221 relations: Afro-Brazilians, Afro-Colombians, Afro-Ecuadorian, Afro-Mexicans, Afro-Salvadoran, Andalusia, Anglo-Métis, Angola, Arab Colombians, Argentina, Aruba, Asian Mexicans, Assiniboine language, Atlantic slave trade, Augusto Pinochet, Austronesian peoples, Autocracy, Aztecs, Benalcázar, Blond, Bronze (racial classification), Brown (racial classification), Bungi Creole, Caboclo, Canadian Gaelic, Casta, Caste War of Yucatán, Castizo, Catamarca Province, Catálogo alfabético de apellidos, Catholic Church, Cebu City, Central America, Chaco Province, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Chile, Chota, Ecuador, Christianity, Christopher Columbus, Cognate, Colombia, Colonial Brazil, Colonial history of Angola, Coloureds, Commonwealth of the Philippines, Conquistador, Corrientes Province, Cree, Cree language, Creole peoples, ..., Criollo people, Demographics of Angola, Demonym, Diccionario de la lengua española, Duke of Moctezuma de Tultengo, Early modern period, Egypt, El Salvador, Encomienda, Engagé, English Canadians, English language, Esmeraldas Province, Ethnic groups in Europe, Ethnic groups in the Philippines, European colonization of the Americas, Evangelicalism, Exonym and endonym, Filipino mestizo, Filipinos, First Nations, Formosa Province, Francisco Pizarro, French Canadians, French colonial empire, French people, Fur trade, Germans, Goidelic languages, Grandee, Guam, Guarani language, Guatemala, Guerrero, Hacienda, Hāfu, Hernán Cortés, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanicization, History of the Incas, Hokkien, Iloilo, Iloilo City, Imbabura Province, Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, Indigenous languages of the Americas, Indigenous peoples, Indigenous peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples in Colombia, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indo people, Italians, José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, José Vasconcelos, Journal of Human Genetics, Jus soli, La Malinche, La Rioja Province, Argentina, Labrador, Ladino people, Languages of Mexico, Latin, Latin America, Latino, Lenca people, List of Knights of the Golden Fleece, List of Prime Ministers of Spain, Luk khrueng, Manila, Manila galleon, Manitoba, Manuel Gamio, Manuel L. Quezon, Mapuche, Marcelo Azcárraga Palmero, Martín Cortés (son of Malinche), Maximiliano Hernández Martínez, Mayan languages, Métis in Canada, Métis in the United States, Melting pot, Mendoza Province, Mestiço, Mestiços (Sri Lanka), Mestizo, Mestizo Colombians, Mestizos in the United States, Mexican Americans, Mexico, Michif, Miscegenation, Mischling, Misiones Province, Mixed-blood, Moctezuma II, Montilla, Mulatto, Multiracial, Nahuatl, Native American religion, Negro, New Spain, Northern Mariana Islands, Northwest Territories, Ojibwe, Ontario, Orcadians, Order of the Golden Fleece, Papiamento, Paraguay, Paraguayan War, Pardo, Pedro de Alvarado, Pedro de Valdivia, Peninsulars, Pentecostalism, Phenotype, Philippines, Pipil people, Portuguese Empire, Portuguese India, Portuguese language, Precolonial history of Angola, President of the Philippines, Prime minister, Principalía, Protestantism, Quebec, Race (human categorization), Rape, Red hair, Romani people, Saint Barthélemy, Salta Province, San Juan Province, Argentina, San Salvador de Jujuy, Santa Fe Province, Santiago del Estero, Sarará, Saulteaux, Scots language, Scottish Canadians, Scottish people, Semitic people, Sinhalese people, Social stratification, Sonora, Spain, Spaniards, Spanish colonization of the Americas, Spanish East Indies, Spanish Empire, Spanish language, Spanish–American War, Sri Lanka, Tamils, Tucumán Province, United States, University of Chile, Uruguay, Venezuela, Veracruz, Vigan, Western Ojibwa language, White Americans, White Colombians, White people, Yucatec Maya language, Zambo, Zamboanga City, 1932 Salvadoran peasant massacre. Expand index (171 more) » « Shrink index
Afro-Brazilians (afro-brasileiros) are Brazilian people who have African ancestry.
