135 relations: Abdominal obesity, Acanthosis nigricans, ACE inhibitor, Adipocyte, Adiponectin, Adipose tissue, American Diabetes Association, Anandamide, Antiviral drug, Arachidonic acid, Atherosclerosis, Banting Lectures, Bipolar disorder, Blood plasma, Body mass index, C-reactive protein, Caerphilly Heart Disease Study, Calculus (medicine), Cardiopulmonary rehabilitation, Cardiovascular disease, Cengage, Chronobiology, Circumference, Complication (medicine), Computer, Congenital generalized lipodystrophy, Coronary artery disease, Cortisol, Cytokine, Death, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diglyceride, Diuretic, Drug, Dunnigan familial partial lipodystrophy, Dyslipidemia, Eicosanoid, Endocannabinoid system, Endocrinology, Erectile dysfunction, Essential amino acid, Essential fatty acid, European Association for the Study of Diabetes, Exacerbation, Executive dysfunction, Exercise, Fatty acid amide hydrolase, Fatty liver, Feedback, ..., Fibrinogen, Food and Drug Administration, Fructose, Gerald Reaven, Glucose, Glucose tolerance test, Gout, Gut flora, High-density lipoprotein, HIV, Hypercholesterolemia, Hyperglycemia, Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperlipidemia, Hypertension, Hypertriglyceridemia, Hyperuricemia, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Impaired fasting glucose, Impaired glucose tolerance, Inflammation, Insulin, Insulin resistance, Interleukin 6, International Diabetes Federation, International Obesity Taskforce, Lifestyle (sociology), Linoleic acid, Lipid peroxidation, Lipodystrophy, Lipoprotein, Medical research, Metabolome, Metformin, Microalbuminuria, Myocardial infarction, N-Acylphosphatidylethanolamine, National Cholesterol Education Program, Neurological disorder, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Nutrition, Obesity, Omega-6 fatty acid, Organ (anatomy), Osteoporosis, Pathogenesis, Pathophysiology, Phenotypic heterogeneity, Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Portal-visceral hypothesis, Prediabetes, Prevalence, Psoriasis, Psoriatic arthritis, Psychosocial, Randomized controlled trial, Receptor (biochemistry), Resistin, Reward system, Risk, Risk factor, Schizoaffective disorder, Schizophrenia, Sedentary lifestyle, Serum (blood), Sex steroid, Simvastatin/sitagliptin, SLCO1B1, Stress (biology), Stroke, Sucrose, Syndrome, Syndrome X, Television, Thiazolidinedione, Triglyceride, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, Uric acid, Ursolic acid, Videotape, Waist, Weight, World Health Organization, 2-Arachidonoylglycerol. Expand index (85 more) » « Shrink index
Abdominal obesity, also known as central obesity, occurs when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built up to the extent that it is likely to have a negative impact on health.
Acanthosis nigricans is a brown to black, poorly defined, velvety hyperpigmentation of the skin.
An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.
Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.
Adiponectin (also referred to as GBP-28, apM1, AdipoQ and Acrp30) is a protein hormone which is involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) is a United States-based nonprofit that seeks to educate the public about diabetes and to help those affected by it by funding research to manage, cure and prevent diabetes (including type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and pre-diabetes).
Anandamide, also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is a fatty acid neurotransmitter derived from the non-oxidative metabolism of eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) an essential ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid.
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.
Arachidonic acid (AA, sometimes ARA) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6).
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
The Banting Lectures are a yearly series of research presentations given by an expert in diabetes.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an annular (ring-shaped), pentameric protein found in blood plasma, whose levels rise in response to inflammation.
The Caerphilly Heart Disease Study, also known as the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS), is an epidemiological prospective cohort, set up in 1979 in a representative population sample drawn from Caerphilly, a typical small town in South Wales, UK.
A calculus (plural calculi), often called a stone, is a concretion of material, usually mineral salts, that forms in an organ or duct of the body.
