301 relations: A Guide to the Scientific Knowledge of Things Familiar, Abu Hanifa Dinawari, Aerography (meteorology), Aeronautical Information Manual, Aeronautical Information Publication, Aerosol, Age of Enlightenment, Agriculture, Agronomy, Air mass, Air traffic control, Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay, Albertus Magnus, American Meteorological Society, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Anders Celsius, Anemometer, Antoine Lavoisier, Arab Agricultural Revolution, Aristotle, Associated Press, Astrology, Astronomical object, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric chemistry, Atmospheric circulation, Atmospheric models, Atmospheric physics, Atmospheric pressure, Atmospheric refraction, Atmospheric sciences, Atmospheric thermodynamics, Aurora, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Automated airport weather station, Babylon, Background radiation, Barometer, Barotropic fluid, BBC, Beaufort scale, Benjamin Franklin, Black-body radiation, Blaise Pascal, Bologna, Boundary layer, Bowditch's American Practical Navigator, Bureau of Meteorology, Caloric theory, ..., Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carl-Gustaf Rossby, Ceilometer, Celsius, Central Institution for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Chaos theory, Christopher Columbus, Christopher Landsea, Christopher Wren, Climate, Climate model, Climatology, CLIWOC, Cloud, Cloud atlas, Constellation, Construction, Contour line, Coriolis force, Crop yield, Cuneiform script, Cutigliano, Daniel Bernoulli, Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit, Daniel Rutherford, Data, Data logger, Dust, Earth's magnetic field, Earthquake, Eddy covariance, Edmond Halley, Education, Edward Norton Lorenz, El Niño, El Niño–Southern Oscillation, Electrical telegraph, Electromagnetic radiation, Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Energy development, Ensemble forecasting, Evangelista Torricelli, Explosion, Extratropical cyclone, Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferranti Mercury, Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center, Florence, Fluid dynamics, Fluid parcel, Foundations of Chemistry, Francis Beaufort, Friction, Galileo Galilei, Galileo thermometer, Gas, Geographic data and information, Geographical pole, George Hadley, Government agency, Greenhouse gas, Heat, Heat capacity, High-pressure area, Hippocrates, Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, Horizon, Humidity, Hydrology, Hydrometeorology, Hydrometer, Hygrometer, Ibn al-Haytham, Ice, Index of meteorology articles, India, India Meteorological Department, Innsbruck, International Cloud Atlas, Jacob Bjerknes, Japan Meteorological Agency, Jet stream, Johannes Kepler, John Dalton, John Leslie (physicist), Joseon, Joseph Black, Joseph Henry, Journalist, Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī, Kinetic theory of gases, Korea, Latin, Leon Battista Alberti, Level sensor, Lewis Fry Richardson, Library of Congress, Lidar, Lightning, List of cloud types, List of meteorological phenomena, List of meteorology institutions, List of Russian earth scientists, List of weather instruments, Low-pressure area, Luke Howard, Lunar phase, Madden–Julian oscillation, Mass flow, Matter, Met Office, Meteorology (Aristotle), Methane, Microphone, Milan, Military, Millennium, Momentum, Monsoon, Moon, NASA, Nation state, National Weather Association, National Weather Service, National Weatherperson's Day, Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command, Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System, Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, Nitrogen, Norwegian cyclone model, Nuclear fallout, Number, Numerical stability, Numerical weather prediction, Ocean Prediction Center, On the Universe, Osnabrück, Oxford University Press, Oxygen, Ozone, Pacific decadal oscillation, Parma, Pavel Schilling, PDF, Phenology, Phlogiston theory, Photodiode, Photogrammetry, Physical law, Planet, Planetary boundary layer, Pomponius Mela, Precipitation, Pressure-gradient force, Pyranometer, Pyrheliometer, Radar, Radio clock, Radioactive decay, Radiosonde, Radon, Rain gauge, Rainband, Rainbow, Relative atomic mass, Remote sensing, Research, Reversible process (thermodynamics), Robert FitzRoy, Robert Hooke, ROFOR, Roger Bacon, Roman Empire, Rossby wave, Routledge, Royal Society, Satellite, Scintillation counter, Sea breeze, Season, Second law of thermodynamics, Seismometer, Sejong the Great, Sensible heat, Smithsonian Institution, Smoke, Snow gauge, Soil science, Sonic boom, Space weather, Spatial scale, Spectroradiometer, Squall line, Steam engine, Storm, Stratosphere, Surface weather