368 relations: Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Acetylide, Acid, Actinide, Activated carbon, Acute promyelocytic leukemia, Adduct, African trypanosomiasis, AgInSbTe, Alkali, Alkali metal, Alkali salt, Allotropy, Alloy, Aluminate, Aluminium, Aluminium antimonide, Aluminium hydroxide, Aluminium oxide, Ammonium persulfate, Amorphous metal, Amorphous solid, Amphoterism, Antibiotic, Antimicrobial, Antimony, Antimony sulfate, Antimony trioxide, Antimony(III) acetate, Antiparasitic, Aqua regia, Armstrong's mixture, Arsenic, Arsenic trioxide, Arsenic trisulfide, Arsenous acid, Astatine, Atmosphere (unit), Atomic number, Atomic packing factor, Atrane, Aubrey Trotman-Dickenson, Aurophilicity, Band gap, Barium, Base (chemistry), Beryllium, Bismuth, Bismuth telluride, Block (periodic table), ..., Blue light (pyrotechnic signal), Borate, Borax, Boric acid, Boride, Boron, Boron carbide, Boron tribromide, Boron trichloride, Boron trifluoride, Boron trioxide, Borosilicate glass, Borospherene, Bromine, Cadmium, Cadmium arsenide, Cadmium iodide, Cadmium telluride, Caesium, Cap gun, Carbenium ion, Carbide, Carbocation, Carbon, Carbon black, Carbon dioxide, Carbon group, Carbon monoxide, Carbonic acid, Carbonium ion, Case-hardening, Catalysis, Cathode, Chalcogen, Chalcogenide, Chemical element, Chemistry, Chromium, Chromium trioxide, Chromium(IV) oxide, Close-packing of equal spheres, Cluster chemistry, Coordination complex, Copernicium, Copper, Covalent bond, Critical point (thermodynamics), Cryolite, Cryptand, Crystal, Crystal structure, Crystallite, Cubic crystal system, D electron count, Delay composition, Delocalized electron, Deltahedron, Detonator, Dharendra Yogi Goswami, Diagonal relationship, Diamagnetism, Diamond, Diatomic molecule, Diborane, Diphenylchlorarsine, Dividing line between metals and nonmetals, Dopant, Drinking, Effective nuclear charge, Elasticity (physics), Electrical conductor, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrolysis, Electrolytic cell, Electron affinity, Electronegativity, Electronic band structure, Enthalpy of vaporization, Environmental chemistry, Eugene G. Rochow, Extrinsic semiconductor, Flame retardant, Flash powder, Fluorine, Fluorosulfuric acid, Francium, Frank Kreith, Gallium, Gallium nitrate, Gas mask, Germanane, Germanium, Germanium dioxide, GeSbTe, Glass, Glass coloring and color marking, Glass fiber, Gold, Graphane, Graphene, Graphite, Graphite oxide, Greek language, Group (periodic table), Group 11 element, Gunpowder, Half-metal, Haloalkane, Halogen, Halogenation, Heavy metals, Hexachloroethane, Hexafluorosilicic acid, Hexagonal crystal family, Hexagonal lattice, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrofluoric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogen fluoride, Hydrogen halide, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrolysis, Imine, Indium, Inorganic nonaqueous solvent, Insulator (electricity), Intercalation (chemistry), Interhalogen, Intermetallic, International Journal of Thermophysics, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Interstitial compound, Iodine, Ion, Ionization energy, Iron, Isidor Isaac Rabi, Karl Herzfeld, Lanthanide, Laser diode, Latin, Lead, Lead glass, Lead hydrogen arsenate, Lead(II) oxide, Lewis acids and bases, Ligand, Light-emitting diode, List of semiconductor materials, Lists of metalloids, Lithium-ion battery, Livermorium, Machinability, Main-group element, Manganese, Melarsoprol, Mercury (element), Metal, Microgram, Mineral (nutrient), Mineralogy, Mixed oxide, Molar volume, Molybdenum, Molybdenum dioxide, Molybdenum trioxide, Monoclinic crystal system, Moscovium, Natural gas, Neptunium, Network covalent bonding, Nickel, Nitrate, Nitric acid, Nitrogen, Noble metal, Non-stoichiometric compound, Nonlinear optics, Nonmetal, Numeral prefix, Octet rule, Oleum, Ontology, Optical disc, Optical storage, Optoelectronics, Organic acid anhydride, Organic