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Index Mesozoic

The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about. [1]

162 relations: Adaptive radiation, Africa, Allosaurus, Ammonoidea, Anatomy, Ancient Greek, Animal, Ankylosaurus, Antarctica, Archaeopteryx, Archosaur, Arctic, Arctic Ocean, Asia, Atlantic Ocean, Atmosphere of Earth, Australia, Avialae, Biomass, Bird, Brachiosaurus, Brooks Range, Carbon dioxide, Carboniferous, Carcharodontosaurus, Carnian Pluvial Event, Carnivore, Castorocauda, Celsius, Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event, Cenozoic, Central Atlantic magmatic province, Chersky Range, Chicxulub crater, Cimolodonta, Coelurosauria, Continental margin, Cretaceous, Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, Crocodylomorpha, Cycad, Cynodont, Deccan Traps, Decomposition, Deposition (geology), Desert, Diapsid, Dicynodont, Didelphodon, Dilophosaurus, ..., Dinosaur, Diplodocus, East Coast of the United States, Ecological niche, Elasmosaurus, Enantiornithes, Euparkeria, Eurasia, Eustreptospondylus, Eutheria, Eutriconodonta, Evolution of birds, Extinction, Extinction event, Extinction Event, Fern, Flood basalt, Flowering plant, Fruitafossor, Geologic time scale, Geological period, Gideon Mantell, Ginkgo, Ginkgo biloba, Glacier, Gobiconodon, Gondwana, Gondwanatheria, Gorgonopsia, Greater Khingan, Gymnosperm, Hadrosaurid, Halite, Heat capacity, Herbivore, Hesperornithes, Himalayas, Humidity, Ichthyosaur, Iguanodon, Innuitian orogeny, Insect, Jurassic, Koolasuchus, Labyrinthodontia, Laurasia, Leaellynasaura, Lystrosaurus, Mammal, Mammaliaformes, Megalosaurus, Metatheria, Mosasaur, Mouth, Multituberculata, Muttaburrasaurus, Neontology, North America, North China Craton, Nothosaur, Oil shale, Online Etymology Dictionary, Ornithocheirus, Ornithurae, Orogeny, Oxygen, Paleobotany, Paleontology, Paleozoic, Pangaea, Pareiasaur, Permian, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Phanerozoic, Pinophyta, Plesiosauria, Plesiosaurus, Pliosauroidea, Polar ice cap, Pterodactylus, Pterosaur, Red beds, Repenomamus, Rhaetian, Rugosodon, Schowalteria, Seafloor spreading, Sequoia (genus), South America, South Asia, Spinosaurus, Supercontinent, Symbiosis, Synapsid, Tapejara (pterosaur), Tectonics, Temnospondyli, Temperature gradient, Termite, Tethys Ocean, Theria, Theropoda, Triassic, Triassic–Jurassic extinction event, Triceratops, Tropics, Tyrannosaurus, Verkhoyansk Range, Volaticotherini, Water, Wolverine, Yucatán Peninsula. Expand index (112 more) »

Adaptive radiation

In evolutionary biology, adaptive radiation is a process in which organisms diversify rapidly from an ancestral species into a multitude of new forms, particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available, creates new challenges, or opens new environmental niches.

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Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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Allosaurus is a genus of carnivorous theropod dinosaur that lived 155 to 150 million years ago during the late Jurassic period (Kimmeridgian to early TithonianTurner, C.E. and Peterson, F., (1999). "Biostratigraphy of dinosaurs in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of the Western Interior, U.S.A." Pp. 77–114 in Gillette, D.D. (ed.), Vertebrate Paleontology in Utah. Utah Geological Survey Miscellaneous Publication 99-1.). The name "Allosaurus" means "different lizard" alluding to its unique concave vertebrae (at the time of its discovery).

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Ammonoids are an extinct group of marine mollusc animals in the subclass Ammonoidea of the class Cephalopoda.

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Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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Ankylosaurus is a genus of armored dinosaur.

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Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.

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Archaeopteryx, meaning "old wing" (sometimes referred to by its German name Urvogel ("original bird" or "first bird")), is a genus of bird-like dinosaurs that is transitional between non-avian feathered dinosaurs and modern birds.