observation, Synoptic scale meteorology, Teleconnection, Television station, Temperature, The New York Times, The Times, Theodoric of Freiberg, Theophrastus, Thermometer, Thunder, Thunderstorm, TIROS-1, Tor Bergeron, Trade winds, Transmissometer, Tropical cyclone, Tropics, Tropopause, Turbulence, Twilight, United States Air Force, United States Army, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Marine Corps, United States Naval Research Laboratory, United States Navy, University of Birmingham, University of Helsinki, Upanishads, Vallombrosa, Varāhamihira, Vilhelm Bjerknes, Walker circulation, Warsaw, Water cycle, Water vapor, Weather and climate, Weather buoy, Weather forecasting, Weather front, Weather map, Weather Prediction Center, Weather reconnaissance, Weather satellite, Weather station, William Clement Ley, William Ferrel, Wind chill, Winter, World Meteorological Organization, 22° halo, 46° halo, 557th Weather Wing. 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A Guide to the Scientific Knowledge of Things Familiar, also known as The Guide to Science or Brewer's Guide to Science, is a book by Ebenezer Cobham Brewer presenting explanations for common phenomena.
Ābu Ḥanīfah Āḥmad ibn Dawūd Dīnawarī (815–896 CE, أبو حنيفة الدينوري) was an Islamic Golden Age polymath, astronomer, agriculturist, botanist, metallurgist, geographer, mathematician, and historian.
Aerography is the production of weather charts.
In United States and Canadian aviation, the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) (formerly the Airman's Information Manual) is the respective nation's official guide to basic flight information and Air traffic control procedures.
In aviation, an Aeronautical Information Publication (or AIP) is defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization as a publication issued by or with the authority of a state and containing aeronautical information of a lasting character essential to air navigation.
An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Agronomy (Ancient Greek ἀγρός agrós 'field' + νόμος nómos 'law') is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, fiber, and land reclamation.
In meteorology, an air mass is a volume of air defined by its temperature and water vapor content.
Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace, and can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace.
Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) is a program initiated by the World Meteorological Organization.
Albertus Magnus, O.P. (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop.
The American Meteorological Society (AMS) is the premier scientific and professional organization in the United States promoting and disseminating information about the atmospheric, oceanic, and hydrologic sciences. Its mission is to advance the atmospheric and related sciences, technologies, applications, and services for the benefit of society.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Anders Celsius (27 November 170125 April 1744) was a Swedish astronomer, physicist and mathematician.
An anemometer is a device used for measuring the speed of wind, and is also a common weather station instrument.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
The Arab Agricultural Revolution is the transformation in agriculture from the 8th to the 13th century in the Islamic region of the Old World.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and that of other planets is studied.
Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air, and together with ocean circulation is the means by which thermal energy is redistributed on the surface of the Earth.
Static atmospheric models describe how the ideal gas properties (namely: pressure, temperature, density, and molecular weight) of an atmosphere change, primarily as a function of altitude.
Atmospheric physics is the application of physics to the study of the atmosphere.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
Atmospheric refraction is the deviation of light or other electromagnetic wave from a straight line as it passes through the atmosphere due to the variation in air density as a function of height.
Atmospheric science is the study of the Earth's atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems.
Atmospheric thermodynamics is the study of heat-to-work transformations (and their reverse) that take place in the earth's atmosphere and manifest as weather or climate.
An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) founded in 1929 is Australia's national broadcaster, funded by the Australian Federal Government but specifically independent of Government and politics in the Commonwealth.