chemistry, Organoantimony chemistry, Organoarsenic chemistry, Organoboron chemistry, Organogermanium compound, Organometallic chemistry, Organophosphate, Organosilicon, Organotellurium chemistry, Oxide, Oxidizing agent, Oxyacid, Oxyanion, Oxycation, Oxygen, Party popper, Perchlorate, Perchloric acid, Period (periodic table), Periodate, Periodic table, Pewter, Phase-change material, Phase-change memory, Phosgene, Phosphate, Phosphate glass, Phosphoric acid, Phosphorus, Phosphorus pentoxide, Photodetector, Physics, Platinum, Pnictogen, Polonide, Polonium, Polonium dioxide, Polyethylene terephthalate, Polymer, Post-transition metal, Properties of metals, metalloids and nonmetals, Pseudohalogen, Pyrotechnic initiator, Pyrotechnics, Radiopharmaceutical, Radon, Reaction intermediate, Reactivity (chemistry), Redox, Reducing agent, Relativistic quantum chemistry, Rubidium, Salt (chemistry), Salvo, Seborrhoeic dermatitis, Selenium, Selenium sulfide, Selenous acid, Semiconductor, Semiconductor industry, Semimetal, Siemens (unit), Silane, Silica sulfuric acid, Silicate, Silicon, Silicon dioxide, Silicon tetrafluoride, Silicon-germanium, Silicone, Silicosis, Silsesquioxane, Silver, Smoke screen, Sodium arsenate, Sodium arsenite, Sodium carbonate, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium stibogluconate, Sodium-ion battery, Sodium-vapor lamp, Solar cell, Solid-state electronics, Solvent, Spot contract, Standard electrode potential (data page), Steel, Stibnite, Stibophen, Sublimation (phase transition), Sulfate, Sulfide, Sulfonamide (medicine), Sulfoxide, Sulfur, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfur mustard, Sulfur trioxide, Sulfuric acid, Superheater, Surge protector, Syphilis, Telluride (chemistry), Tellurite, Tellurium, Tellurium dioxide, Tellurium tetrachloride, Tellurous acid, Tetragonal crystal system, Thallium, Thermal decomposition, Thermite, Thermoelectric materials, Tin, Tinea versicolor, Titanium, Topological insulator, Topological quantum computer, Toxicology, Transition metal, Tungsten, Type metal, Valence (chemistry), Valence and conduction bands, Valence electron, Van der Waals force, Vanadium, Wolfgang Pauli, World War I, Ytterbium, Zinc. Expand index (318 more) » « Shrink index
The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.
Acetylide refers to chemical compounds with the chemical formulas MC≡CH and MC≡CM, where M is a metal.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APML, APL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a cancer of the white blood cells.
An adduct (from the Latin adductus, "drawn toward" alternatively, a contraction of "addition product") is a product of a direct addition of two or more distinct molecules, resulting in a single reaction product containing all atoms of all components.
African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is an insect-borne parasitic disease of humans and other animals.
AgInSbTe, or Silver-Indium-Antimony-Tellurium, is a phase change material from the group of chalcogenide glasses, used in rewritable optical discs (such as rewritable CDs) and phase-change memory applications.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
Alkali salts or basic salts are salts that are the product of the neutralization of a strong base and a weak acid.
Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
In chemistry aluminate is a compound containing an oxyanion of aluminium, such as sodium aluminate.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium antimonide (AlSb) is a semiconductor of the group III-V family containing aluminium and antimony.
Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is found in nature as the mineral gibbsite (also known as hydrargillite) and its three much rarer polymorphs: bayerite, doyleite, and nordstrandite.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
Ammonium persulfate (APS) is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2S2O8.