Afro-Colombians refers to Colombian citizens of African descent; this article is about the influence they have had on Colombian culture.
Afro-Ecuadorians are an ethnic group in Ecuador who are descendants of formerly enslaved Africans brought by the Spanish during their conquest of Ecuador from the Incas.
Afro-Mexicans (afromexicanos; negros; afrodescendientes.), also known as Black Mexicans are Mexicans who have both a predominant heritage from Sub-Saharan Africa and identify as such.
Afro-Salvadorans are only 0.13% the population descendants of the African population that were enslaved and shipped to El Salvador.
Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.
A 19th century community of the Métis people of Canada, the Anglo-Métis, although an oxymoron are more commonly known as Countryborn, were children of fur traders; they typically had Scots (Orcadian, mainland Scottish), or English fathers and Aboriginal mothers.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
Arab Colombians refers to Arab immigrants and their descendants in the Republic of Colombia.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Aruba (Papiamento) is an island and a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the southern Caribbean Sea, located about west of the main part of the Lesser Antilles and north of the coast of Venezuela.
Asian Mexicans (mexicanos asiáticos; asiomexicanos) are Mexicans of Asian descent.
The Assiniboine language (also known as Assiniboin, Hohe, or Nakota, Nakoda, Nakon or Nakona, or Stoney) is a Nakotan Siouan language of the Northern Plains.
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.
Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (25 November 1915 – 10 December 2006) was a Chilean general, politician and the dictator of Chile between 1973 and 1990 who remained the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 1998 and was also President of the Government Junta of Chile between 1973 and 1981.
The Austronesian peoples are various groups in Southeast Asia, Oceania and East Africa that speak languages that are under the Austronesian language super-family.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
Benalcázar is an urban parish in the northeastern part of the city of Quito, capital of Ecuador.
Blond (male), blonde (female), or fair hair, is a hair color characterized by low levels of the dark pigment eumelanin.
Bronze race is a term used since the early 20th century by Latin American writers of the indigenista and americanista schools to refer to the mestizo population that arose in the Americas with the arrival of Latin European (particularly Spanish) colonists and their intermingling with the New World's Amerindian peoples.
Brown or brown people is a racial and ethnic classification.
A caboclo (also pronounced "caboco"; from Brazilian Portuguese, perhaps ultimately from Tupi kaa'boc, means a "person having copper-coloured skin") (English: cabloke) is a person of mixed Indigenous Brazilian and European ancestry (the first, most common use), or a culturally assimilated person of full Amerindian descent.
Canadian Gaelic or Cape Breton Gaelic (Gàidhlig Chanada, A' Ghàidhlig Chanadach or Gàidhlig Cheap Bhreatainn), known in English as often simply Gaelic, refers to the dialects of Scottish Gaelic spoken by people in Atlantic Canada who have their origins in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland.
A casta was a term to describe mixed-race individuals in Spanish America, resulting from unions of European whites (españoles), Amerinds (indios), and Africans (negros).
The Caste War of Yucatán (1847–1901) began with the revolt of native Maya people of Yucatán, Mexico against the European-descended population, called Yucatecos.
Castizo is a Spanish word with a general meaning of "pure", "genuine" or representative of its race (from the Spanish: "casta").
Catamarca is a province of Argentina, located in the northwest of the country.
