204 relations: Acid, Activation energy, Alchemy, Alkali metal, Alkaline earth metal, Alloy, Alloy steel, Aluminium, Amorphous metal, Amorphous solid, Ancient Greek, Anodizing, Antimony, Aqueous solution, Aristotle, Art, ASM International (society), Astrophysics, Atomic diffusion, Atomic orbital, Atomic radius, Band gap, Base (chemistry), Base metal, Bauxite, Bending, Bismuth, Bravais lattice, Brillouin zone, Brockhaus Enzyklopädie, Bronze, Bronze Age, Calamine, Carbon, Cast iron, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemistry, Chromium, Classical element, Cleavage (crystal), Close-packing of equal spheres, Coin, Commodity, Compressive strength, Construction, Copper, Corrosion, Covalent bond, Creep (deformation), ..., Crystal, Crystal structure, Crystallographic defect, Cubic crystal system, Currency, De la pirotechnia, De Natura Fossilium, De re metallica, Deformation (engineering), Deformation (mechanics), Delocalized electron, Democritus, Density, Dharendra Yogi Goswami, Diffusion, Dislocation, Dopant, Ductility, Effective nuclear charge, Electric-field screening, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrochemical cell, Electrolysis, Electromagnetic shielding, Electronic band structure, Electrum, Empedocles, Extractive metallurgy, Fatigue (material), Fiat money, Force, Frank Kreith, Free electron model, Fusible alloy, Georgius Agricola, Gold, Gold leaf, Grain boundary, Grain growth, Hardness, Heat sink, Helium, Home appliance, Hooke's law, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrometallurgy, International Resource Panel, Ion, Ionic bonding, Iridium, Iron, ISO 4217, Jet engine, Jewellery, John Maxson Stillman, Latin, Lattice plane, Lead, Light metal, Lithium, Lustre (mineralogy), Magnesium, Magnetism, Material, Mercury (element), Metal theft, Metallic bonding, Metallicity, Metalloid, Metallurgy, Metalworking, Molybdenum, Natural History (Pliny), Navier–Stokes equations, Nearly free electron model, Nickel, Noble metal, Nonmetal, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear reactor, Numismatics, Opacity (optics), Ore, Osmium, Oxidation state, Oxide, Painting, Palladium, Paracelsus, Passivation (chemistry), Pedanius Dioscorides, Periodic table, Periodic table (crystal structure), Plasticity (physics), Plating, Platinum, Platinum group, Plato, Pliny the Elder, Plutonium, Porosity, Potassium, Precious metal, Properties of metals, metalloids and nonmetals, Prospecting, Pyrometallurgy, Pythagoreanism, Reactivity (chemistry), Redox, Regular polyhedron, Rhodium, Rust, Ruthenium, Shape-memory alloy, Silicon, Silver, Simple shear, Slip (materials science), Smelting, Sodium, Solid, Spin transition, Stainless steel, Standard electrode potential (data page), Steel, Stent, Stone Age, Store of value, Stress (mechanics), Structural steel, Sublunary sphere, Sulfide, Sulfur, Surface mining, Theophrastus, Thermal conductivity, Tight binding, Titanium, Tool steel, Torsion (mechanics), Transition metal, Ultimate tensile strength, Underground mining (hard rock), United Nations Environment Programme, Uranium, Vannoccio Biringuccio, Wiesbaden, Work (physics), World Bank, Wrought iron, Yield (engineering), Zinc. Expand index (154 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
In chemistry and physics, activation energy is the energy which must be available to a chemical or nuclear system with potential reactants to result in: a chemical reaction, nuclear reaction, or other various other physical phenomena.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Alloy steel is steel that is alloyed with a variety of elements in total amounts between 1.0% and 50% by weight to improve its mechanical properties.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
An amorphous metal (also known as metallic glass or glassy metal) is a solid metallic material, usually an alloy, with a disordered atomic-scale structure.
In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Anodizing (spelled anodising in British English) is an electrolytic passivation process used to increase the thickness of the natural oxide layer on the surface of metal parts.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
ASM International, formerly known as the American Society for Metals, is a professional organization for materials scientists and engineers.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".
Vacancy diffusion is a diffusion process whereby the random thermally-activated movement of atoms in a solid results in the net transport of atoms.
In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.
The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons.
In solid-state physics, a band gap, also called an energy gap or bandgap, is an energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
A base metal is a common and inexpensive metal, as opposed to a precious metal such as gold or silver.
Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.
In applied mechanics, bending (also known as flexure) characterizes the behavior of a slender structural element subjected to an external load applied perpendicularly to a longitudinal axis of the element.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after, is an infinite array of discrete points in three dimensional space generated by a set of discrete translation operations described by: where ni are any integers and ai are known as the primitive vectors which lie in different directions and span the lattice.