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a branch of rehabilitation medicine/Physical Therapy dealing with optimizing physical function in patients with cardiac disease or recent cardiac surgeries.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.
Chronobiology is a field of biology that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar- and lunar-related rhythms.
In geometry, the circumference (from Latin circumferentia, meaning "carrying around") of a circle is the (linear) distance around it.
Complication, in medicine, is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease, a health condition or a therapy.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (also known as Berardinelli–Seip syndrome) is an extremely rare autosomal recessive condition, characterized by an extreme scarcity of fat in the subcutaneous tissues.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
A diglyceride, or diacylglycerol (DAG), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy, also known as FPLD Type II and abbreviated as (FPLD2), is a rare monogenic form of insulin resistance characterized by loss of subcutaneous fat from the extremities, trunk, and gluteal region.
Dyslipidemia is an abnormal amount of lipids (e.g. triglycerides, cholesterol and/or fat phospholipids) in the blood.
Eicosanoids are signaling molecules made by the enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid or other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that are, similar to arachidonic acid, 20 carbon units in length.
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a biological system composed of endocannabinoids, which are endogenous lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors, and cannabinoid receptor proteins that are expressed throughout the mammalian central nervous system (including the brain) and peripheral nervous system.
Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.
Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.
An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized ''de novo'' (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet.
Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that humans and other animals must ingest because the body requires them for good health but cannot synthesize them.
The European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) is a scientific association founded in Montecatini Terme, Italy in 1965 with Dr.
An exacerbation, in medicine, is the worsening of a disease or an increase in its symptoms.
In psychology and neuroscience, executive dysfunction, or executive function deficit, is a disruption to the efficacy of the executive functions, which is a group of cognitive processes that regulate, control, and manage other cognitive processes.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
Fatty acid amide hydrolase or FAAH (oleamide hydrolase, anandamide amidohydrolase) is a member of the serine hydrolase family of enzymes.
Fatty liver is a reversible condition wherein large vacuoles of triglyceride fat accumulate in liver cells via the process of steatosis (i.e., abnormal retention of lipids within a cell).
Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.
Fibrinogen (factor I) is a glycoprotein that in vertebrates circulates in the blood.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
Gerald M. "Jerry" Reaven (July 28, 1928 – February 12, 2018) was an American endocrinologist and professor emeritus in medicine at the Stanford University School of Medicine in Stanford, California, United States.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
The glucose tolerance test is a medical test in which glucose is given and blood samples taken afterward to determine how quickly it is cleared from the blood.
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.
Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.
Hyperinsulinemia, or hyperinsulinaemia is a condition in which there are excess levels of insulin circulating in the blood relative to the level of glucose.
Hyperlipidemia is abnormally elevated levels of any or all lipids or lipoproteins in the blood.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypertriglyceridemia denotes high (hyper-) blood levels (-emia) of triglycerides, the most abundant fatty molecule in most organisms.
Hyperuricemia is an abnormally high level of uric acid in the blood.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).
Impaired fasting glucose, or impaired fasting glycemia (IFG) is a type of prediabetes, in which a person's blood sugar levels during fasting are consistently above the normal range, but below the diagnostic cut-off for a formal diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.
Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic state of hyperglycemia that is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular pathology.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine.
The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) is a worldwide alliance of over 230 national diabetes associations in more than 160 countries, who have come together to enhance the lives of people with diabetes everywhere.
The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) is an organization designed to combat obesity around the world.
Lifestyle is the interests, opinions, behaviours, and behavioural orientations of an individual, group, or culture.
Linoleic acid (LA), a carboxylic acid, is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid, an 18-carbon chain with two double bonds in cis configuration.
Lipid peroxidation is the oxidative degradation of lipids.
Lipodystrophy syndromes are a group of genetic or acquired disorders in which the body is unable to produce and maintain healthy fat tissue.