The Catálogo alfabético de apellidos (Alphabetical Catalogue of Surnames; Alpabetikong Katalogo ng mga apelyedo) is a book of surnames in the Philippines and other islands of Spanish East Indies published in the mid-19th century.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cebu City (Dakbayan sa Sugbu; Lungsod ng Cebu) is a first class highly urbanized city in the island province of Cebu in Central Visayas, Philippines.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
The Province of Chaco (provincia del Chaco) is a province in north-eastern Argentina.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The upper valley of the Mira River, called the Chota River in its upstream portion, in northern Ecuador, and the small villages in it are usually referred to as 'El Chota', and it runs east-west between the two ranges of the Andes.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Colonial Brazil (Brasil Colonial) comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1815, when Brazil was elevated to a kingdom in union with Portugal as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
The colonial history of Angola is usually considered to run from the appearance of the Portuguese under Diogo Cão in 1482 (Congo) or 1484 (Angolan coast) until the independence of Angola in 1975.
Coloureds (Kleurlinge) are a multiracial ethnic group native to Southern Africa who have ancestry from various populations inhabiting the region, including Khoisan, Bantu speakers, Afrikaners, and sometimes also Austronesians and South Asians.
The Commonwealth of the Philippines (Commonwealth de Filipinas; Komonwelt ng Pilipinas) was the administrative body that governed the Philippines from 1935 to 1946, aside from a period of exile in the Second World War from 1942 to 1945 when Japan occupied the country.
Conquistadors (from Spanish or Portuguese conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.
Corrientes (‘currents’ or ‘streams’; Taragui Tetãmini) is a province in northeast Argentina, in the Mesopotamia region.
The Cree (script; Cri) are one of the largest groups of First Nations in North America, with over 200,000 members living in Canada.
Cree (also known as Cree–Montagnais–Naskapi) is a dialect continuum of Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 117,000 people across Canada, from the Northwest Territories to Alberta to Labrador.
Creole peoples (and its cognates in other languages such as crioulo, criollo, creolo, créole, kriolu, criol, kreyol, kreol, kriol, krio, kriyoyo, etc.) are ethnic groups which originated from creolisation, linguistic, cultural and racial mixing between colonial-era emigrants from Europe with non-European peoples, climates and cuisines.
The Criollo is a term which, in modern times, has diverse meanings, but is most commonly associated with Latin Americans who are of full or near full Spanish descent, distinguishing them from both multi-racial Latin Americans and Latin Americans of post-colonial (and not necessarily Spanish) European immigrant origin.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Angola, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
A demonym (δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.
The Diccionario de la lengua española (English: Dictionary of the Spanish language), also known as the Diccionario de la Real Academia Española (DRAE) (English: Dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy), is a dictionary of the Spanish language.
Duke of Moctezuma de Tultengo (Duque de Moctezuma de Tultengo) is a hereditary title of Spanish nobility held by a line of descendants of Emperor Moctezuma II, the ninth Tlatoani, or ruler, of Tenochtitlan.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
Encomienda was a labor system in Spain and its empire.
From the 18th century, an engagé (engagee) was a French-Canadian man employed to canoe in the fur trade, usually as an indentured servant.
English Canadians or Anglo-Canadians (Canadiens anglais) refers to either Canadians of English ethnic origin and heritage, or to English-speaking, or Anglophone, Canadians of any ethnic origin; it is used primarily in contrast with French Canadians.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Esmeraldas is a province in northwestern Ecuador.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
The Philippines is inhabited by more than 175 ethnolinguistic nations, the majority of whose languages are Malay in origin, then Han Chinese, then European (mostly Spanish).
The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Europe.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
In the Philippines, Filipino mestizo, or colloquially tisoy, are people of mixed Filipino and any foreign ancestry.
Filipinos (Mga Pilipino) are the people who are native to, or identified with the country of the Philippines.
In Canada, the First Nations (Premières Nations) are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle.
Formosa Province is a province in northeastern Argentina, part of the Gran Chaco Region.
Francisco Pizarro González (– 26 June 1541) was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that conquered the Inca Empire.
French Canadians (also referred to as Franco-Canadians or Canadiens; Canadien(ne)s français(es)) are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada from the 17th century onward.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.