An amorphous metal (also known as metallic glass or glassy metal) is a solid metallic material, usually an alloy, with a disordered atomic-scale structure.
In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.
In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
Antimony sulfate, Sb2(SO4)3, is a hygroscopic material is formed by reacting antimony or its compounds with hot sulfuric acid.
Antimony(III) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Sb2O3.
Antimony(III) acetate is the compound of antimony with the chemical formula of Sb(CH3CO2)3.
Antiparasitics are a class of medications which are indicated for the treatment of parasitic diseases, such as those caused by helminths, amoeba, ectoparasites, parasitic fungi, and protozoa, among others.
Aqua regia (from Latin, "royal water" or "king's water") is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, optimally in a molar ratio of 1:3.
Armstrong's mixture is a highly sensitive primary explosive.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Arsenic trioxide is an inorganic compound with the formula.
Arsenic trisulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula As2S3.
Arsenous acid (or arsenious acid) is the inorganic compound with the formula H3AsO3.
Astatine is a radioactive chemical element with symbol At and atomic number 85.
The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
In crystallography, atomic packing factor (APF), packing efficiency or packing fraction is the fraction of volume in a crystal structure that is occupied by constituent particles.
An atrane is a tricyclic molecule with three five-membered rings.
Sir Aubrey Fiennes Trotman-Dickenson (12 February 1926 – 11 November 2016) was a British chemist and academic administrator.
In chemistry, aurophilicity refers to the tendency of gold complexes to aggregate via formation of weak gold-gold bonds.
In solid-state physics, a band gap, also called an energy gap or bandgap, is an energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist.
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) is a gray powder that is a compound of bismuth and tellurium also known as bismuth(III) telluride.
A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups.
Blue light is an archaic signal, the progenitor of modern pyrotechnic flares.
Borates are the name for a large number of boron-containing oxyanions.
Borax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid.
Boric acid, also called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, orthoboric acid and acidum boricum, is a weak, monobasic Lewis acid of boron, which is often used as an antiseptic, insecticide, flame retardant, neutron absorber, or precursor to other chemical compounds.
A boride is a compound between boron and a less electronegative element, for example silicon boride (SiB3 and SiB6).
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
Boron carbide (chemical formula approximately B4C) is an extremely hard boron–carbon ceramic, and covalent material used in tank armor, bulletproof vests, engine sabotage powders, as well as numerous industrial applications.
Boron tribromide, BBr3, is a colorless, fuming liquid compound containing boron and bromine.
Boron trichloride is the inorganic compound with the formula BCl3.
Boron trifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula BF3.
Boron trioxide (or diboron trioxide) is one of the oxides of boron.
Borosilicate glass is a type of glass with silica and boron trioxide as the main glass-forming constituents.
Borospherene (B40) is a cluster molecule containing 40 boron atoms.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Cadmium arsenide (Cd3As2) is an inorganic semimetal in the II-V family.
Cadmium iodide, CdI2, is a chemical compound of cadmium and iodine.
Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a stable crystalline compound formed from cadmium and tellurium.
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
A cap gun, cap pistol, or cap rifle is a toy gun that creates a loud sound simulating a gunshot and a puff of smoke when a small percussion cap is exploded.
A carbenium ion is a positive ion with the structure RR′R″C+, that is, a chemical species with a trivalent carbon that bears a +1 formal charge.
In chemistry, a carbide is a compound composed of carbon and a less electronegative element.
A carbocation (/karbɔkətaɪː'jɔ̃/) is an ion with a positively charged carbon atom.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon black (subtypes are acetylene black, channel black, furnace black, lamp black and thermal black) is a material produced by the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum products such as FCC tar, coal tar, ethylene cracking tar, with the addition of a small amount of vegetable oil.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 (equivalently OC(OH)2).
In chemistry, carbonium ion is any cation that has a pentavalent carbon atom, The name carbonium may also be used for the simplest member of the class, properly called methanium, where the five valences are filled with hydrogen atoms.