Automated airport weather stations are automated sensor suites which are designed to serve aviation and meteorological observing needs for safe and efficient aviation operations, weather forecasting and climatology.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Background radiation is a measure of the ionizing radiation present in the environment at a particular location which is not due to deliberate introduction of radiation sources.
A barometer is a scientific instrument used in meteorology to measure atmospheric pressure.
In fluid dynamics, a barotropic fluid is a fluid whose density is a function of pressure only.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
The Beaufort scale is an empirical measure that relates wind speed to observed conditions at sea or on land.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body).
Blaise Pascal (19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic theologian.
Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.
In physics and fluid mechanics, a boundary layer is an important concept and refers to the layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface where the effects of viscosity are significant.
The American Practical Navigator (colloquially often referred to as Bowditch), originally written by Nathaniel Bowditch, is an encyclopedia of navigation.
The Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) is an Executive Agency of the Australian Government responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas.
The caloric theory is an obsolete scientific theory that heat consists of a self-repellent fluid called caloric that flows from hotter bodies to colder bodies.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carl-Gustaf Arvid Rossby (28 December 1898 – 19 August 1957) was a Swedish-born American meteorologist who first explained the large-scale motions of the atmosphere in terms of fluid mechanics.
A ceilometer is a device that uses a laser or other light source to determine the height of a cloud ceiling or cloud base.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
The Central Institution for Meteorology and Geodynamics (Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik, ZAMG) is the national meteorological and geophysical service of Austria.
Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
Christopher William "Chris" Landsea (born February 4, 1965) is an American meteorologist, formerly a research meteorologist with Hurricane Research Division of Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory at NOAA, and now the Science and Operations Officer at the National Hurricane Center.
Sir Christopher Wren PRS FRS (–) was an English anatomist, astronomer, geometer, and mathematician-physicist, as well as one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the important drivers of climate, including atmosphere, oceans, land surface and ice.
Climatology (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.
The Climatological database for the world's oceans (CLIWOC) was a research project to convert ships' logbooks into a computerised database.
In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or other particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body.
A cloud atlas is a pictorial key (or an atlas) to the nomenclature of clouds.
A constellation is a group of stars that are considered to form imaginary outlines or meaningful patterns on the celestial sphere, typically representing animals, mythological people or gods, mythological creatures, or manufactured devices.
Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.
A contour line (also isocline, isopleth, isarithm, or equipotential curve) of a function of two variables is a curve along which the function has a constant value, so that the curve joins points of equal value.
In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame.
In agriculture, crop yield (also known as "agricultural output") refers to both the measure of the yield of a crop per unit area of land cultivation, and the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. if three grains are harvested for each grain seeded, the resulting yield is 1:3).
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
Cutigliano was a comune (municipality) in the province of Pistoia in the Italian region Tuscany, located about northwest of Florence and about northwest of Pistoia.
Daniel Bernoulli FRS (8 February 1700 – 17 March 1782) was a Swiss mathematician and physicist and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family.
Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit FRS (24 May 1686 – 16 September 1736) was a Dutch-German-Polish physicist, inventor, and scientific instrument maker.
Daniel Rutherford (3 November 1749 – 15 December 1819) was a Scottish physician, chemist and botanist who is most famous for the isolation of nitrogen in 1772.
Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.
A data logger (also datalogger or data recorder) is an electronic device that records data over time or in relation to location either with a built in instrument or sensor or via external instruments and sensors.
Dust are fine particles of matter.
Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
The eddy covariance (also known as eddy correlation and eddy flux) technique is a key atmospheric measurement technique to measure and calculate vertical turbulent fluxes within atmospheric boundary layers.
Edmond (or Edmund) Halley, FRS (–) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Edward Norton Lorenz (May 23, 1917 – April 16, 2008) was an American mathematician, meteorologist, and a pioneer of chaos theory.
El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America.
El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregularly periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting climate of much of the tropics and subtropics.