The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
The Goidelic or Gaelic languages (teangacha Gaelacha; cànanan Goidhealach; çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages.
Grandee (Grande,; Grande) is an official aristocratic title conferred on some Spanish nobility and, to a lesser extent, Portuguese nobility.
Guam (Chamorro: Guåhån) is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean.
Guarani, specifically the primary variety known as Paraguayan Guarani (endonym avañe'ẽ 'the people's language'), is an indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupi–Guarani family of the Tupian languages.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
Guerrero (Spanish for "warrior"), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Guerrero (Estado Libre y Soberano de Guerrero), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
An hacienda (or; or), in the colonies of the Spanish Empire, is an estate, similar in form to a Roman villa.
The word is used in Japanese to refer to somebody who is biracial, i.e., ethnically half Japanese.
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca (1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.
Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans (Estadounidenses hispanos) are people in the United States who are descendants of people from countries of Latin America and Spain.
Hispanicisation or hispanisation, also known as castilianization or castilianisation (Spanish: castellanización) refers to the process by which a place or person becomes influenced by Hispanic culture or a process of cultural and/or linguistic change in which something non-Hispanic becomes Hispanic.
The Inca state was known as the Kingdom of Cusco before 1438.
Hokkien (from) or (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min Chinese dialect group originating from the Minnan region in the south-eastern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China and Taiwan, and spoken widely there and by the Chinese diaspora in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and other parts of Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese all over the world.
Iloilo (Kapuoran sang Iloilo; Kapuoran kang Iloilo; Lalawigan ng Iloilo) is a province located in the region of Western Visayas in the Philippines.
Iloilo City, officially the City of Iloilo (Dakbanwa/Syudad sang Iloilo; Syudad kang/ka Iloilo; Lungsod ng Iloilo; Ciudad de Iloílo) is a highly urbanized city on the southeastern tip of Panay island in the Philippines.
Imbabura is a province located in the Andes of northern Ecuador.
Garcilaso de la Vega (12 April 1539 – 23 April 1616), born Gómez Suárez de Figueroa and known as El Inca or Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, was a chronicler and writer born in the Spanish Empire's Viceroyalty of Peru.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
Indigenous peoples in Canada, also known as Native Canadians or Aboriginal Canadians, are the indigenous peoples within the boundaries of present-day Canada.
Indigenous peoples of Colombia, or Native Colombians, are the ethnic groups who have been in Colombia prior to the Europeans in the early 16th century.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The Indo people or Indos are Eurasian people, descendants of various indigenous peoples of Indonesia and Dutch settlers. Indos are associated with colonial culture of the former Dutch East Indies, a Dutch colony in Southeast Asia and a predecessor to modern Indonesia after its proclamation of independence shortly after World War II. It was used to describe people acknowledged to be of mixed Dutch and Indonesian descent, or it was a term used in the Dutch East Indies to apply to Europeans who had partial Asian ancestry. "Indos–people of Dutch descent who stayed in the new republic Indonesia after it gained independence, or who emigrated to Indonesia after 1949–are called Dutch-Indonesians. Although the majority of the Indos are found in the lowest strata of European society, they do not represent a solid social or economic group." The European ancestry of these people was predominantly Dutch, but also included Portuguese, British, French, Belgian, German, and others. Other terms used were Indos, Dutch Indonesians, Eurasians, Indo-Europeans, Indo-Dutch, and Dutch-Indos.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
José Vasconcelos Calderón (28 February 1882 – 30 June 1959) has been called the "cultural caudillo" of the Mexican Revolution.
The Journal of Human Genetics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of human genetics and genomics.
Jus soli, meaning "right of the soil", commonly referred to as birthright citizenship, is the right of anyone born in the territory of a state to nationality or citizenship.
La Malinche (c. 1496 or c. 1501 – c. 1529), known also as Malinalli, Malintzin or Doña Marina, was a Nahua woman from the Mexican Gulf Coast, who played a key role in the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, acting as an interpreter, advisor, and intermediary for the Spanish conquistador, Hernán Cortés.
