141 relations: Albert Einstein, Alcoa, Allies of World War II, Alvin M. Weinberg, American football, Argonne National Laboratory, Arthur Compton, Arthur V. Peterson, Atomic number, Attack on Pearl Harbor, B Reactor, Beryllium, Bismuth phosphate process, Bone seeker, Brigadier general (United States), Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Captain (United States O-3), Chemical element, Chicago, Chicago Pile-1, Chicago Pile-3, Clinton Engineer Works, Columbia University, Cook County, Illinois, Corrosion, Critical mass, Criticality (status), Cyclotron, Drum (container), DuPont, Edward Creutz, Einstein–Szilárd letter, Emilio Segrè, Enrico Fermi, Enrico Fermi Institute, Ernest Lawrence, Eugene Wigner, Farrington Daniels, Film badge dosimeter, Fissile material, Forest Preserve District of Cook County, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Frank Spedding, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Fritz Strassmann, Geiger counter, General Electric, George Herbert Jones Laboratory, German nuclear weapon project, Glenn T. Seaborg, ..., Graphite, Hanford Site, Heat exchanger, Heavy water, Helium, Henry DeWolf Smyth, Herbert L. Anderson, Herbert Newby McCoy, Herbert Parker (scientist), Ice house (building), Illinois, J. Robert Oppenheimer, James Franck, James Franck Institute, John Archibald Wheeler, Joyce C. Stearns, Katharine Way, Leo Szilard, Leslie Groves, Lise Meitner, Los Alamos, New Mexico, Manhattan Project, Martin D. Whitaker, Masonite, Microgram, Midwestern United States, National Academy of Sciences, National Defense Research Committee, Neutron, Neutron cross section, Neutron moderator, Neutron reflector, Neutron temperature, Niels Bohr, Nobel Prize, Norman Hilberry, Nuclear chain reaction, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear weapon, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Office of Scientific Research and Development, Otto Hahn, Otto Robert Frisch, Oxalic acid, P-9 Project, PH, Plutonium, Plutonium-239, President of the United States, Princeton University, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Project Y, Quartz fiber dosimeter, Radiation protection, Radium Girls, Red Gate Woods, Robert Maynard Hutchins, Robert Serber, Roentgen (unit), Roentgen equivalent man, S-1 Executive Committee, Samuel King Allison, Sodium dichromate, Sodium silicate, Stafford L. Warren, Stagg Field, Stone & Webster, Sulfuric acid, The Making of the Atomic Bomb, Thermal stability, Tritium, United States, United States Army Corps of Engineers, United States Atomic Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, United States Department of Energy national laboratories, United States Department of War, University of California, Berkeley, University of Chicago, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, University of Rochester, Uranium, Walter Zinn, Washington (state), Washington University in St. Louis, Wigner effect, World War II, X-10 Graphite Reactor. Expand index (91 more) » « Shrink index
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Alcoa Corporation (from Aluminum Company of America) is an American industrial corporation.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Alvin Martin Weinberg (April 20, 1915 – October 18, 2006) was an American nuclear physicist who was the administrator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during and after the Manhattan Project.
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end.
Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located near Lemont, Illinois, outside Chicago.
Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927 for his 1923 discovery of the Compton effect, which demonstrated the particle nature of electromagnetic radiation.
Arthur Vincent (Pete) Peterson (31 October 1912 – 24 March 2008) was a United States Army colonel who served as the Manhattan District's Chicago Area Engineer.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
The B Reactor at the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington, was the first large-scale nuclear reactor ever built.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
The bismuth-phosphate process was used to extract plutonium from irradiated uranium taken from nuclear reactors.
A bone seeker is an element, often a radioisotope, that tends to accumulate in the bones of humans and other animals when it is introduced into the body.
In the United States Armed Forces, brigadier general (BG, BGen, or Brig Gen) is a one-star general officer with the pay grade of O-7 in the U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Air Force.
The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is a nontechnical academic journal, published by Taylor and Francis that covers global security and public policy issues related to the dangers posed by nuclear threats, weapons of mass destruction, climate change, and emerging technologies and biological hazards.
In the United States Army (USA), U.S. Marine Corps (USMC), and U.S. Air Force (USAF), captain (abbreviated "CPT" in the USA and "Capt" in the USMC and USAF) is a company grade officer rank, with the pay grade of O-3.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
Chicago Pile-1 (CP-1) was the world's first nuclear reactor.
Chicago Pile-3 (CP-3) was the first heavy water reactor in the world, going critical on 15 May 1944.
The Clinton Engineer Works (CEW) was the production installation of the Manhattan Project that during World War II produced the enriched uranium used in the 1945 bombing of Hiroshima, as well as the first examples of reactor-produced plutonium.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
Cook County is a county in the U.S. state of Illinois.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
A critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Criticality, is the state of a nuclear chain reacting medium when the chain reaction is just self-sustaining (or critical), that is, when the reactivity is zero.
A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of California, Berkeley, and patented in 1932.
A drum is a cylindrical container used for shipping bulk cargo.
Edward Creutz (January 23, 1913 – June 27, 2009) was an American physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project at the Metallurgical Laboratory and the Los Alamos Laboratory during World War II.