A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly whose purpose is to transport hydrophobic lipid (a.k.a. fat) molecules in water, as in blood or extracellular fluid.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
The metabolome refers to the complete set of small-molecule chemicals found within a biological sample.
Metformin, marketed under the trade name Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, particularly in people who are overweight.
Microalbuminuria is a term to describe a moderate increase in the level of urine albumin.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
N-Acylphosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs) are hormones released by the small intestine into the bloodstream when it processes fat.
The National Cholesterol Education Program is a program managed by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health.
A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the types of fatty liver which occurs when fat is deposited (steatosis) in the liver due to causes other than excessive alcohol use.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Omega-6 fatty acids (also referred to as ω-6 fatty acids or n-6 fatty acids) are a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon-carbon double bond in the ''n''-6 position, that is, the sixth bond, counting from the methyl end.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state.
Pathophysiology or physiopathology is a convergence of pathology with physiology.
Phenotypic heterogeneity describes different mutations in the same gene that can sometimes give rise to strikingly different phenotypes.
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) also known as endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor or serpin E1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINE1 gene.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens (male hormones) in females.
The portal-visceral hypothesis describes a possible mechanism for some of the health effects of obesity, particularly the metabolic syndrome.
Prediabetes is the precursor stage before diabetes mellitus in which not all of the symptoms required to diagnose diabetes are present, but blood sugar is abnormally high.
Prevalence in epidemiology is the proportion of a particular population found to be affected by a medical condition (typically a disease or a risk factor such as smoking or seat-belt use).
Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin.
Psoriatic arthritis is a long-term inflammatory arthritis that occurs in people affected by the autoimmune disease psoriasis.
The psychosocial approach looks at individuals in the context of the combined influence that psychological factors and the surrounding social environment have on their physical and mental wellness and their ability to function.
A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Resistin also known as adipose tissue-specific secretory factor (ADSF) or C/EBP-epsilon-regulated myeloid-specific secreted cysteine-rich protein (XCP1) is a cysteine-rich adipose-derived peptide hormone that in humans is encoded by the RETN gene.
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).
Risk is the potential of gaining or losing something of value.
In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.
Schizoaffective disorder (SZA, SZD or SAD) is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal thought processes and deregulated emotions.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
A sedentary lifestyle is a type of lifestyle with little or no physical activity.
In blood, the serum is the component that is neither a blood cell (serum does not contain white or red blood cells) nor a clotting factor; it is the blood plasma not including the fibrinogens.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Simvastatin/sitagliptin (brand name Juvisync) is a fixed-dose combination drug consisting of sitagliptin and simvastatin.
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLCO1B1 gene.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
A syndrome is a set of medical signs and symptoms that are correlated with each other and, often, with a particular disease or disorder.
Syndrome X may refer to.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
The thiazolidinediones, abbreviated as TZD, also known as glitazones after the prototypical drug ciglitazone, are a class of heterocyclic compounds consisting of a five-membered C3NS ring.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
Ursolic acid (sometimes referred to as urson, prunol, malol, or 3-beta-3-hydroxy-urs-12-ene-28-oic-acid), is a pentacyclic triterpenoid identified in the epicuticular waxes of apples as early as 1920 and widely found in the peels of fruits, as well as in herbs and spices like rosemary and thyme.
Videotape is magnetic tape used for storing video and usually sound in addition.
The waist is the part of the abdomen between the rib cage and hips.
In science and engineering, the weight of an object is related to the amount of force acting on the object, either due to gravity or to a reaction force that holds it in place.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is an endocannabinoid, an endogenous agonist of the CB1 receptor and the primary endogenous ligand for the CB2 receptor.
Dysmetabolic syndrome, Insulin Resistance Syndrome, Metabolic Syndrome, Metabolic Syndrome X, Metabolic dysfunction, Metabolic syndrome X, Metabolic syndrome x, Metabolic syndromes, Syndrome X (metabolic).