La Rioja is one of the provinces of Argentina and is located in the west of the country.
Labrador is the continental-mainland part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
The Ladino people are a mix of mestizo or hispanicized peoples en el Diccionario de la Real Academia Española (DRAE) in Latin America, principally in Central America.
Many different languages are spoken in Mexico.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Latino is a term often used in the United States to refer to people with cultural ties to Latin America, in contrast to Hispanic which is a demonym that includes Spaniards and other speakers of the Spanish language.
The Lenca are an indigenous people of southwestern Honduras and eastern El Salvador in Central America.
This page contains a list of Knights of the Order of the Golden Fleece.
The Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Spain is the head of the Government of Spain.
A luk khrueng (ลูกครึ่ง, literally "half-child") is a colloquial Thai term referring to a person whose parents are of different nationalities.
Manila (Maynilà, or), officially the City of Manila (Lungsod ng Maynilà), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.
The Manila Galleons (Galeón de Manila; Kalakalang Galyon ng Maynila at Acapulco) were Spanish trading ships which for two and a half centuries linked the Philippines with Mexico across the Pacific Ocean, making one or two round-trip voyages per year between the ports of Acapulco and Manila, which were both part of New Spain.
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada.
Manuel Gamio (1883–1960) was a Mexican anthropologist, archaeologist, sociologist, and a leader of the indigenismo movement.
Manuel L. Quezon (born Manuel Luís Quezon y Molina; August 19, 1878 – August 1, 1944) was a Filipino statesman, soldier, and politician who served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944.
The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.
Marcelo de Azcárraga Ugarte y Palmero-Versosa de Lizárraga, hidalgo del condado de Lizárraga (September 1, 1832 – May 30, 1915) was the thirteenth Prime Minister of Spain following the restoration of the Spanish monarchy.
Martín Cortés el Mestizo (c. 1523 – c. 1595) was the first-born and illegitimate son of Hernán Cortés and La Malinche (doña Marina), the conquistador’s indigenous interpreter and concubine.
Maximiliano Hernández Martínez (October 20, 1882 – May 15, 1966) was the Acting President of El Salvador from 1931 to 1934 and the 30th President of El Salvador from 1935 to 1944.
The Mayan languagesIn linguistics, it is conventional to use Mayan when referring to the languages, or an aspect of a language.
The Métis in Canada are a group of peoples in Canada who trace their descent to First Nations peoples and European settlers.
The Métis in the United States are people descended from joint Native Americans and white parents.
The melting pot is a monocultural metaphor for a heterogeneous society becoming more homogeneous, the different elements "melting together" into a harmonious whole with a common culture or vice versa, for a homogeneous society becoming more heterogeneous through the influx of foreign elements with different cultural background with a potential creation of disharmony with the previous culture.
The Province of Mendoza is a province of Argentina, located in the western central part of the country in the Cuyo region.
Mestiço, in Colonial Brazil, the Portuguese-speaking part of Latin America, was initially used to refer to mamelucos, persons born from a couple in which one was an Indigenous American and the other a European.
In Sri Lanka, the names Mestiços (Portuguese for "Mixed People") or Casados ("Married") referred to people of mixed Portuguese and Sri Lankan (Sinhalese and Tamil) descent.
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.
Mestizo Colombians technically refers to Colombians who are of mixed white (mostly Spanish) and American-Indian ancestry.
Mestizos in the United States are Latino Americans whose racial and/or ethnic identity is Mestizo, i.e. a mixed ancestry of white European and indigenous Latin American (usually Iberian-Indigenous mixed ancestry).
Mexican Americans (mexicoamericanos or estadounidenses de origen mexicano) are Americans of full or partial Mexican descent.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Michif (also Mitchif, Mechif, Michif-Cree, Métif, Métchif, French Cree) is the language of the Métis people of Canada and the United States, who are the descendants of First Nations women (mainly Cree, Nakota, and Ojibwe) and fur trade workers of European ancestry (mainly French and Scottish Canadians).