An electrical telegraph is a telegraph that uses electrical signals, usually conveyed via dedicated telecommunication circuit or radio.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science is a three-volume encyclopedia covering the history of Arabic contributions to science, mathematics and technology which had a marked influence on the Middle Ages in Europe.
Energy development is the field of activities focused on obtaining sources of energy from natural resources.
Ensemble forecasting is a method used in numerical weather prediction.
Evangelista Torricelli; 15 October 1608 – 25 October 1647) was an Italian physicist and mathematician, best known for his invention of the barometer, but is also known for his advances in optics and work on the method of indivisibles.
An explosion is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases.
Extratropical cyclones, sometimes called mid-latitude cyclones or wave cyclones, are low-pressure areas which, along with the anticyclones of high-pressure areas, drive the weather over much of the Earth.
Ferdinando II de' Medici (14 July 1610 – 23 May 1670) was grand duke of Tuscany from 1621 to 1670.
The Mercury was an early commercial computer from the mid-1950s built by Ferranti.
Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) has the job of providing worldwide meteorology and oceanography support to U.S. and coalition forces from their 24X7 Operations Center.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.
In fluid dynamics, within the framework of continuum mechanics, a fluid parcel is a very small amount of fluid, identifiable throughout its dynamic history while moving with the fluid flow.
Foundations of Chemistry is a triannual peer-reviewed academic journal covering conceptual and fundamental issues related to chemistry, including philosophy and history of chemistry, and chemistry education.
Rear Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, KCB, FRS, FRGS, FRAS, MRIA (27 May 1774 – 17 December 1857) was an Irish hydrographer and officer in the Royal Navy.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
A Galileo thermometer (or Galilean thermometer) is a thermometer made of a sealed glass cylinder containing a clear liquid and several glass vessels of varying density.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
Geographic data and information are defined in the ISO/TC 211 series of standards as data and information having an implicit or explicit association with a location relative to the Earth.
A geographical pole is either of the two points on a rotating body (planet, dwarf planet, natural satellite, sphere...etc) where its axis of rotation intersects its surface.
George Hadley (12 February 1685 – 28 June 1768) was an English lawyer and amateur meteorologist who proposed the atmospheric mechanism by which the trade winds are sustained, which is now named in his honour as Hadley circulation.
A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversight and administration of specific functions, such as an intelligence agency.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
A high-pressure area, high or anticyclone is a region where the atmospheric pressure at the surface of the planet is greater than its surrounding environment.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Portrait of Horace-Bénédict de Saussure (after the picture by Juehl, in the Library at Geneva) Horace-Bénédict de Saussure (17 February 1740 – 22 January 1799) was a Swiss geologist, meteorologist, physicist, mountaineer and Alpine explorer, often called the founder of alpinism and modern meteorology, and considered to be the first person to build a successful solar oven.
The horizon or skyline is the apparent line that separates earth from sky, the line that divides all visible directions into two categories: those that intersect the Earth's surface, and those that do not.
Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.
Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
Hydrometeorology is a branch of meteorology and hydrology that studies the transfer of water and energy between the land surface and the lower atmosphere.
Hydrometer from Practical Physics A hydrometer or areometer is an instrument used for measuring the relative density of liquids based on the concept of buoyancy.
A hygrometer is an instrument used for measuring the amount of humidity and water vapor in the atmosphere, in soil, or in confined spaces.
Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized Alhazen; full name أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم) was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
This is a list of meteorology topics.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The India Meteorological Department (IMD), also referred to as the Met Department, is an agency of the Ministry of Earth Sciences of the Government of India.
Innsbruck is the capital city of Tyrol in western Austria and the fifth-largest city in Austria.
International Cloud Atlas (also Cloud Atlas) is a cloud atlas that was first published in 1896 and has remained in print since then.
Jacob Aall Bonnevie Bjerknes (in English; November 2, 1897 – July 7, 1975) was a meteorologist.
The, JMA, is an agency of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism.
Jet streams are fast flowing, narrow, meandering air currents in the atmospheres of some planets, including Earth.
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
John Dalton FRS (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist.