Case-hardening or surface hardening is the process of hardening the surface of a metal object while allowing the metal deeper underneath to remain soft, thus forming a thin layer of harder metal (called the "case") at the surface.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.
The chalcogens are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table.
A chalcogenide is a chemical compound consisting of at least one chalcogen anion and at least one more electropositive element.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Chromium trioxide is an inorganic compound with the formula CrO3.
Chromium dioxide or chromium(IV) oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula CrO2.
In geometry, close-packing of equal spheres is a dense arrangement of congruent spheres in an infinite, regular arrangement (or lattice).
In chemistry, a cluster is an ensemble of bound atoms or molecules that is intermediate in size between a molecule and a bulk solid.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Copernicium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Cn and atomic number 112.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
In thermodynamics, a critical point (or critical state) is the end point of a phase equilibrium curve.
Cryolite (Na3AlF6, sodium hexafluoroaluminate) is an uncommon mineral identified with the once large deposit at Ivigtût on the west coast of Greenland, depleted by 1987.
Cryptands are a family of synthetic bi- and polycyclic multidentate ligands for a variety of cations.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
A crystallite is a small or even microscopic crystal which forms, for example, during the cooling of many materials.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
The d electron count is a chemistry formalism used to describe the electron configuration of the valence electrons of a transition metal center in a coordination complex.
Delay composition, also called delay charge or delay train, is a pyrotechnic composition, a sort of pyrotechnic initiator, a mixture of oxidizer and fuel that burns in a slow, constant rate that should not be significantly dependent on temperature and pressure.
In chemistry, delocalized electrons are electrons in a molecule, ion or solid metal that are not associated with a single atom or a covalent bond.
In geometry, a deltahedron (plural deltahedra) is a polyhedron whose faces are all equilateral triangles.
A detonator, frequently a blasting cap, is a device used to trigger an explosive device.
Dharendra Yogi Goswami (born May 15, 1948) is an American inventor, entrepreneur, author, and educator.
A diagonal relationship is said to exist between certain pairs of diagonally adjacent elements in the second and third periods of the periodic table.
Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements.
Diborane is the chemical compound consisting of boron and hydrogen with the formula B2H6.
Diphenylchloroarsine (DA) is the organoarsenic compound with the formula (C6H5)2AsCl.
The dividing line between metals and nonmetals can be found, in varying configurations, on some representations of the periodic table of the elements (see mini-example, right).
A dopant, also called a doping agent, is a trace impurity element that is inserted into a substance (in very low concentrations) to alter the electrical or optical properties of the substance.
Drinking is the act of ingesting water or other liquids into the body through the mouth.
The effective nuclear charge (often symbolized as Z_ or Z^\ast) is the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a polyelectronic atom.
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
An electrolytic cell is an electrochemical cell that drives a non-spontaneous redox reaction through the application of electrical energy.
In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity (Eea) of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released or spent when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule in the gaseous state to form a negative ion.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
In solid-state physics, the electronic band structure (or simply band structure) of a solid describes the range of energies that an electron within the solid may have (called energy bands, allowed bands, or simply bands) and ranges of energy that it may not have (called band gaps or forbidden bands).
The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ∆Hvap) also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the amount of energy (enthalpy) that must be added to a liquid substance, to transform a quantity of that substance into a gas.
Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places.
Eugene George Rochow (October 4, 1909 – March 21, 2002) was an American inorganic chemist.
An extrinsic semiconductor is one that has been doped, that is, into which a doping agent has been introduced, giving it different electrical properties than the intrinsic (pure) semiconductor.
The term flame retardants subsumes a diverse group of chemicals which are added to manufactured materials, such as plastics and textiles, and surface finishes and coatings.
Flash powder is a pyrotechnic composition, a mixture of oxidizer and metallic fuel, which burns quickly and if confined produces a loud report.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Fluorosulfuric acid (IUPAC name: sulfurofluoridic acid) is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula HSO3F.
Francium is a chemical element with symbol Fr and atomic number 87.