Miscegenation (from the Latin miscere "to mix" + genus "kind") is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation.
("mixed-blood" in German, plural) was the German legal term used in Nazi Germany to denote persons deemed to have both "Aryan" and Jewish ancestry.
Misiones (Missions) is one of the 23 provinces of Argentina, located in the northeastern corner of the country in the Mesopotamia region.
The term mixed-blood in the United States is most often employed for individuals of mixed European and Native American ancestry.
Moctezuma II (c. 1466 – 29 June 1520), variant spellings include Montezuma, Moteuczoma, Motecuhzoma, Motēuczōmah, and referred to in full by early Nahuatl texts as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin (Moctezuma the Young),moteːkʷˈsoːma ʃoːkoˈjoːtsin was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520.
Montilla is a town and municipality in southern Spain, in the province of Córdoba, 32 miles south of the provincial capital, Córdoba.
Mulatto is a term used to refer to people born of one white parent and one black parent or to people born of a mulatto parent or parents.
Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races.
Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
Native American religions are the spiritual practices of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
Negro (plural Negroes) is an archaic term traditionally used to denote persons considered to be of Negroid heritage.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
The Northern Mariana Islands, officially the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI; Sankattan Siha Na Islas Mariånas; Refaluwasch or Carolinian: Commonwealth Téél Falúw kka Efáng llól Marianas), is an insular area and commonwealth of the United States consisting of 15 islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.
The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.
The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, or Chippewa are an Anishinaabeg group of Indigenous Peoples in North America, which is referred to by many of its Indigenous peoples as Turtle Island.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
Orcadians are the people who live in or come from the Orkney islands of Scotland.
The Order of the Golden Fleece (Orden del Toisón de Oro, Orden vom Goldenen Vlies) is a Roman Catholic order of chivalry founded in Bruges by the Burgundian duke Philip the Good in 1430, to celebrate his marriage to the Portuguese princess Isabella.
Papiamento or Papiamentu is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken in the Dutch West Indies.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
The Paraguayan War, also known as the War of the Triple Alliance and the Great War in Paraguay, was a South American war fought from 1864 to 1870 between Paraguay and the Triple Alliance of Argentina, the Empire of Brazil, and Uruguay.
Pardo is a term used in the Portuguese and Spanish colonies in the Americas to refer to the triracial descendants of Europeans, Indigenous Americans, and West Africans.
Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain, ca. 1485 – Guadalajara, New Spain, 4 July 1541) was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala.
Pedro Gutiérrez de Valdivia or Valdiva (April 17, 1497 – December 25, 1553) was a Spanish missionary and the first Cardinal of Chile.
In the context of the Spanish colonial caste system, a peninsular (pl. peninsulares) was a Spanish-born Spaniard residing in the New World or the Spanish East Indies.
Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
The Pipils or Cuzcatlecs are an indigenous people who live in western El Salvador, which they call Cuzcatlan.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
The State of India (Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India (Estado Português da Índia, EPI) or simply Portuguese India (Índia Portuguesa), was a state of the Portuguese Overseas Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The precolonial history of Angola lasted until Portugal annexed the territory as a colony in 1655.
The President of the Philippines (Pangulo ng Pilipinas, informally referred to as Presidente ng Pilipinas; or in Presidente de Filipinas) is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
The Principalía or noble class was the ruling and usually educated upper class in the pueblos of the Spanish Philippines, comprising the gobernadorcillo (who had functions similar to a town mayor), and the cabezas de barangay (heads of the barangays) who governed the districts.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent.
Red hair (or ginger hair) occurs naturally in 1–2% of the human population.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Saint Barthélemy, officially the Territorial collectivity of Saint-Barthélemy (Collectivité territoriale de Saint-Barthélemy), called Ouanalao by the indigenous people, is an overseas collectivity of France in the West Indies.