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Archosaurs are a group of diapsid amniotes whose living representatives consist of birds and crocodilians.

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The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

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Arctic Ocean

The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.

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Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Avialae ("bird wings") is a clade of flying dinosaurs containing their only living representatives, the birds.

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Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Brachiosaurus is a genus of sauropod dinosaur from the Jurassic Morrison Formation of North America.

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Brooks Range

The Brooks Range (Athabaskan Gwazhał) is a mountain range in far northern North America stretching some from west to east across northern Alaska into Canada's Yukon Territory.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.

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Carcharodontosaurus is a genus of carnivorous carcharodontosaurid dinosaurs that existed between 112 and 93.5 million years ago,Holtz, Thomas R. Jr.

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Carnian Pluvial Event

The Carnian Pluvial Event (CPE) is a major global climate change and biotic turnover that occurred during the Carnian, early Late Triassic, ~ 230 million years ago.

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A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.

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Castorocauda is a genus of small, semi-aquatic mammal relatives living in the Jurassic period, around 164 million years ago, found in lakebed sediments of the Daohugou Beds of Inner Mongolia.

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The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).

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Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event

The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event, or the Cenomanian-Turonian extinction event, the Cenomanian-Turonian anoxic event (OAE 2), and referred to in Europe as the Bonarelli Event, was one of two anoxic extinction events in the Cretaceous period.

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The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.

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Central Atlantic magmatic province

The Central Atlantic magmatic province (CAMP) is the Earth's largest continental large igneous province, covering an area of roughly 11 million km2.

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Chersky Range

The Chersky Range is a chain of mountains in northeastern Siberia between the Yana River and the Indigirka River.

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Chicxulub crater

The Chicxulub crater is an impact crater buried underneath the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico.

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The Cimolodonta are a taxon of extinct mammals that lived from the Cretaceous to the Eocene.

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Coelurosauria (from Greek, meaning "hollow tailed lizards") is the clade containing all theropod dinosaurs more closely related to birds than to carnosaurs. Coelurosauria is a subgroup of theropod dinosaurs that includes compsognathids, tyrannosaurs, ornithomimosaurs, and maniraptorans; Maniraptora includes birds, the only dinosaur group alive today. Most feathered dinosaurs discovered so far have been coelurosaurs. Philip J. Currie considers it probable that all coelurosaurs were feathered. In the past, Coelurosauria was used to refer to all small theropods, this classification has since been abolished.

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Continental margin

The continental margin is one of the three major zones of the ocean floor, the other two being deep-ocean basins and mid-ocean ridges.

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The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.

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Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event

The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a sudden mass extinction of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.

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Crocodylomorpha is a group of archosaurs that includes the crocodilians and their extinct relatives.

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Cycads are seed plants with a long fossil history that were formerly more abundant and more diverse than they are today.

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The cynodonts ("dog teeth") (clade Cynodontia) are therapsids that first appeared in the Late Permian (approximately 260 Ma).

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Deccan Traps

Deccan Traps are a large igneous province located on the Deccan Plateau of west-central India (17°–24°N, 73°–74°E) and are one of the largest volcanic features on Earth.

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Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken down into simpler organic matter.

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Deposition (geology)

Deposition is the geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass.

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A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.

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Diapsids ("two arches") are a group of amniote tetrapods that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side of their skulls about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period.

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Dicynodontia is a taxon of anomodont therapsids or synapsids with beginnings in the mid-Permian, which were dominant in the Late Permian and continued throughout the Triassic, with a few possibly surviving into the Early Cretaceous.

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Didelphodon (from ''Didelph''''is'' "opossum" plus ὀδών odōn "tooth") is a genus of stagodont metatherians from the Late Cretaceous of North America.

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Dilophosaurus is a genus of theropod dinosaur that lived in what is now North America during the Early Jurassic, about 193million years ago.

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Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.

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Diplodocus is an extinct genus of diplodocid sauropod dinosaurs whose fossils were first discovered in 1877 by S. W. Williston.

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East Coast of the United States

The East Coast of the United States is the coastline along which the Eastern United States meets the North Atlantic Ocean.

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Ecological niche

In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.

