236 relations: Ablation, Achondrite, Acraman crater, Al Wusta Governorate (Oman), Alabama Museum of Natural History, Allan Hills 84001, Allan Hills A81005, Allende meteorite, Alloy, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Museum of Natural History, Ames crater, Amino acid, ANSMET, Antarctica, Apollo 12, Apollo 15, Apollo program, Argentina, Arizona, Asteroid, Asteroid belt, Atmospheric entry, Atmospheric focusing, Åland Islands, Bacubirito Meteorite, Barents Sea, Barstow, California, Base (chemistry), Bench Crater meteorite, Black Stone, Block Island meteorite, Blue ice (glacial), Bolide, Brent crater, Buzzard Coulee meteorite, Camp Verde, Arizona, Campo del Cielo, Canyon Diablo (meteorite), Cape York meteorite, Carbonaceous chondrite, Chaco Province, Chelyabinsk, Chelyabinsk meteor, Chesapeake Bay impact crater, Chicxulub crater, Chihuahua (state), Chihuahuan Desert, Chondrite, Chondrule, ..., Clearwater Lakes, Comet, Cosmic dust, Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, Culiacán, Czechoslovakia, Desert, Desert Discovery Center, Deserts of Australia, Dhofar Governorate, Dinosaur, DNA, Dolomite, Dry lake, Dust Bowl, Edward Charles Howard, Elbogen (meteorite), Ellipse, Ensisheim (meteorite), Ernst Chladni, Escape velocity, Esquel (meteorite), European Fireball Network, French Academy of Sciences, Friction, Gibeon (meteorite), Glossary of meteoritics, Gram, Great Basin, Great Plains, Griffith Observatory, Ground track, Hadley Rille meteorite, Hamada, Hardpan, Harvey H. Nininger, Heat Shield Rock, Heat-affected zone, HED meteorite, Hoba meteorite, Hypervelocity, Ice sheet, Igneous rock, Impact crater, Impact event, Indigenous peoples, International incident, Iron Age, Iron meteorite, Jean-Baptiste Biot, Jupiter (mythology), Kaaba, Kaidun meteorite, Kamacite, L'Aigle (meteorite), Libya, Limestone, List of impact craters on Earth, List of Martian meteorites, List of meteorite minerals, List of rocks on Mars, List of unconfirmed impact craters on Earth, Living room, Lonar Lake, Lumparn, Luna programme, Lunar meteorite, Major County, Oklahoma, Manicouagan Reservoir, Manson crater, Marília, Mars, Martian meteorite, Matrix (geology), Mesosiderite, Meteor Crater, Meteor shower, Meteoric iron, Meteorite classification, Meteorite fall, Meteorite find, Meteorite weathering, Meteoritical Society, Meteoroid, Micrometeorite, Midwestern United States, Mjølnir crater, Mojave Desert, Moon, Morocco, Morokweng crater, Murchison meteorite, Namibia, NASA, Natural satellite, Nördlinger Ries, Nōgata, Fukuoka, Neuschwanstein Castle, New Mexico, Nickel, North Africa, North India, Northwest Africa 7034, Nucleobase, Nullarbor Plain, Odessa Meteor Crater, Old Woman meteorite, Olivine, Oman, Ontario, Opportunity (rover), Ordinary chondrite, Ordovician, Organic compound, Organic matter, Orgueil (meteorite), Outer space, Pallasite, Příbram meteorite, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Peru, Peter Simon Pallas, Pojoaque, New Mexico, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Popigai crater, Presolar grains, Pyrimidine, Queen Fabiola Mountains, Red giant, RNA, Roosevelt County, New Mexico, Rub' al Khali, Science Advances, Scientific method, Sedimentation, Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, Shock wave, Siberia, Sikhote-Alin meteorite, Silicate, Silicate minerals, Siljan (lake), Sinagua, Sinaloa, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Sonic boom, Sonoran Desert, South Australia, Southwestern United States, Spinel, Spirit (rover), Strewn field, Sudbury Basin, Surface layer, Sylacauga (meteorite), Sylacauga, Alabama, Tableau Software, Taenite, Tagish Lake (meteorite), Tektite, Temple of Artemis, Terminal velocity, Theory, Thymine, Tissint meteorite, Ton, Tonne, Transantarctic Mountains, Triassic–Jurassic extinction event, Tumulus, Tunguska event, Uganda, Ungava Bay, Universe, Uracil, Vesta family, Vredefort crater, Wabar craters, Weathering, Western Australia, Willamette Meteorite, Wolfe Creek Crater, World population, Yucatán Peninsula, 2002 Vitim event, 2007 Carancas impact event. Expand index (186 more) » « Shrink index
Ablation is removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes.
