar after 1934 and often called Bearded Nureddin (Sakallı Nurettin), was a Turkish military officer who served in the Ottoman Army during World War I and in the Turkish Army during the Eastern Front of the Turkish War of Independence.

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Occupation of Constantinople

The Occupation of Constantinople (İstanbul'un İşgali) (November 13, 1918 – September 23, 1923), the capital of the Ottoman Empire, by British, French and Italian forces, took place in accordance with the Armistice of Mudros, which ended Ottoman participation in the First World War.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Partition of the Ottoman Empire

The partition of the Ottoman Empire (Armistice of Mudros, 30 October 1918 – Abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate, 1 November 1922) was a political event that occurred after World War I and the occupation of Constantinople by British, French and Italian troops in November 1918.

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Percy Cox

Major-General Sir Percy Zachariah Cox (20 November 1864 – 20 February 1937) was a British Indian Army officer and Colonial Office administrator in the Middle East.

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Percy Lake

Lieutenant-General Sir Percy Henry Noel Lake (29 June 1855 – 17 November 1940) was a senior commander of the British Indian Army, serving during World War I, and a Canadian soldier.

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Persian Campaign

The Persian Campaign or Invasion of Persia also known as Invasion of Iran (اشغال ایران در جنگ جهانی اول) was a series of engagements in Iranian Azerbaijan and western Iran (Persia) involving the forces of the Ottoman Empire against those of the British Empire and Russian Empire, and also involving local population elements, beginning in December 1914 and ending with the Armistice of Mudros on October 30, 1918 as part of Middle Eastern theatre of World War I.

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Persian Empire

The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.

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Political officer (British Empire)

In the British Empire, a Political Officer or Political Agent was an officer of the imperial civil administration, as opposed to the military administration, usually operating outside imperial territory.

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Pursuit of Goeben and Breslau

The pursuit of Goeben and Breslau was a naval action that occurred in the Mediterranean Sea at the outbreak of the First World War when elements of the British Mediterranean Fleet attempted to intercept the German Mittelmeerdivision consisting of the battlecruiser and the light cruiser.

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RAF Iraq Command

Iraq Command was the Royal Air Force (RAF) commanded inter-service command in charge of British forces in Iraq in the 1920s and early 1930s, during the period of the British Mandate of Mesopotamia.

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Said Halim Pasha

Said Halim Pasha (سعيد حليم پاشا.; Sait Halim Paşa;; 18 January 1865 – 6 December 1921) was an Ottoman statesman of Tosk origin who served as Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1913 to 1917.

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Samarrah Offensive

The Samarrah Offensive (March 13 – April 23, 1917) was launched by the British against the Ottomans as part of the Mesopotamian Campaign in World War I. After Baghdad fell to the British on March 11, 1917, there were still 10,000 Ottoman troops north of the city, led by Khalil Pasha, who could represent a threat to Anglo-Indian forces.

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Süleyman Askerî

Süleyman Askerî Bey, also known as Suleyman Askeri, Sulayman Askari, Sulaiman al-Askari (Modern Turkish: Süleyman el-Askerî) and unofficially known as Suleyman Askeri Pasha (1884 in Prizren, Kosovo Vilayet – 14 April 1915 in Berjasiya) was a military officer who served in the Ottoman Army.

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Second Army (Ottoman Empire)

The Second Army of the Ottoman Empire was one of the field armies of the Ottoman Army.

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Second Battle of Kut

The Second Battle of Kut was fought on 23 February 1917, between British and Ottoman forces at Kut, Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).

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Second Constitutional Era

The Second Constitutional Era (ايکنجى مشروطيت دورى; İkinci Meşrûtiyyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire established shortly after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution which forced Sultan Abdul Hamid II to restore the constitutional monarchy by the revival of the Ottoman Parliament, the General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire and the restoration of the constitution of 1876.

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Secretary of State for India

The Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was the British Cabinet minister and the political head of the India Office responsible for the governance of the British Raj (India), Aden, and Burma.