In mathematics and solid state physics, the first Brillouin zone is a uniquely defined primitive cell in reciprocal space.
The Brockhaus Enzyklopädie is a German-language encyclopedia which until 2009 was published by the F. A. Brockhaus printing house.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Calamine, also known as calamine lotion, is a medication used to treat mild itchiness.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Classical elements typically refer to the concepts in ancient Greece of earth, water, air, fire, and aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.
Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite crystallographic structural planes.
In geometry, close-packing of equal spheres is a dense arrangement of congruent spheres in an infinite, regular arrangement (or lattice).
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.
Compressive strength or compression strength is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to reduce size, as opposed to tensile strength, which withstands loads tending to elongate.
Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
In materials science, creep (sometimes called cold flow) is the tendency of a solid material to move slowly or deform permanently under the influence of mechanical stresses.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
Crystalline solids exhibit a periodic crystal structure.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
De la Pirotechnia is considered to be the first printed book on metallurgy to have been published in Europe.
De Natura Fossilium is a scientific text written by Georg Bauer also known as Georgius Agricola, first published in 1546.
De re metallica (Latin for On the Nature of Metals) is a book cataloguing the state of the art of mining, refining, and smelting metals, published a year posthumously in 1556 due to a delay in preparing woodcuts for the text.
In materials science, deformation refers to any changes in the shape or size of an object due to-.
Deformation in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration.
In chemistry, delocalized electrons are electrons in a molecule, ion or solid metal that are not associated with a single atom or a covalent bond.
Democritus (Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Dharendra Yogi Goswami (born May 15, 1948) is an American inventor, entrepreneur, author, and educator.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
In materials science, a dislocation or Taylor's dislocation is a crystallographic defect or irregularity within a crystal structure.
A dopant, also called a doping agent, is a trace impurity element that is inserted into a substance (in very low concentrations) to alter the electrical or optical properties of the substance.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
The effective nuclear charge (often symbolized as Z_ or Z^\ast) is the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a polyelectronic atom.
In physics, screening is the damping of electric fields caused by the presence of mobile charge carriers.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
An electrochemical cell (EC) is a device capable of either generating electrical energy from chemical reactions or using electrical energy to cause chemical reactions.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
Electromagnetic shielding is the practice of reducing the electromagnetic field in a space by blocking the field with barriers made of conductive or magnetic materials.
In solid-state physics, the electronic band structure (or simply band structure) of a solid describes the range of energies that an electron within the solid may have (called energy bands, allowed bands, or simply bands) and ranges of energy that it may not have (called band gaps or forbidden bands).
Electrum is a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver, with trace amounts of copper and other metals.
Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.
Extractive metallurgy is a branch of metallurgical engineering wherein process and methods of extraction of metals from their natural mineral deposits are studied.
In materials science, fatigue is the weakening of a material caused by repeatedly applied loads.
Fiat money is a currency without intrinsic value that has been established as money, often by government regulation.
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.
Frank Kreith (15 December 1922 – 8 January 2018), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).
In solid-state physics, the free electron model is a simple model for the behaviour of charge carriers in a metallic solid.
A fusible alloy is a metal alloy capable of being easily fused, i.e. easily meltable, at relatively low temperatures.
Georgius Agricola (24 March 1494 – 21 November 1555) was a German mineralogist and metallurgist.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Gold leaf is gold that has been hammered into thin sheets by goldbeating and is often used for gilding.
A grain boundary is the interface between two grains, or crystallites, in a polycrystalline material.
Grain growth is the increase in size of grains (crystallites) in a material at high temperature.
Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion.
A heat sink (also commonly spelled heatsink) is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing regulation of the device's temperature at optimal levels.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions, such as cooking, cleaning, or food preservation.
Hooke's law is a principle of physics that states that the force needed to extend or compress a spring by some distance scales linearly with respect to that distance.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrometallurgy is a method for obtaining metals from their ores.
The International Resource Panel is a scientific panel of experts that aims to help nations use natural resources sustainably without compromising economic growth and human needs.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.
Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.
A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.
Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.
John Maxson Stillman (1852-1923) was a pioneer of the history of science in the United States.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
In crystallography, a lattice plane of a given Bravais lattice is a plane (or family of parallel planes) whose intersections with the lattice (or any crystalline structure of that lattice) are periodic (i.e. are described by 2d Bravais lattices) and intersect the Bravais lattice; equivalently, a lattice plane is any plane containing at least three noncollinear Bravais lattice points.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
A light metal is any metal of relatively low density.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Lustre or luster is the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock, or mineral.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.
Material is a broad term for a chemical substance or mixture of substances that constitute a thing.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Metal theft is "the theft of items for the value of their constituent metals".
Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that arises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions.
In astronomy, metallicity is used to describe the abundance of elements present in an object that are heavier than hydrogen or helium.
