81 relations: Abelian sandpile model, Absolute zero, Activation energy, Adenosine triphosphate, Allotropy, Amorphous solid, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Avalanche, Boron, Catalysis, Chaos theory, Chemical bond, Chemical kinetics, Chemical stability, Chemistry, Cluster chemistry, Cofactor (biochemistry), Colloid, Computational neuroscience, Crystal structure, Degenerate energy levels, Diamond, DNA, Dynamical system, Electron, Emulsion, Enzyme, False vacuum, Feedback, Friction, Glass, Graphite, Ground state, Half-life, Hysteresis, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Intrinsic and extrinsic properties, Isomer, Isospin, Isotope, Macromolecule, Martensite, Maxima and minima, Metastability, Metastability (electronics), Metastability in the brain, Mineral, Molecule, Non-equilibrium thermodynamics, ..., Nucleon, Phase diagram, Physics, Polymer, Polymorphism (materials science), Potential, Pressure, Protein, Quantum, Quantum mechanics, Quantum tunnelling, Quark, Quartz, Reaction intermediate, Rectangular potential barrier, Resonance, RNA, Rydberg atom, Sand, Selection rule, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, State of matter, Stimulated emission, Subatomic particle, Sublimation (phase transition), Supercooling, Superheating, System dynamics, Technetium-99m, Temperature, Thermal fluctuations. Expand index (31 more) » « Shrink index
The Abelian sandpile model, also known as the Bak–Tang–Wiesenfeld model, was the first discovered example of a dynamical system displaying self-organized criticality.
Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reach their minimum value, taken as 0.
In chemistry and physics, activation energy is the energy which must be available to a chemical or nuclear system with potential reactants to result in: a chemical reaction, nuclear reaction, or other various other physical phenomena.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.
In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
An avalanche (also called a snowslide) is a cohesive slab of snow lying upon a weaker layer of snow in the snowpack that fractures and slides down a steep slope when triggered.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
Chemical kinetics, also known as reaction kinetics, is the study of rates of chemical processes.
Chemical stability when used in the technical sense in chemistry, means thermodynamic stability of a chemical system.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
In chemistry, a cluster is an ensemble of bound atoms or molecules that is intermediate in size between a molecule and a bulk solid.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
Computational neuroscience (also known as theoretical neuroscience or mathematical neuroscience) is a branch of neuroscience which employs mathematical models, theoretical analysis and abstractions of the brain to understand the principles that govern the development, structure, physiology and cognitive abilities of the nervous system.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
In quantum mechanics, an energy level is degenerate if it corresponds to two or more different measurable states of a quantum system.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
In mathematics, a dynamical system is a system in which a function describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
In quantum field theory, a false vacuum is a hypothetical vacuum that is somewhat, but not entirely, stable.
Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Hysteresis is the dependence of the state of a system on its history.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
An intrinsic property is a property of a system or of a material itself or within.
An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.
In nuclear physics and particle physics, isospin is a quantum number related to the strong interaction.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
Martensite, named after the German metallurgist Adolf Martens (1850–1914), most commonly refers to a very hard form of steel crystalline structure, but it can also refer to any crystal structure that is formed by diffusionless transformation.
In mathematical analysis, the maxima and minima (the respective plurals of maximum and minimum) of a function, known collectively as extrema (the plural of extremum), are the largest and smallest value of the function, either within a given range (the local or relative extrema) or on the entire domain of a function (the global or absolute extrema).
In physics, metastability is a stable state of a dynamical system other than the system's state of least energy.
Metastability in electronics is the ability of a digital electronics system to persist for an unbounded time in an unstable equilibrium or metastable state.
In the field of computational neuroscience, the theory of metastability refers to the human brain’s ability to integrate several functional parts and to produce neural oscillations in a cooperative and coordinated manner, providing the basis for conscious activity.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a branch of thermodynamics that deals with physical systems that are not in thermodynamic equilibrium but can be described in terms of variables (non-equilibrium state variables) that represent an extrapolation of the variables used to specify the system in thermodynamic equilibrium.
In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
A phase diagram in physical chemistry, engineering, mineralogy, and materials science is a type of chart used to show conditions (pressure, temperature, volume, etc.) at which thermodynamically distinct phases occur and coexist at equilibrium.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
In materials science, polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure.
Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Quantum tunnelling or tunneling (see spelling differences) is the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle tunnels through a barrier that it classically cannot surmount.
A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
A reaction intermediate or an intermediate is a molecular entity that is formed from the reactants (or preceding intermediates) and reacts further to give the directly observed products of a chemical reaction.
In quantum mechanics, the rectangular (or, at times, square) potential barrier is a standard one-dimensional problem that demonstrates the phenomena of wave-mechanical tunneling (also called "quantum tunneling") and wave-mechanical reflection.
In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
A Rydberg atom is an excited atom with one or more electrons that have a very high principal quantum number.
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
In physics and chemistry, a selection rule, or transition rule, formally constrains the possible transitions of a system from one quantum state to another.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist.
Stimulated emission is the process by which an incoming photon of a specific frequency can interact with an excited atomic electron (or other excited molecular state), causing it to drop to a lower energy level.
In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
Supercooling, also known as undercooling, is the process of lowering the temperature of a liquid or a gas below its freezing point without it becoming a solid.
In physics, superheating (sometimes referred to as boiling retardation, or boiling delay) is the phenomenon in which a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its boiling point, without boiling.
System dynamics (SD) is an approach to understanding the nonlinear behaviour of complex systems over time using stocks, flows, internal feedback loops, table functions and time delays.
Technetium-99m is a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99 (itself an isotope of technetium), symbolized as 99mTc, that is used in tens of millions of medical diagnostic procedures annually, making it the most commonly used medical radioisotope.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
In statistical mechanics, thermal fluctuations are random deviations of a system from its average state, that occur in a system at equilibrium.
Global stability, Kinetic stability, Kinetically stable, Local stability, Meta-stable, Metastability in molecules, Metastable, Metastable State, Metastable molecule, Metastable phase, Metastable state, Quasistability, Quasistable, Unstable Molecules, Unstable molecules.