Frank Kreith (15 December 1922 – 8 January 2018), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
Gallium nitrate (brand name Ganite) is the gallium salt of nitric acid with the chemical formula Ga(NO3)3.
The gas mask is a mask used to protect the user from inhaling airborne pollutants and toxic gases.
Germanane is a single-layer crystal composed of germanium with one hydrogen bonded in the z-direction for each atom.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
Germanium dioxide, also called germanium oxide and germania, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula GeO2.
GeSbTe (germanium-antimony-tellurium or GST) is a phase-change material from the group of chalcogenide glasses used in rewritable optical discs and phase-change memory applications.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Glass coloring and color marking may be obtained by 1) addition of coloring ions,Bernard H. W. S. De Jong, Ruud G. C. Beerkens, Peter A. van Nijnatten: "Glass", in: "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry"; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2002, by 2) precipitation of nanometer sized colloides (so-called striking glassesBernard H. W. S. De Jong, Ruud G. C. Beerkens, Peter A. van Nijnatten: "Glass", in: "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry"; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2002, such as "gold ruby" or red "selenium ruby"),Werner Vogel: "Glass Chemistry"; Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K; 2nd revised edition (November 1994), 3) by colored inclusions (as in milk glass and smoked glass), 4) by light scattering (as in phase separated glass), 5) by dichroic coatings (see dichroic glass), or 6) by colored coatings.
Glass fiber (or glass fibre) is a material consisting of numerous extremely fine fibers of glass.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Graphane is a two-dimensional polymer of carbon and hydrogen with the formula unit (CH)n where n is large.
Graphene is a semi-metal with a small overlap between the valence and the conduction bands (zero bandgap material).
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Graphite oxide, formerly called graphitic oxide or graphitic acid, is a compound of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen in variable ratios, obtained by treating graphite with strong oxidizers.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
In chemistry, a group (also known as a family) is a column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements.
Group 11, by modern IUPAC numbering, is a group of chemical elements in the periodic table, consisting of copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and gold (Au).
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
A half-metal is any substance that acts as a conductor to electrons of one spin orientation, but as an insulator or semiconductor to those of the opposite orientation.
The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
Halogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the addition of one or more halogens to a compound or material.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Hexachloroethane, also known as perchloroethane (PCA), C2Cl6, is a white crystalline solid at room temperature with a camphor-like odor.
Hexafluorosilicic acid is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written as). It is a colorless liquid rarely encountered undiluted.
In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families, which includes 2 crystal systems (hexagonal and trigonal) and 2 lattice systems (hexagonal and rhombohedral).
The hexagonal lattice or triangular lattice is one of the five 2D lattice types.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula.
Hydrogen halides are diatomic inorganic compounds with the formula HX where X is one of the halogens: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, or astatine.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon–nitrogen double bond.
Indium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49.
An inorganic nonaqueous solvent is a solvent other than water, that is not an organic compound.
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.
In chemistry, intercalation is the reversible inclusion or insertion of a molecule (or ion) into materials with layered structures.
An interhalogen compound is a molecule which contains two or more different halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, or astatine) and no atoms of elements from any other group.
An intermetallic (also called an intermetallic compound, intermetallic alloy, ordered intermetallic alloy, and a long-range-ordered alloy) is a solid-state compound exhibiting metallic bonding, defined stoichiometry and ordered crystal structure.
The International Journal of Thermophysics is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer Science+Business Media.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
An interstitial compound, or interstitial alloy, is a compound that is formed when an atom with a small enough radius sits in an interstitial “hole” in a metal lattice.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isidor Isaac Rabi (born Israel Isaac Rabi, 29 July 1898 – 11 January 1988) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1944 for his discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance, which is used in magnetic resonance imaging.
Karl Ferdinand Herzfeld (February 24, 1892 – June 3, 1978) was an Austrian-American physicist.
The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.
A laser diode, (LD), injection laser diode (ILD), or diode laser is a semiconductor device similar to a light-emitting diode in which the laser beam is created at the diode's junction.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lead glass, commonly called crystal, is a variety of glass in which lead replaces the calcium content of a typical potash glass.