The Einstein–Szilárd letter was a letter written by Leó Szilárd and signed by Albert Einstein that was sent to the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on August 2, 1939.
Emilio Gino Segrè (1 February 1905 – 22 April 1989) was an Italian-American physicist and Nobel laureate, who discovered the elements technetium and astatine, and the antiproton, a subatomic antiparticle, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1959.
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.
The Institute for Nuclear Studies was founded September 1945 as part of the University of Chicago with Samuel King Allison as director.
Ernest Orlando Lawrence (August 8, 1901 – August 27, 1958) was a pioneering American nuclear scientist and winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1939 for his invention of the cyclotron.
Eugene Paul "E.
Farrington Daniels (March 8, 1889 – June 23, 1972), was an American physical chemist, is considered one of the pioneers of the modern direct use of solar energy.
The film badge dosimeter or film badge is a personal dosimeter used for monitoring cumulative radiation dose due to ionizing radiation.
In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.
The Forest Preserve District of Cook County is a governmental commission in Cook County, Illinois, that owns and manages the Cook County Forest Preserves.
The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) is a United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) project to manage and cleanup environmental contamination that resulted from early United States Atomic Energy Commission activities.
Frank Harold Spedding (22 October 1902 – 15 December 1984) was a Canadian American chemist.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Friedrich Wilhelm "Fritz" Strassmann (Straßmann; 22 February 1902 – 22 April 1980) was a German chemist who, with Otto Hahn in early 1939, identified barium in the residue after bombarding uranium with neutrons, results which, when confirmed, demonstrated the previously unknown phenomenon of nuclear fission.
The Geiger counter is an instrument used for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation used widely in applications such as radiation dosimetry, radiological protection, experimental physics and the nuclear industry.
General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.
The George Herbert Jones Laboratory is an academic building at 5747 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois, on the main campus of the University of Chicago.
The German nuclear weapon project (Uranprojekt; informally known as the Uranverein; Uranium Society or Uranium Club) was a scientific effort led by Germany to develop and produce nuclear weapons during World War II.
Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912February 25, 1999) was an American chemist whose involvement in the synthesis, discovery and investigation of ten transuranium elements earned him a share of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
The Hanford Site is a decommissioned nuclear production complex operated by the United States federal government on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington.
A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between two or more fluids.
Heavy water (deuterium oxide) is a form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (or D, also known as heavy hydrogen), rather than the common hydrogen-1 isotope (or H, also called protium) that makes up most of the hydrogen in normal water.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Henry DeWolf "Harry" Smyth (May 1, 1898 – September 11, 1986) was an American physicist, diplomat, and bureaucrat.
Herbert Lawrence Anderson (May 24, 1914 – July 16, 1988) was a Jewish American nuclear physicist who contributed to the Manhattan Project.
Herbert Newby McCoy (June 29, 1870 – May 7, 1945) was an American chemist who taught at the University of Chicago and the University of Utah and was the vice-president of Lindsay Light & Chemical Company.
Herbert M. Parker (13 April 1910, Accrington – 5 March 1984, Richland, Washington) was an English, and American immigrant, medical physicist.
Ice houses or icehouses are buildings used to store ice throughout the year, commonly used prior to the invention of the refrigerator.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.
James Franck (26 August 1882 – 21 May 1964) was a German physicist who won the 1925 Nobel Prize for Physics with Gustav Hertz "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom".
The James Franck Institute of the University of Chicago conducts interdisciplinary research in physics, chemistry and materials science.
John Archibald Wheeler (July 9, 1911 – April 13, 2008) was an American theoretical physicist.
Joyce Clennam Stearns (23 June 1893 – 11 June 1948) was an American physicist and an administrator on the Manhattan Project.
Katharine "Kay" Way (February 20, 1902 – December 9, 1995) was an American physicist best known for her work on the Nuclear Data Project.
Leo Szilard (Szilárd Leó; Leo Spitz until age 2; February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964) was a Hungarian-German-American physicist and inventor.
Lieutenant General Leslie Richard Groves Jr. (17 August 1896 – 13 July 1970) was a United States Army Corps of Engineers officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and directed the Manhattan Project, a top secret research project that developed the atomic bomb during World War II.
Lise Meitner (7 November 1878 – 27 October 1968) was an Austrian-Swedish physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics.
Los Alamos (Los Álamos, meaning "The Cottonwoods" or "The Poplars") is a town in Los Alamos County, New Mexico, United States that is recognized as the birthplace of the atomic bomb––the primary objective of the Manhattan Project by Los Alamos National Laboratory during World War II.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
Martin Dewey Whitaker (June 29, 1902 – August 31, 1960) was an American physicist who was the first director of the Clinton Laboratories (now the Oak Ridge National Laboratory) during World War II.
Masonite is a type of hardboard, another kind of engineered wood, which is made of steam-cooked and pressure-molded wood fibres in a process patented by William H. Mason.
In the metric system, a microgram or microgramme (μg; the recommended symbol in the United States when communicating medical information is mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one millionth of a gram.
The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or simply the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2").
