67 relations: Adenosine triphosphate, Algae, Amphibolic, Anabolism, Anaerobic respiration, Biochemistry, Carbon-13, Catabolism, Catalysis, Cell (biology), Cellular respiration, Chemical reaction, Citric acid cycle, Cofactor (biochemistry), Control theory, Cyanobacteria, Cytosol, Electron transport chain, Endergonic reaction, Enzyme, Enzyme inhibitor, Eukaryote, Exergonic reaction, Fatty acid synthesis, Flavin adenine dinucleotide, Flux, Flux (metabolism), Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, Fructose 6-phosphate, Fundamentals of Biochemistry, Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, Gibbs free energy, Gluconeogenesis, Glucose, Glucose 6-phosphate, Glycogen, Glycolysis, Glyoxylate cycle, Guanosine triphosphate, High-energy phosphate, Homeostasis, Hydrogen bond, Lipid, Lipid bilayer, Metabolic engineering, Metabolic network, Metabolic network modelling, Metabolism, Metabolite, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, ..., Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Nutrient, Organelle, Organism, Oxidative phosphorylation, Pentose phosphate pathway, Phosphofructokinase, Phosphorylation, Photosynthesis, Plant, Product (chemistry), Protein, Proteinogenic amino acid, Starch, Substrate (chemistry), Thermodynamics, Van der Waals force. Expand index (17 more) » « Shrink index
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
The term amphibolic (Greek: amphi meaning “both sides”) is used to describe a biochemical pathway that involves both catabolism (A degradative phase of metabolism in which large molecule are converted into smaller and simpler molecule,which is reaction involve two type. First, hydrolysis reactions, in this reaction catabolism is the breaking apart of molecules to smaller molecules to release energy. An example of a catabolic reaction is digestion and cellular respiration where you break apart sugars and fats for energy. Hydrolysis is the way in which this is done and it is basically the reverse of a dehydration reaction. Breaking down a protein into amino acids or a triglyceride into fatty acids or a disaccharide into monosaccharides are all hydrolysis or catabolic reactions. Second, oxidation reactions involve the removal of hydrogens and electrons from an organic molecule)and anabolism(the biosynthesis phase of metabolism in which smaller simple precursor are converted to large and complex molecule of the cell. Anabolism reactant found in two type,which are dehydration synthesis reaction,in this type involve the joining of smaller molecules together to form larger, more complex molecules. This occurs through dehydration synthesis reactions. These are the most common ways smaller organic molecules can be formed into more complex ones and applies to the formation of carbs, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Other type called reduction reaction,which involves the adding of hydrogens and electrons to a molecule. Whenever you do that, it gains calories of energy because when you split a hydrocarbon bond, it releases energy).
Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.
Anaerobic respiration is respiration using electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen (O2).
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Carbon-13 (13C) is a natural, stable isotope of carbon with a nucleus containing six protons and seven neutrons.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
Control theory in control systems engineering deals with the control of continuously operating dynamical systems in engineered processes and machines.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
In chemical thermodynamics, an endergonic reaction (also called a heat absorb nonspontaneous reaction or an unfavorable reaction) is a chemical reaction in which the standard change in free energy is positive, and energy is absorbed.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
An exergonic reaction is a chemical reaction where the change in the free energy is negative (there is a net release of free energy), indicating a spontaneous reaction.
Fatty acid synthesis is the creation of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and NADPH through the action of enzymes called fatty acid synthases.
In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group of a protein, involved in several important enzymatic reactions in metabolism.
Flux describes the quantity which passes through a surface or substance.
Flux, or metabolic flux is the rate of turnover of molecules through a metabolic pathway.
Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, also known as Harden-Young ester, is fructose sugar phosphorylated on carbons 1 and 6 (i.e., is a fructosephosphate).
Fructose 6-phosphate (sometimes called the Neuberg ester) is a derivative of fructose, which has been phosphorylated at the 6-hydroxy group.
Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at the Molecular Level is a biochemistry textbook written by Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet and Charlotte W. Pratt.
Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is an analytical method that combines the features of gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample.
In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum of reversible work that may be performed by a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).
Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glucose 6-phosphate (sometimes called the Robison ester) is a glucose sugar phosphorylated at the hydroxy group on carbon 6.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
The glyoxylate cycle, a variation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, is an anabolic pathway occurring in plants, bacteria, protists, and fungi.
Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) is a purine nucleoside triphosphate.
High-energy phosphate can mean one of two things.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.
Metabolic engineering is the practice of optimizing genetic and regulatory processes within cells to increase the cells' production of a certain substance.
A metabolic network is the complete set of metabolic and physical processes that determine the physiological and biochemical properties of a cell.
Metabolic network reconstruction and simulation allows for an in-depth insight into the molecular mechanisms of a particular organism.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The pentose phosphate pathway (also called the phosphogluconate pathway and the hexose monophosphate shunt) is a metabolic pathway parallel to glycolysis.
Phosphofructokinase is a kinase enzyme that phosphorylates fructose 6-phosphate in glycolysis.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Products are the species formed from chemical reactions.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are incorporated biosynthetically into proteins during translation.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.
Biochemical pathway, Biochemical pathways, Central metabolic pathway, Enzymatic pathway, Enzyme pathway, Metabolic pathways, Metabolic product, Metabolic route, Molecular pathway, Multienzyme metabolic pathway.