Sir John Leslie, FRSE KH (10 April 1766 – 3 November 1832) was a Scottish mathematician and physicist best remembered for his research into heat.
The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.
Joseph Black FRSE FRCPE FPSG (16 April 1728 – 6 December 1799) was a Scottish physician and chemist, known for his discoveries of magnesium, latent heat, specific heat, and carbon dioxide.
Joseph Henry (December 17, 1797 – May 13, 1878) was an American scientist who served as the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public.
Kamal al-Din Hasan ibn Ali ibn Hasan al-Farisi or Abu Hasan Muhammad ibn Hasan (1267– 12 January 1319, long assumed to be 1320)) (كمالالدين فارسی) was a Persian Muslim scientist. He made two major contributions to science, one on optics, the other on number theory. Farisi was a pupil of the astronomer and mathematician Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, who in turn was a pupil of Nasir al-Din Tusi. According to Encyclopædia Iranica, Kamal al-Din was the most prominent Persian author on optics.
The kinetic theory describes a gas as a large number of submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant rapid motion that has randomness arising from their many collisions with each other and with the walls of the container.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leon Battista Alberti (February 14, 1404 – April 25, 1472) was an Italian humanist author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, philosopher and cryptographer; he epitomised the Renaissance Man.
Level sensors detect the level of liquids and other fluids and fluidized solids, including slurries, granular materials, and powders that exhibit an upper free surface.
Lewis Fry Richardson, FRS (11 October 1881 – 30 September 1953) was an English mathematician, physicist, meteorologist, psychologist and pacifist who pioneered modern mathematical techniques of weather forecasting, and the application of similar techniques to studying the causes of wars and how to prevent them.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Lidar (also called LIDAR, LiDAR, and LADAR) is a surveying method that measures distance to a target by illuminating the target with pulsed laser light and measuring the reflected pulses with a sensor.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
The list of cloud types classifies the tropospheric genera as high (cirrus, cirrocumulus, cirrostratus), middle (altocumulus, altostratus), multi-level (nimbostratus, cumulus, cumulonimbus), and low (stratocumulus, stratus) according to the altitude level or levels at which each is normally found.
A meteorological phenomenon is a weather event that can be explained by the principles of meteorology.
The following is a list of meteorology institutions around the world.
This list of Russian Earth scientists includes the notable geographers, geologists, oceanographers, meteorologists, ecologists and other representatives of Earth sciences from the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, the Russian Empire and other predecessor states of Russia.
This is a list of devices used for recording various aspects of the weather.
A low-pressure area, low, or depression, is a region on the topographic map where the atmospheric pressure is lower than that of surrounding locations.
Luke Howard, FRS (28 November 1772 – 21 March 1864) was a British manufacturing chemist and an amateur meteorologist with broad interests in science.
The lunar phase or phase of the Moon is the shape of the directly sunlit portion of the Moon as viewed from Earth.
The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is the largest element of the intraseasonal (30- to 90-day) variability in the tropical atmosphere.
This article is about the flow of fluids in biological systems.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
The Met Office (officially the Meteorological Office) is the United Kingdom's national weather service.
Meteorology (Greek: Μετεωρολογικά; Latin: Meteorologica or Meteora) is a treatise by Aristotle.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
A microphone, colloquially nicknamed mic or mike, is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
A millennium (plural millennia or, rarely, millenniums) is a period equal to 1000 years, also called kiloyears.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
The National Weather Association (NWA), founded in 1975, is an American professional association with a mission to support and promote excellence in operational meteorology and related activities.
The National Weather Service (NWS) is an agency of the United States Federal Government that is tasked with providing weather forecasts, warnings of hazardous weather, and other weather-related products to organizations and the public for the purposes of protection, safety, and general information.
National Weatherperson's Day, also known as National Weatherman's Day, is observed on February 5 primarily in the United States.
The Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command (COMNAVMETOCCOM) or CNMOC, serves as the operational arm of the Naval Oceanography Program.
The Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) is a global numerical weather prediction computer model run by the United States Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center.
Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1 June 1796 – 24 August 1832) was a French military engineer and physicist, often described as the "father of thermodynamics".
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The older of the models of extratropical cyclone development is known as the Norwegian cyclone model, developed during and shortly after World War I within the Bergen School of Meteorology.
Nuclear fallout, or simply fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and the shock wave have passed.
A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure and also label.
In the mathematical subfield of numerical analysis, numerical stability is a generally desirable property of numerical algorithms.
Numerical weather prediction (NWP) uses mathematical models of the atmosphere and oceans to predict the weather based on current weather conditions.
The Ocean Prediction Center (OPC), established in 1995, is one of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction's (NCEP's) original six service centers.
De mundo (Περὶ Κόσμου), known in English as On the Universe, is the work of an unknown author which was ascribed to Aristotle.
Osnabrück (Ossenbrügge; archaic Osnaburg) is a city in the federal state of Lower Saxony in north-west Germany.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is a robust, recurring pattern of ocean-atmosphere climate variability centered over the mid-latitude Pacific basin.
Parma (Pärma) is a city in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna famous for its prosciutto (ham), cheese, architecture, music and surrounding countryside.
Baron Pavel L'vovitch Schilling, also known as Paul Schilling (5 April 1786, Reval (now, Tallinn), Russian empire – St. Petersburg, Russia, 25 July 1837), was a diplomat of Baltic German origin employed in the service of Russia in Germany, and who built a pioneering electrical telegraph.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Phenology is the study of periodic plant and animal life cycle events and how these are influenced by seasonal and interannual variations in climate, as well as habitat factors (such as elevation).
The phlogiston theory is a superseded scientific theory that postulated that a fire-like element called phlogiston is contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion.
A photodiode is a semiconductor device that converts light into an electrical current.
Photogrammetry is the science of making measurements from photographs, especially for recovering the exact positions of surface points.
A physical law or scientific law is a theoretical statement "inferred from particular facts, applicable to a defined group or class of phenomena, and expressible by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions be present." Physical laws are typically conclusions based on repeated scientific experiments and observations over many years and which have become accepted universally within the scientific community.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
In meteorology the planetary boundary layer (PBL), also known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), is the lowest part of the atmosphere.
Pomponius Mela, who wrote around AD 43, was the earliest Roman geographer.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
The pressure-gradient force is the force which results when there is a difference in pressure across a surface.
A pyranometer is a type of actinometer used for measuring solar irradiance on a planar surface and it is designed to measure the solar radiation flux density (W/m2) from the hemisphere above within a wavelength range 0.3 μm to 3 μm.
A pyrheliometer is an instrument for measurement of direct beam solar irradiance.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
A radio clock or radio-controlled clock (RCC) is a clock that is automatically synchronized by a time code transmitted by a radio transmitter connected to a time standard such as an atomic clock.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radiosonde is a battery-powered telemetry instrument package carried into the atmosphere usually by a weather balloon that measures various atmospheric parameters and transmits them by radio to a ground receiver.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
A rain gauge (also known as an udometer, pluviometer, or an ombrometer) is an instrument used by meteorologists and hydrologists to gather and measure the amount of liquid precipitation over a set period of time.
A rainband is a cloud and precipitation structure associated with an area of rainfall which is significantly elongated.
A rainbow is a meteorological phenomenon that is caused by reflection, refraction and dispersion of light in water droplets resulting in a spectrum of light appearing in the sky.
Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity defined as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element in a given sample to one unified atomic mass unit.
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
In thermodynamics, a reversible process is a process whose direction can be "reversed" by inducing infinitesimal changes to some property of the system via its surroundings, with no increase in entropy.
Vice-Admiral Robert FitzRoy RN (5 July 1805 – 30 April 1865) was an English officer of the Royal Navy and a scientist.
Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.
ROFOR is a format for reporting weather information.