A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
In physics, the Navier–Stokes equations, named after Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes, describe the motion of viscous fluid substances.
In solid-state physics, the nearly free electron model (or NFE model) is a quantum mechanical model of physical properties of electrons that can move almost freely through the crystal lattice of a solid.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
In chemistry, the noble metals are metals that are resistant to corrosion and oxidation in moist air (unlike most base metals).
Apart from hydrogen, nonmetals are located in the p-block. Helium, as an s-block element, would normally be placed next to hydrogen and above beryllium. However, since it is a noble gas, it is instead placed above neon (in the p-block). In chemistry, a nonmetal (or non-metal) is a chemical element that mostly lacks metallic attributes.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects.
Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (support base).
Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
Paracelsus (1493/4 – 24 September 1541), born Theophrastus von Hohenheim (full name Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), was a Swiss physician, alchemist, and astrologer of the German Renaissance.
Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.
Pedanius Dioscorides (Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης, Pedianos Dioskorides; 40 – 90 AD) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist, botanist, and author of De Materia Medica (Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, On Medical Material) —a 5-volume Greek encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances (a pharmacopeia), that was widely read for more than 1,500 years.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
For elements that are solid at standard temperature and pressure the table gives the crystalline structure of the most thermodynamically stable form(s) in those conditions.
In physics and materials science, plasticity describes the deformation of a (solid) material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces.
Plating is a surface covering in which a metal is deposited on a conductive surface.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
The platinum-group metals (abbreviated as the PGMs; alternatively, the platinoids, platinides, platidises, platinum group, platinum metals, platinum family or platinum-group elements (PGEs)) are six noble, precious metallic elements clustered together in the periodic table.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the void (i.e. "empty") spaces in a material, and is a fraction of the volume of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a percentage between 0% and 100%.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.
can be broadly divided into metals, metalloids and nonmetals according to their shared physical and chemical properties.
Prospecting is the first stage of the geological analysis (second – exploration) of a territory.
Pyrometallurgy is a branch of extractive metallurgy.
Pythagoreanism originated in the 6th century BC, based on the teachings and beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were considerably influenced by mathematics and mysticism.
In chemistry, reactivity is the impetus for which a chemical substance undergoes a chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, with an overall release of energy.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A regular polyhedron is a polyhedron whose symmetry group acts transitively on its flags.
Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45.
Rust is an iron oxide, a usually red oxide formed by the redox reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture.
Ruthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44.
A shape-memory alloy (SMA, smart metal, memory metal, memory alloy, muscle wire, smart alloy) is an alloy that "remembers" its original shape and that when deformed returns to its pre-deformed shape when heated.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Simple shear is a deformation in which parallel planes in a material remain parallel and maintain a constant distance, while translating relative to each other.
In materials science, a slip system describes the set of symmetrically identical slip planes and associated family of slip directions for which dislocation motion can easily occur and lead to plastic deformation.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
The spin transition is an example of transition between two electronic states in molecular chemistry.
In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.
The data values of standard electrode potentials are given in the table below, in volts relative to the standard hydrogen electrode, and are for the following conditions.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
In medicine, a stent is a metal or plastic tube inserted into the lumen of an anatomic vessel or duct to keep the passageway open, and stenting is the placement of a stent.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
A store of value is the function of an asset that can be saved, retrieved and exchanged at a later time, and be predictably useful when retrieved.
In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.
Structural steel is a category of steel used for making construction materials in a variety of shapes.
In Aristotelian physics and Greek astronomy, the sublunary sphere is the region of the geocentric cosmos below the Moon, consisting of the four classical elements: earth, water, air, and fire.
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Surface mining, including strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit (the overburden) are removed, in contrast to underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral is removed through shafts or tunnels.
Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
In solid-state physics, the tight-binding model (or TB model) is an approach to the calculation of electronic band structure using an approximate set of wave functions based upon superposition of wave functions for isolated atoms located at each atomic site.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
Tool steel refers to a variety of carbon and alloy steels that are particularly well-suited to be made into tools.
In the field of solid mechanics, torsion is the twisting of an object due to an applied torque.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
Underground hard rock mining refers to various underground mining techniques used to excavate hard minerals, usually those containing metals such as ore containing gold, silver, iron, copper, zinc, nickel, tin and lead, but also involves using the same techniques for excavating ores of gems such as diamonds.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Vannoccio Biringuccio, sometimes spelt Vannocio Biringuccio (c. 1480 – c. 1539), was an Italian metallurgist.
Wiesbaden is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse.
In physics, a force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
puddled iron, a form of wrought iron Wrought iron is an iron alloy with a very low carbon (less than 0.08%) content in contrast to cast iron (2.1% to 4%).
The yield point is the point on a stress–strain curve that indicates the limit of elastic behavior and the beginning of plastic behavior.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.