An achondrite is a stony meteorite that does not contain chondrules.
Acraman crater is a deeply eroded impact crater in the Gawler Ranges of South Australia.
Al Wusta (الوسطى, English: Central Governorate) is one of the governorates (muhafazah) of Oman.
The Alabama Museum of Natural History is the state's natural history museum, located in Smith Hall at the University of Alabama campus in Tuscaloosa.
Allan Hills 84001 (commonly abbreviated ALH84001) is a meteorite that was found in Allan Hills, Antarctica on December 27, 1984, by a team of U.S. meteorite hunters from the ANSMET project.
Allan Hills A81005 or ALH A81005 (sometimes also named without the "A" in front of the number) was the first lunar meteorite found on Earth.
The Allende meteorite is the largest carbonaceous chondrite ever found on Earth.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.
The American Museum of Natural History (abbreviated as AMNH), located on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City, is one of the largest museums in the world.
Ames crater is a meteorite crater (astrobleme) in Major County, Oklahoma, United States.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
ANSMET (Antarctic Search for Meteorites) is a program funded by the Office of Polar Programs of the National Science Foundation that looks for meteorites in the Transantarctic Mountains.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
Apollo 12 was the sixth manned flight in the United States Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon.
Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the United States' Apollo program, the fourth to land on the Moon, and the eighth successful manned mission.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.
Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.
Atmospheric focusing is a phenomenon occurring when a large shock wave is produced in the atmosphere, as in a nuclear explosion or large extraterrestrial object impact.
The Åland Islands or Åland (Åland,; Ahvenanmaa) is an archipelago province at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea belonging to Finland.
The Bacubirito meteorite is the largest meteorite found in Mexico, the second largest in the Americas and the fifth largest in the world.
The Barents Sea (Barentshavet; Баренцево море, Barentsevo More) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located off the northern coasts of Norway and Russia divided between Norwegian and Russian territorial waters.
Barstow is a city in San Bernardino County, California, United States.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
The Bench Crater meteorite is a meteorite discovered on the Moon by Apollo 12 astronauts in 1969.
The Black Stone (ٱلْحَجَرُ ٱلْأَسْوَد,, "Black Stone") is a rock set into the eastern corner of the Kaaba, the ancient building located in the center of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
Block Island meteorite was found on Mars by the ''Opportunity'' rover on July 17, 2009.
Blue ice occurs when snow falls on a glacier, is compressed, and becomes part of the glacier.
A bolide (French via Latin from the Greek βολίς bolís, "missile") is an extremely bright meteor, especially one that explodes in the atmosphere.
The Brent crater is an impact crater in both the geographic township of Deacon, Unorganized South Nipissing District and the municipal township of Papineau-Cameron in Nipissing District, northeastern Ontario, Canada, located north of Cedar Lake in northern Algonquin Provincial Park.
Buzzard Coulee is the collective name of the meteorites fallen on November 20, 2008 over Saskatchewan, Canada.
Camp Verde (ʼMatthi:wa; Western Apache: Gambúdih) is a town in Yavapai County, Arizona, United States.
The Campo del Cielo refers to a group of iron meteorites or to the area where they were found.
The Canyon Diablo meteorites include the many fragments of the asteroid that created Barringer Crater (Meteor Crater), Arizona, United States.
The Cape York meteorite is named for Cape York, near the location of its discovery in Savissivik, Meteorite Island, Greenland, and is one of the largest iron meteorites in the world.
Carbonaceous chondrites or C chondrites are a class of chondritic meteorites comprising at least 8 known groups and many ungrouped meteorites.
The Province of Chaco (provincia del Chaco) is a province in north-eastern Argentina.
Chelyabinsk (a) is a city and the administrative center of Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located in the northeast of the oblast, south of Yekaterinburg, just to the east of the Ural Mountains, on the Miass River, on the border of Europe and Asia.
The Chelyabinsk meteor was a superbolide caused by an approximately 20-metre near-Earth asteroid that entered Earth's atmosphere over Russia on 15 February 2013 at about 09:20 YEKT (03:20 UTC), with a speed of 19.16 ± 0.15 kilometres per second (60,000–69,000 km/h or 40,000–42,900 mph).
