201 relations: Ablation casting, Abrasive, Abrasive flow machining, Alchemy, Alloy, Aluminium, Americas, Annealing (metallurgy), Anvil, Art, Atharvaveda, Aviation, Bearing (mechanical), Belt (mechanical), Bending (metalworking), Blacksmith, Bone, Boring (manufacturing), Bridge, Broaching (metalworking), Bronze, Bronze Age, Bronze and brass ornamental work, Burr (edge), Calipers, Camshaft, Candlestick, Capillary action, Centrifugal casting (industrial), Chemistry, China, Chisel, Chromium, Chuck (engineering), Coining (metalworking), Cold, Cold sizing, Construction, Coolant, Copper, Crankshaft, Cutting fluid, Decambering, Deep drawing, Deformation (engineering), Design, Diamond, Die casting, Drawing (manufacturing), Drill, ..., Drilling, Ductility, Egypt, Electric arc, Electrical discharge machining, Electrical injury, Electron, Electron beam machining, Electronics, Electroplating, Engine, English wheel, European colonization of the Americas, Extrusion, File (tool), Fire, Forging, Freight transport, Friction, Friction drilling, German National Library of Science and Technology, Gold, Granulation (jewellery), Great Britain, Grinding machine, Grinding wheel, Hammer, Hardness, Heading (metalworking), Heat, Hot metal gas forming, Hydroforming, Hyperbaric welding, Incremental sheet forming, India, Industry, Inorganic compound, Investment casting, Iraqi Kurdistan, Iron, Iron Age, Isaac Asimov, Japan, Jewellery, Key (engineering), King, Knurling, Lake Michigan, Laser, Lead, Line shaft, List of manufacturing processes, List of metalworking occupations, Lost-wax casting, Machine shop, Machine tool, Machining, Machinist, Marking out, Maya civilization, Mehrgarh, Melting, Mercury (element), Metal, Metal Couture, Metal fabrication, Metal spinning, Metal testing, Metalworking hand tool, Meteoroid, Milling (machining), Milling cutter, Mining, North America, Numerical control, Ore, Outer space, Oxy-fuel welding and cutting, Pattern, Pendant, Permanent mold casting, Pharaoh, Photochemical machining, Planer (metalworking), Plasma cutting, Plasticity (physics), Powder metallurgy, Precious metal, Precipitation hardening, Pressure, Punch (tool), Quenching, Rabbet, Rail transport, Raising (metalworking), Reduction potential, Repoussé and chasing, Rivet, Rock (geology), Roll bender, Roll forming, Rolling (metalworking), Rotation around a fixed axis, Rotational symmetry, Router (woodworking), Rubber pad forming, Sand casting, Saw, Screw, Screw thread, Sewing table, Shear forming, Shearing (manufacturing), Shell molding, Ship, Silver, Smelting, Snips, South Asia, Spin casting, Spindle (tool), Stamping (metalworking), Superforming, Swarf, Tap and die, Tape measure, Technical drawing, Tempering (metallurgy), Tendon, Thermoplastic, Threading (manufacturing), Timeline of materials technology, Tin, Tool, Tool bit, Trade, Turning, Twelve Tribes of Israel, Ultrasonic machining, Ultrasound, Ultraviolet, Varna Necropolis, Vedas, Volt, Water jet cutter, Weapon, Welding, Western Asia, Wisconsin, Wood, Zinc. Expand index (151 more) » « Shrink index
Ablation Casting is a variation of sand casting, with a soluble binder.
An abrasive is a material, often a mineral, that is used to shape or finish a workpiece through rubbing which leads to part of the workpiece being worn away by friction.
Abrasive flow machining (AFM), also known as abrasive flow deburring or extrude honing, is an interior surface finishing process characterized by flowing an abrasive-laden fluid through a workpiece.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment that alters the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and reduce its hardness, making it more workable.
An anvil is a metalworking tool consisting of a large block of metal (usually forged or cast steel), with a flattened top surface, upon which another object is struck (or "worked").
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
The Atharva Veda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, from and veda, meaning "knowledge") is the "knowledge storehouse of atharvāṇas, the procedures for everyday life".
Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry.
A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion to only the desired motion, and reduces friction between moving parts.
A belt is a loop of flexible material used to link two or more rotating shafts mechanically, most often parallel.
Bending is a manufacturing process that produces a V-shape, U-shape, or channel shape along a straight axis in ductile materials, most commonly sheet metal.
A blacksmith is a metalsmith who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal, using tools to hammer, bend, and cut (cf. whitesmith).