Lead hydrogen arsenate, also called lead arsenate, acid lead arsenate or LA, chemical formula PbHAsO4, is an inorganic insecticide used primarily against the potato beetle.
Lead(II) oxide, also called lead monoxide, is the inorganic compound with the molecular formula PbO.
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.
Semiconductor materials are nominally small band gap insulators.
This is a list of sources that each list metalloids: elements classified as metalloids.
A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery (abbreviated as LIB) is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging.
Livermorium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Lv and atomic number 116.
The term machinability refers to the ease with which a metal can be cut (machined) permitting the removal of the material with a satisfactory finish at low cost.
In chemistry and atomic physics, the main group is the group of elements whose lightest members are represented by helium, lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine as arranged in the periodic table of the elements.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Melarsoprol is a medication used for the treatment of sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis).
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
In the metric system, a microgram or microgramme (μg; the recommended symbol in the United States when communicating medical information is mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one millionth of a gram.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.
In chemistry, a mixed oxide is a somewhat informal name for an oxide that contains cations of more than one chemical element or cations of a single element in several states of oxidation.
The molar volume, symbol Vm, is the volume occupied by one mole of a substance (chemical element or chemical compound) at a given temperature and pressure.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
Molybdenum dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula MoO2.
Molybdenum trioxide is chemical compound with the formula MoO3.
In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Moscovium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Mc and atomic number 115.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93.
A network solid or covalent network solid is a chemical compound (or element) in which the atoms are bonded by covalent bonds in a continuous network extending throughout the material.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
In chemistry, the noble metals are metals that are resistant to corrosion and oxidation in moist air (unlike most base metals).
Non-stoichiometric compounds are chemical compounds, almost always solid inorganic compounds, having elemental composition whose proportions cannot be represented by integers; most often, in such materials, some small percentage of atoms are missing or too many atoms are packed into an otherwise perfect lattice work.
Nonlinear optics (NLO) is the branch of optics that describes the behavior of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the dielectric polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric field E of the light.
Apart from hydrogen, nonmetals are located in the p-block. Helium, as an s-block element, would normally be placed next to hydrogen and above beryllium. However, since it is a noble gas, it is instead placed above neon (in the p-block). In chemistry, a nonmetal (or non-metal) is a chemical element that mostly lacks metallic attributes.
Numeral or number prefixes are prefixes derived from numerals or occasionally other numbers.
The octet rule is a chemical rule of thumb that reflects observation that atoms of main-group elements tend to combine in such a way that each atom has eight electrons in its valence shell, giving it the same electron configuration as a noble gas.
Oleum (Latin oleum, meaning oil), or fuming sulfuric acid, is a solution of various compositions of sulfur trioxide in sulfuric acid, or sometimes more specifically to disulfuric acid (also known as pyrosulfuric acid).
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
In computing and optical disc recording technologies, an optical disc (OD) is a flat, usually circular disc which encodes binary data (bits) in the form of pits (binary value of 0 or off, due to lack of reflection when read) and lands (binary value of 1 or on, due to a reflection when read) on a special material (often aluminium) on one of its flat surfaces.
Optical storage is the storage of data on an optically readable medium.
Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices and systems that source, detect and control light, usually considered a sub-field of photonics.
An organic acid anhydride is an acid anhydride that is an organic compound.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
Organoantimony chemistry is the chemistry of compounds containing a carbon to antimony (Sb) chemical bond.
Organoarsenic chemistry is the chemistry of compounds containing a chemical bond between arsenic and carbon.
Organoborane or organoboron compounds are chemical compounds of boron and carbon that are organic derivatives of BH3, for example trialkyl boranes.
Organogermanium compounds are organometallic compounds containing a carbon to germanium or hydrogen to germanium chemical bond.
Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.
Organophosphates (also known as phosphate esters) are a class of organophosphorus compounds with the general structure O.
Organosilicon compounds are organometallic compounds containing carbon–silicon bonds.