The Chesapeake Bay impact crater was formed by a bolide that impacted the eastern shore of North America about 35.5 ± 0.3 million years ago, in the late Eocene epoch.
The Chicxulub crater is an impact crater buried underneath the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico.
Chihuahua, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chihuahua), is one of the 32 states of Mexico.
The Chihuahuan Desert is a desert and ecoregion designation covering parts of Mexico and the United States.
Chondrites are stony (non-metallic) meteorites that have not been modified due to melting or differentiation of the parent body.
Chondrules (from Ancient Greek χόνδρος chondros, grain) are round grains found in chondrites.
The Lac à l'Eau Claire (the official name, in French), also called the Clearwater Lakes in English, is a calque of Wiyâšâkamî in Northern East Cree (changed form of wâšâkamî or wâšekamî in more southerly Cree dialects) and Allait Qasigialingat by the Inuit, are a pair of annular lakes on the Canadian Shield in Quebec, Canada, near Hudson Bay.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, as well as all over planet Earth.
The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a sudden mass extinction of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.
Culiacán is a city in northwestern Mexico.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
The Desert Discovery Center is a public-run community education center located in Barstow, California.
Named deserts of Australia cover, or 18% of the Australian mainland.
The Dhofar Governorate (محافظة ظفار, Muḥāfaẓat Ẓufār) is the largest of the eleven Governorates in the Sultanate of Oman in terms of area.
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.
A dry lake is either a basin or depression that formerly contained a standing surface water body, which disappeared when evaporation processes exceeded recharge.
The Dust Bowl, also known as the Dirty Thirties, was a period of severe dust storms that greatly damaged the ecology and agriculture of the American and Canadian prairies during the 1930s; severe drought and a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent wind erosion (the Aeolian processes) caused the phenomenon.
Edward Charles Howard FRS (28 May 1774 – 28 September 1816) the youngest brother of Bernard Howard, 12th Duke of Norfolk, was a British chemist who has been described as "the first chemical engineer of any eminence." In January 1799 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and in 1800 awarded their Copley medal for his work on mercury.
Elbogen (Elbogen), also the Loket Iron, is an iron meteorite that fell in the village of Loket, Karlovy Vary Region, Kingdom of Bohemia, about the year 1400.
In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.
The Ensisheim meteorite is a stony meteorite that fell on November 7, 1492 in a wheat field outside the walled town of Ensisheim in then Alsace, Further Austria (now France).
Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni (30 November 1756 – 3 April 1827) was a German physicist and musician.
In physics, escape velocity is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape from the gravitational influence of a massive body.
Esquel is a meteorite found near Esquel, a patagonian town in the northwest part of the province of Chubut in Argentina.
European Fireball Network is an international organization based in Central Europe (Germany and Czech Republic).
The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
Gibeon is a meteorite that fell in prehistoric times in Namibia.
This is a glossary of terms used in meteoritics, the science of meteorites.
The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.
The Great Basin is the largest area of contiguous endorheic watersheds in North America.
The Great Plains (sometimes simply "the Plains") is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada.
Griffith Observatory is a facility in Los Angeles, California, sitting on the south-facing slope of Mount Hollywood in Los Angeles' Griffith Park.
A ground track or ground trace is the path on the surface of the Earth directly below an aircraft or satellite.
The Hadley Rille meteorite was a meteorite discovered on the Moon at coordinates 26° 26' 0" N, 3° 39' 20" E, during the Apollo 15 mission in 1971.
A hamada (Arabic, حمادة ḥammāda) is a type of desert landscape consisting of high, largely barren, hard rocky plateaus, where most of the sand has been removed by deflation.
In soil science, agriculture and gardening, Hardpan or Ouklip is a dense layer of soil, usually found below the uppermost topsoil layer.
Harvey Harlow Nininger (January 17, 1887 – March 1, 1986) was an American meteoriticist and educator, and although he was self-taught, he revived interest in scientific study of meteorites in the 1930s and assembled the largest personal collection of meteorites up to that time.
The heat-affected zone (HAZ) is the area of base material, either a metal or a thermoplastic, which is not melted but has had its microstructure and properties altered by welding or heat intensive cutting operations.
HED meteorites are a clan (subgroup) of achondrite meteorites.