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) was an organization created "to coordinate, supervise, and conduct scientific research on the problems underlying the development, production, and use of mechanisms and devices of warfare" in the United States from June 27, 1940, until June 28, 1941.
In nuclear and particle physics, the concept of a neutron cross section is used to express the likelihood of interaction between an incident neutron and a target nucleus.
In nuclear engineering, a neutron moderator is a medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons, thereby turning them into thermal neutrons capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction involving uranium-235 or a similar fissile nuclide.
A neutron reflector is any material that reflects neutrons.
The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.
Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
Norman Hilberry (March 11, 1899 – March 28, 1986) was an American physicist, best known as the director of the Argonne National Laboratory from 1956 to 1961.
A nuclear chain reaction occurs when one single nuclear reaction causes an average of one or more subsequent nuclear reactions, thus leading to the possibility of a self-propagating series of these reactions.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Oak Ridge is a city in Anderson and Roane counties in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Tennessee, about west of Knoxville.
The Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) was an agency of the United States federal government created to coordinate scientific research for military purposes during World War II.
Otto Hahn, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry.
Otto Robert Frisch FRS (1 October 1904 – 22 September 1979) was an Austrian-British physicist.
Oxalic acid is an organic compound with the formula C2H2O4.
The P-9 Project was the codename given during World War II to the Manhattan Project's heavy water production program.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society is a quarterly philosophy peer-reviewed journal published by the American Philosophical Society since 1838.
The Los Alamos Laboratory, also known as Project Y, was a secret laboratory established by the Manhattan Project and operated by the University of California during World War II.
A quartz fiber dosimeter, sometimes called a self indicating pocket dosimeter (SIPD) or self reading pocket dosimeter (SRPD), is a type of radiation dosimeter, a pen-like device that measures the cumulative dose of ionizing radiation received by the device, usually over one work period.
Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this".
The Radium Girls were female factory workers who contracted radiation poisoning from painting watch dials with self-luminous paint.
Red Gate Woods is part of a forest preserve within the Palos Division of the Forest Preserve District of Cook County, Illinois.
Robert Maynard Hutchins (January 17, 1899 – May 14, 1977), was an American educational philosopher, president (1929–1945) and chancellor (1945–1951) of the University of Chicago, and earlier dean of Yale Law School (1927–1929).
Robert Serber (March 14, 1909 – June 1, 1997) was an American physicist who participated in the Manhattan Project.
The roentgen or röntgen (symbol R) is a legacy unit of measurement for the exposure of X-rays and gamma rays.
The roentgen equivalent man (or rem) is an older, CGS unit of equivalent dose, effective dose, and committed dose which are measures of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
The Uranium Committee was a committee of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) that succeeded the Advisory Committee on Uranium and later evolved into the S-1 Section of the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), when that organization absorbed the NDRC in June 1941, and the S-1 Executive Committee in June 1942.
Samuel King Allison (November 13, 1900 – September 15, 1965) was an American physicist, most notable for his role in the Manhattan Project, for which he was awarded the Medal for Merit.
Sodium dichromate is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2Cr2O7.
Sodium silicate is a generic name for chemical compounds with the formula or ·, such as sodium metasilicate, sodium orthosilicate, and sodium pyrosilicate.
Stafford Leak Warren (July 19, 1896 - July 26, 1981) was an American physician and radiologist who was a pioneer in the field of nuclear medicine and best known for his invention of the mammogram.
Amos Alonzo Stagg Field is the name of two different football fields for the University of Chicago.
Stone & Webster was an American engineering services company based in Stoughton, Massachusetts.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
The Making of the Atomic Bomb is a contemporary history book written by the American journalist and historian Richard Rhodes, first published by Simon & Schuster in 1987.
Thermal stability also describes, as defined by Schmidt (1928), the stability of a water body and its resistance to mixing.
Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is a U.S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering, design, and construction management agencies.
The United States Atomic Energy Commission, commonly known as the AEC, was an agency of the United States government established after World War II by U.S. Congress to foster and control the peacetime development of atomic science and technology.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The United States Department of Energy National Laboratories and Technology Centers are a system of facilities and laboratories overseen by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of advancing science and technology to fulfill the DOE mission.
The United States Department of War, also called the War Department (and occasionally War Office in the early years), was the United States Cabinet department originally responsible for the operation and maintenance of the United States Army, also bearing responsibility for naval affairs until the establishment of the Navy Department in 1798, and for most land-based air forces until the creation of the Department of the Air Force on September 18, 1947.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.
The University of Rochester (U of R or UR) frequently referred to as Rochester, is a private research university in Rochester, New York.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Walter Henry Zinn (December 10, 1906 – February 14, 2000) was a nuclear physicist who was the first director of the Argonne National Laboratory from 1946 to 1956.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
Washington University in St.
The Wigner effect (named for its discoverer, Eugene Wigner), also known as the discomposition effect or Wigner's Disease, is the dislocation of atoms in a solid caused by neutron radiation.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, formerly known as the Clinton Pile and X-10 Pile, was the world's second artificial nuclear reactor (after Enrico Fermi's Chicago Pile-1), and the first designed and built for continuous operation.