Organotellurium chemistry in chemistry describes the synthesis and properties of chemical compounds containing a carbon to tellurium chemical bond.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
An oxyacid, or oxoacid, is an acid that contains oxygen.
An oxyanion, or oxoanion, is an ion with the generic formula (where A represents a chemical element and O represents an oxygen atom).
An oxycation is a polyatomic ion with a positive charge that contains oxygen.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
A party popper is an object commonly used at parties.
A perchlorate is the name for a chemical compound containing the perchlorate ion,.
Perchloric acid is a mineral acid with the formula HClO4.
A period in the periodic table is a horizontal row.
Periodate is an anion composed of iodine and oxygen.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
Pewter is a malleable metal alloy.
A phase change material (PCM) is a substance with a high heat of fusion which, melting and solidifying at a certain temperature, is capable of storing and releasing large amounts of energy.
Phase-change memory (also known as PCM, PCME, PRAM, PCRAM, OUM (ovonic unified memory) and C-RAM or CRAM (chalcogenide RAM)) is a type of non-volatile random-access memory.
Phosgene is the chemical compound with the formula COCl2.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phosphate glass is a class of optical glasses composed of metaphosphates of various metals.
Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Phosphorus pentoxide is a chemical compound with molecular formula P4O10 (with its common name derived from its empirical formula, P2O5).
Photosensors or photodetectors are sensors of light or other electromagnetic energy.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
A pnictogen is one of the chemical elements in group 15 of the periodic table.
A polonide is a chemical compound of the radioactive element polonium with any element less electronegative than polonium.
Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84.
Polonium dioxide (also known as polonium(IV) oxide) is a chemical compound with the formula PoO2.
Polyethylene terephthalate (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in fibres for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fibre for engineering resins.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Post-transition metals are a set of metallic elements in the periodic table located between the transition metals to their left, and the metalloids to their right.
can be broadly divided into metals, metalloids and nonmetals according to their shared physical and chemical properties.
The pseudohalogens are polyatomic analogues of halogens, whose chemistry, resembling that of the true halogens, allows them to substitute for halogens in several classes of chemical compounds.
A pyrotechnic initiator (also initiator or igniter) is a device containing a pyrotechnic composition used primarily to ignite other, more difficult-to-ignite materials, e.g. thermites, gas generators, and solid-fuel rockets.
Pyrotechnics is the science of using materials capable of undergoing self-contained and self-sustained exothermic chemical reactions for the production of heat, light, gas, smoke and/or sound.
Radiopharmaceuticals, or medicinal radiocompounds, are a group of pharmaceutical drugs which have radioactivity.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
A reaction intermediate or an intermediate is a molecular entity that is formed from the reactants (or preceding intermediates) and reacts further to give the directly observed products of a chemical reaction.
In chemistry, reactivity is the impetus for which a chemical substance undergoes a chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, with an overall release of energy.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
Relativistic quantum chemistry combines relativistic mechanics with quantum chemistry to explain elemental properties and structure, especially for the heavier elements of the periodic table.
Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
A salvo is the simultaneous discharge of artillery or firearms including the firing of guns either to hit a target or to perform a salute.
Seborrhoeic dermatitis, also known as seborrhoea, is a long-term skin disorder.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
Selenium sulfide can refer to either of the following.
Selenous acid (or selenious acid) is the chemical compound with the formula H2SeO3.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
The semiconductor industry is the aggregate collection of companies engaged in the design and fabrication of semiconductor devices.
A semimetal is a material with a very small overlap between the bottom of the conduction band and the top of the valence band.
The siemens (symbol: S) is the derived unit of electric conductance, electric susceptance and electric admittance in the International System of Units (SI).
Silane is an inorganic compound with chemical formula, SiH4, making it a group 14 hydride.
Silica sulfuric acid (-, SSA), a solid acid, is prepared by soaking silica gel with sulfuric acid.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Silicon tetrafluoride or tetrafluorosilane is the chemical compound with the formula SiF4.
SiGe, or silicon-germanium, is an alloy with any molar ratio of silicon and germanium, i.e. with a molecular formula of the form Si1−xGex.