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
In machining, boring is the process of enlarging a hole that has already been drilled (or cast) by means of a single-point cutting tool (or of a boring head containing several such tools), such as in boring a gun barrel or an engine cylinder.
A bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles without closing the way underneath such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle.
Broaching is a machining process that uses a toothed tool, called a broach, to remove material.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The use of bronze dates from remote antiquity.
A burr is a raised edge or small piece of material remaining attached to a workpiece after a modification process.
A caliper (British spelling also calliper, or in plurale tantum sense a pair of calipers) is a device used to measure the distance between two opposite sides of an object.
A camshaft is a shaft to which a cam is fastened or of which a cam forms an integral part.
A candlestick, chamberstick, or candelabrum (plural: candelabra) is a device used to hold a candle in place.
Capillary action (sometimes capillarity, capillary motion, capillary effect, or wicking) is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, or even in opposition to, external forces like gravity.
Centrifugal casting or rotocasting is a casting technique that is typically used to cast thin-walled cylinders.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A chisel is a tool with a characteristically shaped cutting edge (such that wood chisels have lent part of their name to a particular grind) of blade on its end, for carving or cutting a hard material such as wood, stone, or metal by hand, struck with a mallet, or mechanical power.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
A chuck is a specialized type of clamp.
Coining is a form of precision stamping in which a workpiece is subjected to a sufficiently high stress to induce plastic flow on the surface of the material.
Cold is the presence of low temperature, especially in the atmosphere.
Cold sizing is a squeezing operation performed at temperatures significantly below the melting point to finish the surface of a workpiece to ensure better dimensional accuracy and surface finish.
Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.
A coolant is a substance, typically liquid or gas, that is used to reduce or regulate the temperature of a system.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
A crankshaft—related to crank—is a mechanical part able to perform a conversion between reciprocating motion and rotational motion.
Cutting fluid is a type of coolant and lubricant designed specifically for metalworking processes, such as machining and stamping.
Decambering is the metalworking process of removing camber, or horizontal bend, from strip shaped materials.
Deep drawing is a sheet metal forming process in which a sheet metal blank is radially drawn into a forming die by the mechanical action of a punch.
In materials science, deformation refers to any changes in the shape or size of an object due to-.
Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction (as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, and sewing patterns).
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
Die casting is a metal casting process that is characterized by forcing molten metal under high pressure into a mold cavity.
Drawing is a metalworking process which uses tensile forces to stretch metal or glass.
A drill is a tool fitted with a cutting tool attachment or driving tool attachment, usually a drill bit or driver bit, used for boring holes in various materials or fastening various materials together.
Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut a hole of circular cross-section in solid materials.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces an ongoing electrical discharge.
Electrical discharge machining (EDM), also known as spark machining, spark eroding, burning, die sinking, wire burning or wire erosion, is a manufacturing process whereby a desired shape is obtained by using electrical discharges (sparks).
Electrical injury is a physiological reaction caused by electric current passing through the (human) body.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Electron-beam machining (EBM) is a process where high-velocity electrons concentrated into a narrow beam are directed toward the work piece, creating heat and vaporizing the material.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
Electroplating is a process that uses an electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode.
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy.
The English wheel, in Britain also known as a wheeling machine, is a metalworking tool that enables a craftsperson to form compound (double curvature) curves from flat sheets of metal such as aluminium or steel.
The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Europe.
Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile.
A file is a tool used to remove fine amounts of material from a workpiece.
Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products.
Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces.
Freight transport is the physical process of transporting commodities and merchandise goods and cargo.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
Friction drilling is a method of making holes in metal in which the material is pushed out of the way with the aid of heat from friction.
The German National Library of Science and Technology (Technische Informationsbibliothek), abbreviated TIB, is the national library of the Federal Republic of Germany for all fields of engineering, technology, and the natural sciences.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Granulation is a jewellery manufacturing technique whereby a surface is covered in spherules or granules of precious metal.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
A grinding machine, often shortened to grinder, is any of various power tools or machine tools used for grinding, which is a type of machining using an abrasive wheel as the cutting tool.
A grinding wheel is a wheel composed of an abrasive compound and used for various grinding (abrasive cutting) and abrasive machining operations.
A hammer is a tool or device that delivers a blow (a sudden impact) to an object.
Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion.
Heading is a metalworking process which incorporates the forging, extruding and upsetting process.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
Hot metal gas forming (HMGF) is a method of die forming in which a metal tube is heated to a pliable state, near to but below its melting point, then pressurized internally by a gas in order to form the tube outward into the shape defined by an enclosing die cavity.
Hydroforming is a cost-effective way of shaping ductile metals such as aluminium, brass, low alloy steel, and stainless steel into lightweight, structurally stiff and strong pieces.
