107 relations: Adaptive immune system, Adenine, Amino acid, Animal, Apolipoprotein B, Archaea, AU-rich element, Bacteria, Barley yellow dwarf, Biochemistry, Biomolecular structure, C-Fos, C-jun, C-rich stability element, California Institute of Technology, Cap binding complex, Catalysis, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Central dogma of molecular biology, Cytoplasm, DCP2, Decapping complex, Dendrite, Dicer, Digital object identifier, Directionality (molecular biology), DNA, EIF4E, EIF4G, Endonuclease, Endoplasmic reticulum, Enzyme, Eukaryote, Eukaryotic initiation factor, Exon, Exonic splicing enhancer, Exonic splicing silencer, Exonuclease, Exosome complex, Five prime untranslated region, Five-prime cap, François Jacob, Gene expression, GeneCalling, Genetic code, Immune system, Jacques Monod, Leaky scanning, Matthew Meselson, ..., Mature messenger RNA, Messenger RNP, MicroRNA, Mir-184, Mitochondrial DNA, Moderna Therapeutics, Molecule, Neuron, Non-stop decay, Nonsense-mediated decay, Nuclear pore, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleotide, Open reading frame, Operator (biology), P-bodies, Piwi-interacting RNA, Poliovirus, Poly(A)-binding protein, Polyadenylation, Precursor mRNA, Primary transcript, Prokaryote, Promoter (genetics), Protein, PubMed, PubMed Central, Ribonuclease, Ribonuclease III, Ribosomal RNA, Ribosome, Riboswitch, RNA, RNA editing, RNA polymerase, RNA-induced silencing complex, SECIS element, Semipermeable membrane, Signal recognition particle, Small interfering RNA, Small RNA, Soma (biology), Start codon, Stem cell, Stop codon, Sydney Brenner, Three prime untranslated region, Transcription (biology), Transcriptome, Transfer RNA, Translation (biology), Translational efficiency, Translational frameshift, V(D)J recombination, Vaccine, ZBP1, 7-Methylguanosine. Expand index (57 more) » « Shrink index
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOB gene.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Adenylate-uridylate-rich elements (AU-rich elements; AREs) are found in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of many messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that code for proto-oncogenes, nuclear transcription factors, and cytokines.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Barley yellow dwarf is a plant disease caused by the barley yellow dwarf virus, and is the most widely distributed viral disease of cereals.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, c-Fos is a proto-oncogene that is the human homolog of the retroviral oncogene v-fos.
c-Jun is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JUN gene.
The C-rich stability element is a short part of a gene sequence important for the proper synthesis of globin and several other human proteins.
The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.
The 5' cap of eukaryotic messenger RNA is bound at all times by various Cap-binding complexes.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
The central dogma of molecular biology is an explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
mRNA-decapping enzyme 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DCP2 gene.
The mRNA decapping complex is a protein complex in eukaryotic cells responsible for removal of the 5' cap.
Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree"), also dendrons, are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
Dicer, also known as endoribonuclease Dicer or helicase with RNase motif, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DICER1 gene.
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
Directionality, in molecular biology and biochemistry, is the end-to-end chemical orientation of a single strand of nucleic acid.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, also known as eIF4E, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF4E gene.
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 G (eIF4G) is a protein involved in eukaryotic translation initiation and is a component of the eIF4F cap-binding complex.
Endonucleases are enzymes that cleave the phosphodiester bond within a polynucleotide chain.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) are proteins or protein complexes involved in the initiation phase of eukaryotic translation.
An exon is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing.
In molecular biology, an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) is a DNA sequence motif consisting of 6 bases within an exon that directs, or enhances, accurate splicing of heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) or pre-mRNA into messenger RNA (mRNA).
An exonic splicing silencer (ESS) is a short region (usually 4-18 nucleotides) of an exon and is a cis-regulatory element.
Exonucleases are enzymes that work by cleaving nucleotides one at a time from the end (exo) of a polynucleotide chain.
The exosome complex (or PM/Scl complex, often just called the exosome) is a multi-protein intracellular complex capable of degrading various types of RNA (ribonucleic acid) molecules.
The 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR) (also known as a leader sequence or leader RNA) is the region of an mRNA that is directly upstream from the initiation codon.
In molecular biology, the five-prime cap (5′ cap) is a specially altered nucleotide on the 5′ end of some primary transcripts such as precursor messenger RNA.
François Jacob (17 June 1920 – 19 April 2013) was a French biologist who, together with Jacques Monod, originated the idea that control of enzyme levels in all cells occurs through regulation of transcription.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
In the field of genomics, GeneCalling is an open-platform mRNA transcriptional profiling technique.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Jacques Lucien Monod (February 9, 1910 – May 31, 1976), a French biochemist, won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1965, sharing it with François Jacob and Andre Lwoff "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis".
Leaky scanning is a mechanism used during the initiation phase of Eukaryotic translation that enables regulation of gene expression.
Matthew Stanley Meselson (born May 24, 1930) is a geneticist and molecular biologist currently at Harvard University, known for his demonstration, with Franklin Stahl, of the semi-conservative DNA replication.
Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis.
Messenger RNP (messenger ribonucleoprotein) is mRNA with bound proteins.
A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.
In molecular biology, miR-184 microRNA is a short non-coding RNA molecule.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Moderna Therapeutics is a biotechnology company that is focused on drug discovery and drug development based on messenger RNA (mRNA).
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Non-stop decay is a cellular mechanism of mRNA surveillance to detect mRNA molecules lacking a stop codon and prevent these mRNAs from translation.
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a surveillance pathway that exists in all eukaryotes.
Nuclear pore complexes are large protein complexes that span the nuclear envelope, which is the double membrane surrounding the eukaryotic cell nucleus.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
In molecular genetics, an open reading frame (ORF) is the part of a reading frame that has the ability to be translated.
In genetics, an operator is a segment of DNA to which a transcription factor binds to regulate gene expression by repressing it.
Processing bodies (P-bodies) are distinct foci within the cytoplasm of the eukaryotic cell consisting of many enzymes involved in mRNA turnover.
Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) is the largest class of small non-coding RNA molecules expressed in animal cells.
Poliovirus, the causative agent of poliomyelitis (commonly known as polio), is a human enterovirus and member of the family of Picornaviridae.
Poly(A)-binding protein (PAB or PABP) is a RNA-binding protein which binds to the poly(A) tail of mRNA.
Polyadenylation is the addition of a poly(A) tail to a messenger RNA.
Precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) is an immature single strand of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA).
A primary transcript is the single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) product synthesized by transcription of DNA, and processed to yield various mature RNA products such as mRNAs, tRNAs, and rRNAs.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
PubMed is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics.
PubMed Central (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature.
Ribonuclease (commonly abbreviated RNase) is a type of nuclease that catalyzes the degradation of RNA into smaller components.
Ribonuclease III (RNase III or RNase C)(BRENDA) is a type of ribonuclease that recognizes dsRNA and cleaves it at specific targeted locations to transform them into mature RNAs.
Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
In molecular biology, a riboswitch is a regulatory segment of a messenger RNA molecule that binds a small molecule, resulting in a change in production of the proteins encoded by the mRNA.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNA editing is a molecular process through which some cells can make discrete changes to specific nucleotide sequences within an RNA molecule after it has been generated by RNA polymerase.
RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms (-species) and many viruses.
The RNA-induced silencing complex, or RISC, is a multiprotein complex, specifically a ribonucleoprotein, which incorporates one strand of a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) fragment, such as microRNA (miRNA), or double-stranded small interfering RNA (siRNA).
In biology, the SECIS element (SECIS: selenocysteine insertion sequence) is an RNA element around 60 nucleotides in length that adopts a stem-loop structure.
A semipermeable membrane is a type of biological or synthetic, polymeric membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to pass through it by diffusion—or occasionally by more specialized processes of facilitated diffusion, passive transport or active transport.
The signal recognition particle (SRP) is an abundant, cytosolic, universally conserved ribonucleoprotein (protein-RNA complex) that recognizes and targets specific proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotes and the plasma membrane in prokaryotes.
Small interfering RNA (siRNA), sometimes known as short interfering RNA or silencing RNA, is a class of double-stranded RNA molecules, 20-25 base pairs in length, similar to miRNA, and operating within the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway.
Small RNA are RNA silencing is often a function of these molecules, with the most common and well-studied example being RNA interference (RNAi), in which endogenously expressed microRNA (miRNA) or exogenously derived small interfering RNA (siRNA) induces the degradation of complementary messenger RNA.
The soma (pl. somata or somas), perikaryon (pl. perikarya), neurocyton, or cell body is the bulbous, non-process portion of a neuron or other brain cell type, containing the cell nucleus.
The start codon is the first codon of a messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript translated by a ribosome.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
In the genetic code, a stop codon (or termination codon) is a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation into proteins.
Sydney Brenner (born 13 January 1927) is a South African biologist and a 2002 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine laureate, shared with Bob Horvitz and John Sulston.
In molecular genetics, the three prime untranslated region (3'-UTR) is the section of messenger RNA (mRNA) that immediately follows the translation termination codon.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
The transcriptome is the set of all RNA molecules in one cell or a population of cells.
A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
Translational efficiency or Translation efficiency, in the context of cell biology, is the rate of mRNA translation into proteins within cells.
Translational frameshifting or ribosomal frameshifting refers to an alternative process of protein translation.
V(D)J recombination is the unique mechanism of genetic recombination that occurs only in developing lymphocytes during the early stages of T and B cell maturation.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Z-DNA-binding protein 1, also known as DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI) and DLM-1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZBP1 gene.
7-Methylguanosine (m7G) is a modified purine nucleoside.
Dicistronic, MRNA, MRNAs, Messenger Ribonucleic Acid, Messenger Rna, Messenger rna, Messenger-RNA, Monocistronic mRNA, Mrna, Polycisticity, Polycistronic mRNA, Polycistronic message, RNA therapy, Rna, messenger.