The Hoba or Hoba West meteorite lies on the farm "Hoba West", not far from Grootfontein, in the Otjozondjupa Region of Namibia.
Hypervelocity is very high velocity, approximately over 3,000 meters per second (6,700 mph, 11,000 km/h, 10,000 ft/s, or Mach 8.8).
An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
An impact crater is an approximately circular depression in the surface of a planet, moon, or other solid body in the Solar System or elsewhere, formed by the hypervelocity impact of a smaller body.
An impact event is a collision between astronomical objects causing measurable effects.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
An international incident is a seemingly relatively small or limited action or clash that results in a wider dispute between two or more nation-states.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Iron meteorites are meteorites that consist overwhelmingly of an iron–nickel alloy known as meteoric iron that usually consists of two mineral phases: kamacite and taenite.
Jean-Baptiste Biot (21 April 1774 – 3 February 1862) was a French physicist, astronomer, and mathematician who established the reality of meteorites, made an early balloon flight, and studied the polarization of light.
Jupiter (from Iūpiter or Iuppiter, *djous “day, sky” + *patēr “father," thus "heavenly father"), also known as Jove gen.
The Kaaba (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة, "The Cube"), also referred as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة الْـمُـشَـرًّفَـة, the Holy Ka'bah), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, that is Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد الْـحَـرَام, The Sacred Mosque), in the Hejazi city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
Kaidun is a meteorite that fell on 3 December 1980 on a Soviet military base near what is now Al-Khuraybah in Yemen.
Kamacite is an alloy of iron and nickel, which is found on Earth only in meteorites.
L'Aigle is a L6 meteorite which fell on 26 April 1803 in Lower Normandy, France.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
This list of impact craters on Earth contains a selection of the 190 confirmed craters given in the Earth Impact Database.
This is a list of Martian meteorites i.e. meteorites that have been identified as having originated from Mars.
A meteorite mineral is a mineral found chiefly or exclusively within meteorites or meteorite derived material.
This is an alphabetical list of named rocks (and meteorites) found on Mars, by mission.
This list of more than 130 possible impact craters on Earth includes theoretical impact sites that have appeared several times in the literature, or may have been endorsed by the Impact Field Studies Group (IFSG) or Expert Database on Earth Impact Structures (EDEIS), but not yet confirmed by the Earth Impact Database (EID).
In Western architecture, a living room, also called a lounge room, lounge or sitting room, is a room in a residential house or apartment for relaxing and socializing.
Lonar Lake is a notified National Geo-heritage Monument saline soda lake located at Lonar in Buldhana district, Maharashtra, India, which was created by a meteor impact during the Pleistocene Epoch and it is the only known hyper velocity impact crater in basaltic rock anywhere on Earth.
Lumparn (fi. Lumpari) is a large bay devoid of islands in the Main Island of Åland, Finland, bordered by Sund to the north, Lumparland to the east, Lemland to the south and Jomala to the west.
The Luna programme (from the Russian word Луна "Luna" meaning "Lunar" or "Moon"), occasionally called Lunik or Lunnik by western media, was a series of robotic spacecraft missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976.
A lunar meteorite is a meteorite that is known to have originated on the Moon.
Major County is a county in the northwestern part of the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
Manicouagan Reservoir (also Lake Manicouagan) is an annular lake in central Quebec, Canada, covering an area of.
The Manson crater is an impact crater near the site of Manson, Iowa where an asteroid or comet nucleus struck the Earth during the Cretaceous Period, 74 Ma (million years ago).
Marília is a Brazilian municipality in the midwestern region of the state of São Paulo.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
A Martian meteorite is a rock that formed on the planet Mars and was then ejected from Mars by the impact of an asteroid or comet, and finally landed on the Earth.
The matrix or groundmass of rock is the finer-grained mass of material wherein larger grains, crystals or clasts are embedded.
Mesosiderites are a class of stony–iron meteorites consisting of about equal parts of metallic nickel-iron and silicate.
Meteor Crater is a meteorite impact crater approximately east of Flagstaff and west of Winslow in the northern Arizona desert of the United States.
A meteor shower is a celestial event in which a number of meteors are observed to radiate, or originate, from one point in the night sky.
Meteoric iron, sometimes meteoritic iron, is a native metal found in meteorites and made from the elements iron and nickel mainly in the form of the mineral phases kamacite and taenite.
The ultimate goal of meteorite classification is to group all meteorite specimens that share a common origin on a single, identifiable parent body.