Hyperbaric welding is the process of welding at elevated pressures, normally underwater.
Incremental sheet forming (or ISF, also known as Single Point Forming) is a sheet metal forming technique where a sheet is formed into the final workpiece by a series of small incremental deformations.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
Investment casting is an industrial process based on lost-wax casting, one of the oldest known metal-forming techniques.
Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Herêmî Kurdistan) by the Iraqi constitution, is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Isaac Asimov (January 2, 1920 – April 6, 1992) was an American writer and professor of biochemistry at Boston University.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.
In mechanical engineering, a key is a machine element used to connect a rotating machine element to a shaft.
King, or King Regnant is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts.
Knurling is a manufacturing process, typically conducted on a lathe, whereby a pattern of straight, angled or crossed lines is rolled into the material.
Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America and the only one located entirely within the United States.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
A line shaft is a power driven rotating shaft for power transmission that was used extensively from the Industrial Revolution until the early 20th century.
This tree lists various manufacturing processes arranged by similarity of function.
Metalworking occupations include.
Lost-wax casting (also called "investment casting", "precision casting", or cire perdue in French) is the process by which a duplicate metal sculpture (often silver, gold, brass or bronze) is cast from an original sculpture.
A machine shop is a room, building, or company where machining is done.
A machine tool is a machine for shaping or machining metal or other rigid materials, usually by cutting, boring, grinding, shearing, or other forms of deformation.
Machining is any of various processes in which a piece of raw material is cut into a desired final shape and size by a controlled material-removal process.
A machinist is a person who machines using hand tools and machine tools to prototype, fabricate or make modifications to a part that is made of metal, plastics, or wood.
Marking out or layout means the process of transferring a design or pattern to a workpiece, as the first step in the manufacturing process.
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
Mehrgarh (Balochi: Mehrgaŕh; مهرګړ; مہرگڑھ), sometimes anglicized as Mehergarh or Mehrgar, is a Neolithic (7000 BCE to c. 2500/2000 BCE) site located near the Bolan Pass on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan, Pakistan, to the west of the Indus River valley.
Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metal Couture is a type of adornment or fashion item, made of metal, generally made as art, for fashion photography or high-end couture catwalk.
Metal fabrication is the building of metal structures by cutting, bending, and assembling processes.
Metal spinning, also known as spin forming or spinning or metal turning most commonly, is a metalworking process by which a disc or tube of metal is rotated at high speed and formed into an axially symmetric part.
Metal testing is a process or procedure used to check composition of an unknown metallic substance.
Metalworking hand tools are hand tools that are used in the metalworking field.
A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.
Milling is the machining process of using rotary cutters to remove material from a workpiece by advancing (or feeding) the cutter into the workpiece at a certain direction.
Milling cutters are cutting tools typically used in milling machines or machining centres to perform milling operations (and occasionally in other machine tools).
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Computer numerical control (CNC) is the automation of machine tools by means of computers executing pre-programmed sequences of machine control commands.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Principle of the burn cutting Oxy-fuel welding (commonly called oxyacetylene welding, oxy welding, or gas welding in the U.S.) and oxy-fuel cutting are processes that use fuel gases and oxygen to weld and cut metals, respectively.
A pattern is a discernible regularity in the world or in a manmade design.
The word pendant derives from the Latin word pendere and Old French word pendr, both of which translate to "to hang down".
Permanent mold casting is a metal casting process that employs reusable molds ("permanent molds"), usually made from metal.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
Photochemical machining (PCM), also known as photochemical milling or photo etching, is a chemical milling process used to fabricate sheet metal components using a photoresist and etchants to corrosively machine away selected areas.
A planer is a type of metalworking machine tool that uses linear relative motion between the workpiece and a single-point cutting tool to cut the work piece.
Plasma cutting is a process that cuts through electrically conductive materials by means of an accelerated jet of hot plasma.
In physics and materials science, plasticity describes the deformation of a (solid) material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces.
Powder metallurgy (PM) is a term covering a wide range of ways in which materials or components are made from metal powders.
A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.
Precipitation hardening, also called age hardening or particle hardening, is a heat treatment technique used to increase the yield strength of malleable materials, including most structural alloys of aluminium, magnesium, nickel, titanium, and some steels and stainless steels.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
A punch is a hard metal rod with a sharp tip at one end and a blunt butt end at the other, which is usually struck by a hammer.
In materials science, quenching is the rapid cooling of a workpiece in water, oil or air to obtain certain material properties.
A rabbet or rebate is a recess or groove cut into the edge of a piece of machinable material, usually wood.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
Raising is a metalworking technique whereby sheet metal is depressed in a stump or other solid object by repeated 'courses' of hammering and annealing.