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Elasmosaurus is a genus of plesiosaur that lived in North America during the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous period, about 80.5million years ago.

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Enantiornithes is a group of extinct avialans ("birds" in the broad sense), the most abundant and diverse group known from the Mesozoic era.

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Euparkeria (meaning "Parker's good animal", named in honor of W.K. Parker) is an extinct genus of archosauriform from the Middle Triassic of South Africa.

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Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.

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Eustreptospondylus (meaning "true Streptospondylus") is a genus of megalosaurid theropod dinosaur, from the Callovian stage of the Middle Jurassic period (some time between 165 and 161 million years ago) in southern England, at a time when Europe was a series of scattered islands (due to tectonic movement at the time which raised the sea-bed and flooded the lowland).

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Eutheria (from Greek εὐ-, eu- "good" or "right" and θηρίον, thēríon "beast" hence "true beasts") is one of two mammalian clades with extant members that diverged in the Early Cretaceous or perhaps the Late Jurassic.

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Eutriconodonta is an order of early mammals.

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Evolution of birds

The evolution of birds began in the Jurassic Period, with the earliest birds derived from a clade of theropoda dinosaurs named Paraves.

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In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.

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Extinction event

An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth.

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Extinction Event

Extinction Event or variation may refer to.

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A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.

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Flood basalt

A flood basalt is the result of a giant volcanic eruption or series of eruptions that covers large stretches of land or the ocean floor with basalt lava.

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Flowering plant

The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.

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Fruitafossor was a termite-eating mammal endemic to North America during the Late Jurassic epoch (around 150 mya).

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Geologic time scale

The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.

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Geological period

A geological period is one of several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place.

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Gideon Mantell

Gideon Algernon Mantell MRCS FRS (3 February 1790 – 10 November 1852) was an English obstetrician, geologist and palaeontologist.

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Ginkgo is a genus of highly unusual non-flowering plants.

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Ginkgo biloba

Ginkgo biloba, commonly known as ginkgo or gingko (both pronounced), also known as the maidenhair tree, is the only living species in the division Ginkgophyta, all others being extinct.

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A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.

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Gobiconodon is an extinct genus of carnivorous mammal from the early Cretaceous.

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Gondwana, or Gondwanaland, was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous (about 320 million years ago).

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Gondwanatheria is an extinct group of mammals that lived in the Southern Hemisphere, including Antarctica, during the Upper Cretaceous through the Miocene (and possibly much earlier, if Allostaffia is a member of this group).

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Gorgonopsia ("Gorgon face") is an extinct suborder of theriodonts.

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Greater Khingan

The Greater Khingan Range (IPA:; Их Хянганы нуруу, Ih Hyangani’ nurū; Manchu: Amba Hinggan), is a volcanic mountain range in northeast China.

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The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.

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Hadrosaurids (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick"), or duck-billed dinosaurs, are members of the ornithischian family Hadrosauridae.

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Halite, commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral (natural) form of sodium chloride (NaCl).

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Heat capacity

Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.

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A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.

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Hesperornithes is an extinct and highly specialized group of aquatic avialans closely related to the ancestors of modern birds.

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The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.

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Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.

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Ichthyosaurs (Greek for "fish lizard" – ιχθυς or ichthys meaning "fish" and σαυρος or sauros meaning "lizard") are large marine reptiles.

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Iguanodon (meaning "iguana-tooth") is a genus of ornithopod dinosaur that existed roughly halfway between the first of the swift bipedal hypsilophodontids of the mid-Jurassic and the duck-billed dinosaurs of the late Cretaceous.

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Innuitian orogeny

The Innuitian orogeny, sometimes called the Ellesmere orogeny, was a major tectonic (mountain building) episode responsible for the formation of a series of mountain ranges in the Canadian Arctic.

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Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.

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The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.

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Koolasuchus is an extinct genus of brachyopoid temnospondyl in the family Chigutisauridae.

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Labyrinthodontia (Greek, "maze-toothed") is an extinct amphibian subclass, which constituted some of the dominant animals of late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras (about 390 to 150 million years ago).

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Laurasia was the more northern of two supercontinents (the other being Gondwana) that formed part of the Pangaea supercontinent around (Mya).