Salta is a province of Argentina, located in the northwest of the country.
San Juan is a province of Argentina, located in the western part of the country.
San Salvador de Jujuy, commonly known as Jujuy and locally often referred to as San Salvador, is the capital city of Jujuy Province in northwest Argentina.
The Province of Santa Fe (Provincia de Santa Fe) is a province of Argentina, located in the center-east of the country.
Santiago del Estero (Spanish for Saint-James-Upon-The-Lagoon) is the capital of Santiago del Estero Province in northern Argentina.
In Brazil, a sarará is a multiracial person, being a particular kind of mulato or juçara (a tri-racial pardo with Amerindian features), with perceivable Black African facial features, light complexion and fair but curly hair, called cabelo crespo, or fair but Afro-like frizzly hair, called carapinha, cabelo encarapinhado or cabelo pixaim.
The Saulteaux (pronounced,; also written Salteaux and many other variants) are a First Nations band government in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, Canada.
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
Scottish Canadians are people of Scottish descent or heritage living in Canada.
The Scottish people (Scots: Scots Fowk, Scottish Gaelic: Albannaich), or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland (or Alba) in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland. The Latin word Scoti originally referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has also been used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as 'Scotch'. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century. People of Scottish descent live in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States. Scotland has seen migration and settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history. The Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France, England and the Low Countries to Scotland. Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.
Semites, Semitic people or Semitic cultures (from the biblical "Shem", שם) was a term for an ethnic, cultural or racial group who speak or spoke the Semitic languages.
The Sinhalese (Sinhala: සිංහල ජාතිය Sinhala Jathiya, also known as Hela) are an Indo-Aryan-speaking ethnic group native to the island of Sri Lanka.
Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).
Sonora, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Sonora (Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora), is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.
The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.
The Spanish East Indies (Spanish: Indias orientales españolas; Filipino: Silangang Indiyas ng Espanya) were the Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific from 1565 until 1899.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Spanish–American War (Guerra hispano-americana or Guerra hispano-estadounidense; Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was fought between the United States and Spain in 1898.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar, Tamilans, or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Indian Union territory of Puducherry, or the Northern, Eastern Province and Puttalam District of Sri Lanka.
Tucumán is the most densely populated, and the smallest by land area, of the provinces of Argentina.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Chile (Universidad de Chile) is a public university located in Santiago, Chile.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave,In isolation, Veracruz, de and Llave are pronounced, respectively,, and.
(Siudad ti Vigan; Lungsod ng Vigan.; Local pronunciation), officially the, is a component settlement_text and capital of the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.
Western Ojibwa (also known as Nakawēmowin (ᓇᐦᑲᐌᒧᐎᓐ), Saulteaux, and Plains Ojibwa) is a dialect of the Ojibwe language, a member of the Algonquian language family.
White Americans are Americans who are descendants from any of the white racial groups of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, or in census statistics, those who self-report as white based on having majority-white ancestry.
White Colombians are the Colombian descendants of European (overwhelmingly Spanish) and Middle Eastern (primarily Lebanese and Syrian) people, who self identify as such.
White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.
Yucatec Maya (endonym: Maya; Yukatek Maya in the revised orthography of the Academia de Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala), called Màaya t'àan (lit. "Maya speech") by its speakers, is a Mayan language spoken in the Yucatán Peninsula and northern Belize.
Zambo and cafuzo are racial terms used in the Spanish and Portuguese empires and occasionally today to identify individuals in the Americas who are of mixed African and Amerindian ancestry (the analogous English term, sambo, is considered a slur).
, officially the, (Chavacano: Ciudad de Zamboanga, Lungsod ng Zamboanga), is a highly urbanized city in the Zamboanga Peninsula,.
The 1932 Salvadoran peasant massacre occurred on January 22 of that year, in the western departments of El Salvador when a brief peasant-led rebellion was suppressed by the government, then led by Maximiliano Hernández Martínez.