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Sergey Sazonov

Sergei Dmitryevich Sazonov GCB (Russian: Сергей Дмитриевич Сазонов; 10 August 1860 in Ryazan Governorate 25 December 1927) was a Russian statesman and diplomat who served as Foreign Minister from November 1910 to July 1916.

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Shatt al-Arab

Arvand Rud (اَروَندرود, Swift River) or Shatt al-Arab (شط العرب, River of the Arabs) is a river of some 200 km (120 mi) in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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Siege of Kut

The Siege of Kut Al Amara (7 December 1915 – 29 April 1916), also known as the First Battle of Kut, was the besieging of an 8,000 strong British-Indian garrison in the town of Kut, south of Baghdad, by the Ottoman Army.

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Sinai and Palestine Campaign

The Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I was fought between the British Empire and the Ottoman Empire, supported by the German Empire.

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Sir Fenton Aylmer, 13th Baronet

Lieutenant-General Sir Fenton John Aylmer, 13th Baronet, VC, KCB (5 April 1862 – 3 September 1935) was an Anglo-Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross. He was in command of the first failed efforts to break the siege of Kut in 1916. From a military background, Aylmer was commissioned into the Indian Army, and immediately involved in fierce fighting on the north-west frontier. In a singularly heroic action, still in his twenties, he helped rescue Townshend's garrison at Chitral, spearheading the relief column. For his valorous conduct he was awarded the Victoria Cross, and rapid promotion through the officer class.

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Sir William Robertson, 1st Baronet

Field Marshal Sir William Robert Robertson, 1st Baronet, (29 January 1860 – 12 February 1933) was a British Army officer who served as Chief of the Imperial General Staff (CIGS) – the professional head of the British Army – from 1916 to 1918 during the First World War.

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Sixth Army (Ottoman Empire)

The Sixth Army of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Altıncı Ordu) was one of the field armies of the Ottoman Army.

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SS Julnar

Julnar was a 900-ton, 210-ft long river paddle steamer built in 1908 by E. Rennie and Co.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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Tanzimat

The Tanzimât (lit) was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876.

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Third Army (Ottoman Empire)

The Third Army was originally established in the Balkans and later defended the northeastern provinces of the Ottoman Empire.

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Tigris

Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.

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Treaty of Sèvres

The Treaty of Sèvres (Traité de Sèvres) was one of a series of treaties that the Central Powers signed after their defeat in World War I. Hostilities had already ended with the Armistice of Mudros.

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Typhus

Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.

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Ulama

The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".

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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

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War Office

The War Office was a department of the British Government responsible for the administration of the British Army between 1857 and 1964, when its functions were transferred to the Ministry of Defence.

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William Marshall (British Army officer)

Lieutenant-General Sir William Raine Marshall (29 October 1865 – 29 May 1939) was a British Army officer who in November 1917 succeeded Sir Frederick Stanley Maude (upon the latter's death from cholera) as Commander-in-Chief of the British forces in Mesopotamia.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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XII Corps (Ottoman Empire)

The XII Corps of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: 12 nci Kolordu or On İkinci Kolordu) was one of the corps of the Ottoman Army.

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XIII Corps (Ottoman Empire)

The XIII Corps of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: 13 ncü Kolordu or On Üçüncü Kolordu) was one of the corps of the Ottoman Army.

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Young Turks

Young Turks (Jön Türkler, from Les Jeunes Turcs) was a Turkish nationalist party in the early 20th century that consisted of Ottoman exiles, students, civil servants, and army officers.

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6th (Poona) Division

The 6th (Poona) Division was a division of the British Indian Army.

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Redirects here:

British Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force, Mesapotamian Campaign, Mesopotamia 1914-18, Mesopotamia 1914–18, Mesopotamia 1915-18, Mesopotamia 1915–16, Mesopotamia 1915–18, Mesopotamia 1916-18, Mesopotamia 1916–18, Mesopotamia Campaign, Mesopotamia campaign, Mesopotamian Campaign, Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force, Mesopotamian expedition, Mespotamia (war theatre).

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesopotamian_campaign

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