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Leaellynasaura (meaning "Leaellyn's lizard") is a genus of small herbivorous ornithischian dinosaurs from the Albian stage of the Early Cretaceous (dated to between 118 and 110 million years agoHoltz, Thomas R. Jr. (2012) Dinosaurs: The Most Complete, Up-to-Date Encyclopedia for Dinosaur Lovers of All Ages), first discovered in Dinosaur Cove, Australia.

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Lystrosaurus ("shovel lizard") was a herbivorous genus of Late Permian and Early Triassic Period dicynodont therapsids, which lived around 250 million years ago in what is now Antarctica, India, and South Africa.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Mammaliaformes ("mammal-shaped") is a clade that contains the crown group mammals and their closest extinct relatives; the group radiated from earlier probainognathian cynodonts.

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Megalosaurus (meaning "Great Lizard", from Greek μέγας, megas, meaning 'big', 'tall' or 'great' and σαῦρος, sauros, meaning 'lizard') is a genus of large meat-eating theropod dinosaurs of the Middle Jurassic period (Bathonian stage, 166 million years ago) of Southern England.

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Metatheria is a mammalian clade that includes all mammals more closely related to marsupials than to placentals.

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Mosasaurs (from Latin Mosa meaning the 'Meuse river', and Greek σαύρος sauros meaning 'lizard') are an extinct group of large marine reptiles containing 38 genera in total.

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In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.

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Multituberculata (commonly known as multituberculates, named for the multiple tubercles of their teeth) is an extinct taxon of rodent-like allotherian mammals that existed for approximately 166 million years, the longest fossil history of any mammal lineage.

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Muttaburrasaurus was a genus of herbivorous ornithopod dinosaur, which lived in what is now northeastern Australia sometime between 112 and 99.6 million years agoHoltz, Thomas R. Jr.

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Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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North China Craton

The North China Craton is a continental crustal block with one of Earth's most complete and complex record of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic processes.

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Nothosaurs (order Nothosauroidea) were Triassic marine sauropterygian reptiles that may have lived like seals of today, catching food in water but coming ashore on rocks and beaches.

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Oil shale

Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons, called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales), can be produced.

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Online Etymology Dictionary

The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.

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Ornithocheirus (from Ancient Greek "ὄρνις", meaning bird, and "χεῖρ", meaning hand) is a pterosaur genus known from fragmentary fossil remains uncovered from sediments in the UK.

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Ornithurae (meaning "bird tails" in Greek) is a natural group which includes the common ancestor of Ichthyornis, Hesperornis, and all modern birds as well as all other descendants of that common ancestor.

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An orogeny is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between plate tectonics.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Paleobotany, also spelled as palaeobotany (from the Greek words paleon.

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Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).

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The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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Pangaea or Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras.

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Pareiasaurs (meaning "cheek lizards") are an extinct group of anapsid reptiles classified in the family Pareiasauridae.

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The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.

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Permian–Triassic extinction event

The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.

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The Phanerozoic Eon is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale, and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed.

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The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.

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Plesiosauria (Greek: πλησίος, plesios, meaning "near to" and Sauria) or plesiosaurs are an order or clade of Mesozoic marine reptiles (marine Sauropsida), belonging to the Sauropterygia.

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Plesiosaurus (Greek: πλησιος/plesios, near to + σαυρος/sauros, lizard) is a genus of extinct, large marine sauropterygian reptile that lived during the early part of the Jurassic Period, and is known by nearly complete skeletons from the Lias of England.

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Pliosauroidea is an extinct clade of marine reptiles.

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Polar ice cap

A polar ice cap or polar cap is a high-latitude region of a planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite that is covered in ice.

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Pterodactylus (from the πτεροδάκτυλος, pterodaktulos, meaning "winged finger") is an extinct flying reptile genus of pterosaurs, whose members are popularly known as pterodactyls. It is currently thought to contain only a single species, Pterodactylus antiquus, the first pterosaur species to be named and identified as a flying reptile.

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Pterosaurs (from the Greek πτερόσαυρος,, meaning "winged lizard") were flying reptiles of the extinct clade or order Pterosauria.