Meteorite falls, also called observed falls, are meteorites collected after their fall from space was observed by people or automated devices.
Meteorite finds are those meteorites that were found by people, but whose fall was not observed.
Meteorite weathering is the terrestrial alteration of a meteorite.
The Meteoritical Society is a non-profit scholarly organization founded in 1933 to promote research and education in planetary science with emphasis on studies of meteorites and other extraterrestrial materials that further our understanding of the origin and history of the solar system.
A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.
A micrometeorite is essentially a micrometeoroid that has survived entry through Earth's atmosphere.
The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or simply the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2").
Mjølnir is a meteorite crater on the floor of Barents Sea off the coast of Norway.
The Mojave Desert is an arid rain-shadow desert and the driest desert in North America.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
The Morokweng crater (or Morokweng impact structure) is an impact crater buried beneath the Kalahari Desert near the town of Morokweng in South Africa's North West province, close to the border with Botswana.
The Murchison meteorite is a large meteorite that fell to earth near Murchison, Victoria, in Australia, in 1969.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).
The Nördlinger Ries is a large circular depression in western Bavaria, Germany, located north of the Danube in the district of Donau-Ries.
is a city located in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan, on the island of Kyushu in southern Japan.
Neuschwanstein Castle (Schloss Neuschwanstein,, "New Swanstone Castle") is a 19th-century Romanesque Revival palace on a rugged hill above the village of Hohenschwangau near Füssen in southwest Bavaria, Germany.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.
Northwest Africa 7034 is a Martian meteorite believed to be the second oldest yet discovered.
Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.
The Nullarbor Plain (Latin: nullus, "no", and arbor, "tree") is part of the area of flat, almost treeless, arid or semi-arid country of southern Australia, located on the Great Australian Bight coast with the Great Victoria Desert to its north.
The Odessa Meteor Crater is a meteorite crater in the southwestern part of Ector County, southwest of the city of Odessa of West Texas, United States.
The Old Woman Meteorite is the largest meteorite found in California and the second largest in the United States.
The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
Opportunity, also known as MER-B (Mars Exploration Rover – B) or MER-1, is a robotic rover active on Mars since 2004.
The ordinary chondrites (sometimes called the O chondrites) are a class of stony chondritic meteorites.
The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.
Orgueil is a scientifically important carbonaceous chondrite meteorite that fell in southwestern France in 1864.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
The pallasites are a class of stony–iron meteorite.
The Příbram meteorite fell on 7 April 1959 east of Příbram, former Czechoslovakia.
The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Peter Simon Pallas FRS FRSE (22 September 1741 – 8 September 1811) was a Prussian zoologist and botanist who worked in Russia (1767–1810).
Pojoaque (Tewa: P'osuwaege Owingeh) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, United States.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
The Popigai crater (or astrobleme) in Siberia, Russia is tied with the Manicouagan Crater as the fourth largest verified impact crater on Earth.
Presolar grains are interstellar solid matter in the form of tiny solid grains that originated at a time before the Sun was formed (presolar: before the Sun).
Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.
Queen Fabiola Mountains is a group of mountains in Antarctica, long, consisting mainly of seven small massifs which trend north-south, forming a partial barrier to the flow of inland ice.
A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
Roosevelt County is a county located in the U.S. state of New Mexico.
The Rub' al Khali desert Other standardized transliterations include: /. The is the assimilated Arabic definite article,, which can also be transliterated as.
Science Advances is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary open-access scientific journal established in early 2015.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained and come to rest against a barrier.
The Seven Wonders of the World or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is a list of remarkable constructions of classical antiquity given by various authors in guidebooks or poems popular among ancient Hellenic tourists.
In physics, a shock wave (also spelled shockwave), or shock, is a type of propagating disturbance.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
An iron meteorite fell on the Sikhote-Alin Mountains, in southeastern Russia, in 1947.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals with predominantly silicate anions.
Siljan, in Dalarna in central Sweden, is Sweden's sixth largest lake.
The Sinagua were a pre-Columbian culture that occupied a large area in central Arizona from the Little Colorado River, near Flagstaff, to the Salt River, near Sedona, including the Verde Valley, area around San Francisco Mountain, and significant portions of the Mogollon Rim country, between approximately 500 CE and 1425 CE.
Sinaloa, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Sinaloa (Estado Libre y Soberano de Sinaloa), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) is a research institute of the Smithsonian Institution headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where it is joined with the Harvard College Observatory (HCO) to form the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA).