Reduction potential (also known as redox potential, oxidation / reduction potential, ORP, pE, ε, or E_) is a measure of the tendency of a chemical species to acquire electrons and thereby be reduced.
Repoussé or repoussage (respectively) is a metalworking technique in which a malleable metal is ornamented or shaped by hammering from the reverse side to create a design in low relief.
A rivet is a permanent mechanical fastener.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
A Roll bender is a mechanical jig having three rollers used to form a metal bar into a circular arc.
Roll forming, also spelled rollforming, is a type of rolling involving the continuous bending of a long strip of sheet metal (typically coiled steel) into a desired cross-section.
In metalworking, rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through one or more pairs of rolls to reduce the thickness and to make the thickness uniform.
Rotation around a fixed axis or about a fixed axis of revolution or motion with respect to a fixed axis of rotation is a special case of rotational motion.
Rotational symmetry, also known as radial symmetry in biology, is the property a shape has when it looks the same after some rotation by a partial turn.
A router (also) is a hand tool or power tool that a worker uses to rout (hollow out) an area in relatively hard material like wood or plastic.
Rubber pad forming (RPF) is a metalworking process where sheet metal is pressed between a die and a rubber block, made of polyurethane.
Sand casting, also known as sand molded casting, is a metal casting process characterized by using sand as the mold material.
A saw is a tool consisting of a tough blade, wire, or chain with a hard toothed edge.
A screw is a type of fastener, in some ways similar to a bolt (see Differentiation between bolt and screw below), typically made of metal, and characterized by a helical ridge, known as a male thread (external thread).
A screw thread, often shortened to thread, is a helical structure used to convert between rotational and linear movement or force.
A sewing table or work table is a table or desk used for sewing.
Shear forming, also referred as shear spinning, is similar to metal spinning.
Shearing, also known as die cutting, is a process which cuts stock without the formation of chips or the use of burning or melting.
Shell moulding, also known as shell-mould casting, is an expendable mold casting process that uses a resin covered sand to form the mold.
A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying passengers or goods, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research and fishing.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
Snips, also known as shears, are hand tools used to cut sheet metal and other tough webs.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Spin casting, also known as centrifugal rubber mold casting (CRMC), is a method of utilizing centrifugal force to produce castings from a rubber mold.
In machine tools, a spindle is a rotating axis of the machine, which often has a shaft at its heart.
Stamping (also known as pressing) is the process of placing flat sheet metal in either blank or coil form into a stamping press where a tool and die surface forms the metal into a net shape.
Superforming is a hot metal forming process that uses similar principles to thermoforming plastics, where a sheet of material is heated and forced onto a male or female form using gas pressure.
Swarf, also known as chips or by other process-specific names (such as turnings, filings, or shavings), are pieces of metal, wood, or plastic that are the debris or waste resulting from machining, woodworking, or similar subtractive (material-removing) manufacturing processes.
Taps and dies are tools used to create screw threads, which is called threading.
A tape measure or measuring tape is a flexible ruler and used to measure distance.
Technical drawing, drafting or drawing, is the act and discipline of composing drawings that visually communicate how something functions or is constructed.
Tempering is a process of heat treating, which is used to increase the toughness of iron-based alloys.
A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.
A thermoplastic, or thermosoftening plastic, is a plastic material, a polymer, that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling.
Threading is the process of creating a screw thread.
Major innovations in materials technology.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
A tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process.
A tool bit is a non-rotary cutting tool used in metal lathes, shapers, and planers.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
Turning is a machining process in which a cutting tool, typically a non-rotary tool bit, describes a helix toolpath by moving more or less linearly while the workpiece rotates.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Tribes of Israel (שבטי ישראל) were said to have descended from the 12 sons of the patriarch Jacob (who was later named Israel) by two wives, Leah and Rachel, and two concubines, Zilpah and Bilhah.
Ultrasonic machining, or strictly speaking the "Ultrasonic vibration machining", is a subtraction manufacturing process that removes material from the surface of a part through high frequency, low amplitude vibrations of a tool against the material surface in the presence of fine abrasive particles.
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The so-called Varna Necropolis (Варненски некропол) (also Varna Cemetery) is a burial site from 4569–4340 BC in the western industrial zone of Varna (approximately half a kilometre from Lake Varna and 4 km from the city centre), internationally considered one of the key archaeological sites in world prehistory.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.
A water jet cutter, also known as a water jet or waterjet, is an industrial tool capable of cutting a wide variety of materials using a very high-pressure jet of water, or a mixture of water and an abrasive substance.
A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
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