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Red beds

Red beds (or redbeds) are sedimentary rocks, which typically consist of sandstone, siltstone, and shale that are predominantly red in color due to the presence of ferric oxides.

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Repenomamus is a gobiconodontid mammal genus containing two species, Repenomamus robustus and Repenomamus giganticus.

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The Rhaetian is, in geochronology, the latest age of the Triassic period or in chronostratigraphy the uppermost stage of the Triassic system.

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Rugosodon is an extinct genus of multituberculate (rodent-like) mammals from eastern China that lived 160 million years ago during the Jurassic period.

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Schowalteria is a genus of extinct mammal from the Cretaceous of Canada.

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Seafloor spreading

Seafloor spreading is a process that occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge.

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Sequoia (genus)

Sequoia is a genus of redwood coniferous trees in the subfamily Sequoioideae of the family Cupressaceae.

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South America

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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Spinosaurus (meaning "spine lizard") is a genus of theropod dinosaur that lived in what now is North Africa, during the upper Albian to upper Turonian stages of the Cretaceous period, about 112 to 93.5 million years ago.

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In geology, a supercontinent is the assembly of most or all of Earth's continental blocks or cratons to form a single large landmass.

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Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.

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Synapsids (Greek, 'fused arch'), synonymous with theropsids (Greek, 'beast-face'), are a group of animals that includes mammals and every animal more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes.

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Tapejara (pterosaur)

Tapejara (from a Tupi word meaning "the old being") is a genus of Brazilian pterosaur from the Cretaceous Period (Santana Formation, dating to about 112 Ma ago).

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Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.

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Temnospondyli (from Greek τέμνειν (temnein, "to cut") and σπόνδυλος (spondylos, "vertebra")) is a diverse subclass of extinct small to giant tetrapods—often considered primitive amphibians—that flourished worldwide during the Carboniferous, Permian, and Triassic periods.

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Temperature gradient

A temperature gradient is a physical quantity that describes in which direction and at what rate the temperature changes the most rapidly around a particular location.

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Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea.

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Tethys Ocean

The Tethys Ocean (Ancient Greek: Τηθύς), Tethys Sea or Neotethys was an ocean during much of the Mesozoic Era located between the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous Period.

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Theria (Greek: θηρίον, wild beast) is a subclass of mammals amongst the Theriiformes (the sister taxa to Yinotheria).

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Theropoda (or, from Greek θηρίον "wild beast" and πούς, ποδός "foot") or theropods are a dinosaur suborder characterized by hollow bones and three-toed limbs.

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The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.

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Triassic–Jurassic extinction event

The Triassic–Jurassic extinction event marks the boundary between the Triassic and Jurassic periods,, and is one of the major extinction events of the Phanerozoic eon, profoundly affecting life on land and in the oceans.

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Triceratops is a genus of herbivorous ceratopsid dinosaur that first appeared during the late Maastrichtian stage of the late Cretaceous period, about 68 million years ago (mya) in what is now North America.

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The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.

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Tyrannosaurus is a genus of coelurosaurian theropod dinosaur.

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Verkhoyansk Range

The Verkhoyansk Range (Верхоянский хребет, Verchojanskij chrebet; Үөһээ Дьааҥы сис хайата, Üöhee Caañı sis xayata) is a mountain range of eastern Siberia spanning roughly 1000 km (600 mi.) across the Sakha Republic.

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Volaticotherini is a clade of eutriconodont mammals from the Mesozoic.

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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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The wolverine (also spelled wolverene), Gulo gulo (Gulo is Latin for "glutton"), also referred to as the glutton, carcajou, skunk bear, or quickhatch, is the largest land-dwelling species of the family Mustelidae.

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Yucatán Peninsula

The Yucatán Peninsula (Península de Yucatán), in southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico, with the northern coastline on the Yucatán Channel.

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Age of dinosaurs, Age of gymnosperms, Dodicurus era, Mesozoic Era, Mesozoic era, Mesozoic period, Mesozoicum, Mezozoic, Secondary Era, Secondary Period, Secondary era, Secondary period, The Age of the Dinosaurs, The age of the dinosaurs.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesozoic

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