A sonic boom is the sound associated with the shock waves created whenever an object traveling through the air travels faster than the speed of sound.
The Sonoran Desert is a North American desert which covers large parts of the Southwestern United States in Arizona and California and of Northwestern Mexico in Sonora, Baja California, and Baja California Sur.
South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia.
The Southwestern United States (Suroeste de Estados Unidos; also known as the American Southwest) is the informal name for a region of the western United States.
Spinel is the magnesium aluminium member of the larger spinel group of minerals.
Spirit, also known as MER-A (Mars Exploration Rover – A) or MER-2, is a robotic rover on Mars, active from 2004 to 2010.
The term strewnfield indicates the area where meteorites from a single fall are dispersed.
The Sudbury Basin, also known as Sudbury Structure or the Sudbury Nickel Irruptive, is a major geological structure in Ontario, Canada.
The surface layer is the layer of a turbulent fluid most affected by interaction with a solid surface or the surface separating a gas and a liquid where the characteristics of the turbulence depend on distance from the interface.
The Sylacauga meteorite fell on November 30, 1954, at 12:46 local time (18:46 UT) in Oak Grove, Alabama, near Sylacauga.
Sylacauga is a city in Talladega County, Alabama, United States.
Tableau Software is a software company headquartered in Seattle, Washington, United States that produces interactive data visualization products focused on business intelligence.
Taenite (Fe,Ni) is a mineral found naturally on Earth mostly in iron meteorites.
The Tagish Lake meteorite fell at 16:43 UTC on 18 January 2000 in the Tagish Lake area in northwestern British Columbia, Canada.
Tektites (from Greek τηκτός tēktós, "molten") are gravel-sized bodies composed of black, green, brown, or gray natural glass formed from terrestrial debris ejected during meteorite impacts.
The Temple of Artemis or Artemision (Ἀρτεμίσιον; Artemis Tapınağı), also known less precisely as the Temple of Diana, was a Greek temple dedicated to an ancient, local form of the goddess Artemis.
Terminal velocity is the highest velocity attainable by an object as it falls through a fluid (air is the most common example).
A theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking.
---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.
The Tissint meteorite is a Martian meteorite that fell in Tata Province in the Guelmim-Es Semara region of Morocco on July 18, 2011.
The ton is a unit of measure.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
The Transantarctic Mountains (abbreviated TAM) comprise a mountain range of uplifted sedimentary rock in Antarctica which extend, with some interruptions, across the continent from Cape Adare in northern Victoria Land to Coats Land.
The Triassic–Jurassic extinction event marks the boundary between the Triassic and Jurassic periods,, and is one of the major extinction events of the Phanerozoic eon, profoundly affecting life on land and in the oceans.
A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves.
The Tunguska event was a large explosion that occurred near the Stony Tunguska River in Yeniseysk Governorate (now Krasnoyarsk Krai), Russia, on the morning of 30 June 1908 (NS).
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
Ungava Bay (French: baie d'Ungava, Inuktitut (syllabics/Roman) ᐅᖓᕙ ᑲᖏᖅᓗᒃ/ungava kangiqluk) is a large bay in northeastern Canada separating Nunavik (far northern Quebec) from Baffin Island.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
The Vesta or Vestian family of asteroids is a large and prominent grouping of mostly V-type asteroids ("vestoids") in the inner asteroid belt in the vicinity of 4 Vesta.
The Vredefort crater is the largest verified impact crater on Earth, more than across when it was formed.
The Wabar craters are impact craters located in Saudi Arabia first brought to the attention of Western scholars by British Arabist, explorer, writer and Colonial Office intelligence officer St John Philby, who discovered them while searching for the legendary and possibly non-existent city of Ubar in Arabia in 1932.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.
The Willamette Meteorite, officially named Willamette, The Meteoritical Society.
Wolfe Creek Crater is a well-preserved meteorite impact crater (astrobleme) in Western Australia.
In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.
The Yucatán Peninsula (Península de Yucatán), in southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico, with the northern coastline on the Yucatán Channel.
The 2002 Vitim event or Bodaybo event is believed to be an impact by a bolide in the Vitim River basin.
The Carancas impact event refers to the fall of the Carancas chondritic meteorite on September 15, 2007, near the village of Carancas in Peru, close to the Bolivian border and Lake Titicaca.
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