Silicones, also known as polysiloxanes, are polymers that include any inert, synthetic compound made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon atoms and oxygen atoms, combined with carbon, hydrogen, and sometimes other elements.
Silicosis (also known as miner's phthisis, grinder's asthma, potter's rot and other occupation-related names, or by the invented name pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis) is a form of occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in the form of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs.
A cubic silsesquioxane. A silsesquioxane is an organosilicon compound with the chemical formula n (R.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
A smoke screen is smoke released to mask the movement or location of military units such as infantry, tanks, aircraft or ships.
Sodium arsenate is the inorganic compound with the formula Na3AsO4.
Sodium arsenite usually refers to the inorganic compound with the formula NaAsO2.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Sodium stibogluconate, sold under the brand name Pentostam among others, is a medication used to treat leishmaniasis.
Sodium-ion batteries (SIB) are a type of rechargeable metal-ion battery that uses sodium ions as charge carriers.
A sodium-vapor lamp is a gas-discharge lamp that uses sodium in an excited state to produce light at a characteristic wavelength near 589 nm.
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.
Solid-state electronics means semiconductor electronics; electronic equipment using semiconductor devices such as semiconductor diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits (ICs).
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
In finance, a spot contract, spot transaction, or simply spot, is a contract of buying or selling a commodity, security or currency for immediate settlement (payment and delivery) on the spot date, which is normally two business days after the trade date.
The data values of standard electrode potentials are given in the table below, in volts relative to the standard hydrogen electrode, and are for the following conditions.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Stibnite, sometimes called antimonite, is a sulfide mineral with the formula Sb2S3.
Stibophen is an anthelmintic classified as antimony compound and used as treatment of schistosomiasis by intramuscular injection.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
Sulfonamide (also called sulphonamide, sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs) is the basis of several groups of drugs.
A sulfoxide is a chemical compound containing a sulfinyl (SO) functional group attached to two carbon atoms.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Sulfur mustard, commonly known as mustard gas, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents known as the sulfur mustards which have the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs.
Sulfur trioxide (alternative spelling sulphur trioxide) is the chemical compound with the formula SO3.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
A superheater is a device used to convert saturated steam or wet steam into superheated steam or dry steam.
A surge protector (or surge suppressor or surge diverter) is an appliance or device designed to protect electrical devices from voltage spikes.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
The telluride ion is the anion Te2− and its derivatives.
Tellurite is a rare oxide mineral composed of tellurium dioxide (TeO2).
Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52.
Tellurium dioxide (TeO2) is a solid oxide of tellurium.
Tellurium tetrachloride is the inorganic compound with the empirical formula TeCl4.
Tellurous acid is an inorganic compound with the formula H2TeO3.
In crystallography, the tetragonal crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.
Thermal decomposition, or thermolysis, is a chemical decomposition caused by heat.
Thermite is a pyrotechnic composition of metal powder, which serves as fuel, and metal oxide.
Thermoelectric materials show the thermoelectric effect in a strong or convenient form.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Tinea versicolor is a condition characterized by a skin eruption on the trunk and proximal extremities.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
A topological insulator is a material with non-trivial symmetry-protected topological order that behaves as an insulator in its interior but whose surface contains conducting states, meaning that electrons can only move along the surface of the material.
A topological quantum computer is a theoretical quantum computer that employs two-dimensional quasiparticles called anyons, whose world lines pass around one another to form braids in a three-dimensional spacetime (i.e., one temporal plus two spatial dimensions).
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
In printing, type metal (sometimes called hot metal) refers to the metal alloys used in traditional typefounding and hot metal typesetting.
In chemistry, the valence or valency of an element is a measure of its combining power with other atoms when it forms chemical compounds or molecules.
In solid-state physics, the valence band and conduction band are the bands closest to the Fermi level and thus determine the electrical conductivity of the solid.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.
Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.
Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (25 April 1900 – 15 December 1958) was an Austrian-born Swiss and American theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Ytterbium is a chemical element with symbol Yb and atomic number 70.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.