Roger Bacon (Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Rogerus), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor, was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Rossby waves, also known as planetary waves, are a natural phenomenon in the atmospheres and oceans of planets that largely owe their properties to rotation of the planet.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
A scintillation counter is an instrument for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation by using the excitation effect of incident radiation on a scintillator material, and detecting the resultant light pulses.
A sea breeze or onshore breeze is any wind that blows from a large body of water toward or onto a landmass; it develops due to differences in air pressure created by the differing heat capacities of water and dry land.
A season is a division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology, and amount of daylight.
The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.
A seismometer is an instrument that measures motion of the ground, caused by, for example, an earthquake, a volcanic eruption, or the use of explosives.
Sejong the Great (7 May 1397 – 8 April 1450) was the fourth king of Joseon-dynasty Korea.
Sensible heat is heat exchanged by a body or thermodynamic system in which the exchange of heat changes the temperature of the body or system, and some macroscopic variables of the body or system, but leaves unchanged certain other macroscopic variables of the body or system, such as volume or pressure.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
Smoke is a collection of airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases emitted when a material undergoes combustion or pyrolysis, together with the quantity of air that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass.
A snow gauge is a type of instrument used by meteorologists and hydrologists to gather and measure the amount of solid precipitation (as opposed to liquid precipitation that is measured by a rain gauge) over a set period of time.
Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.
A sonic boom is the sound associated with the shock waves created whenever an object traveling through the air travels faster than the speed of sound.
Space weather is a branch of space physics and aeronomy concerned with the time varying conditions within the Solar System, including the solar wind, emphasizing the space surrounding the Earth, including conditions in the magnetosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere.
In sciences such as physics, geography, astronomy, meteorology and statistics, the term scale or spatial scale is used for describing or classifying with large approximation the extent or size of a length, distance or area studied or described.
Spectroradiometers are devices designed to measure the spectral power distribution of a source.
A squall line (also known as a quasi-linear convective system or QLCS) is a line of thunderstorms forming along or ahead of a cold front.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
A storm is any disturbed state of an environment or in an astronomical body's atmosphere especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather.
The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.
Surface weather observations are the fundamental data used for safety as well as climatological reasons to forecast weather and issue warnings worldwide.
The synoptic scale in meteorology (also known as large scale or cyclonic scale) is a horizontal length scale of the order of 1000 kilometers (about 620 miles) or more.
Teleconnection in atmospheric science refers to climate anomalies being related to each other at large distances (typically thousands of kilometers).
A television station is a set of equipment managed by a business, organisation or other entity, such as an amateur television (ATV) operator, that transmits video content via radio waves directly from a transmitter on the earth's surface to a receiver on earth.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
Theodoric of Freiberg (–) was a German member of the Dominican order and a theologian and physicist.
Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.
A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.
Thunder is the sound caused by lightning.
A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm, lightning storm, or thundershower, is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder.
TIROS I (or TIROS-1) was the first successful low-Earth orbital weather satellite, and the first of a series of Television Infrared Observation Satellites.
Tor Bergeron (15 August 1891 – 13 June 1977) was a Swedish meteorologist who proposed a mechanism for the formation of precipitation in clouds.
The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth's equator.
A transmissometer is an instrument for measuring the extinction coefficient of the atmosphere and sea water, and for the determination of visual range.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
The tropopause is the boundary in the Earth's atmosphere between the troposphere and the stratosphere.
In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is any pattern of fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity.
Twilight on Earth is the illumination of the lower atmosphere when the Sun itself is not directly visible because it is below the horizon.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
The United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is the corporate research laboratory for the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The University of Birmingham (informally Birmingham University) is a public research university located in Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
The University of Helsinki (Helsingin yliopisto, Helsingfors universitet, Universitas Helsingiensis, abbreviated UH) is a university located in Helsinki, Finland since 1829, but was founded in the city of Turku (in Swedish Åbo) in 1640 as the Royal Academy of Åbo, at that time part of the Swedish Empire.
The Upanishads (उपनिषद्), a part of the Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with religious traditions like Buddhism and Jainism.
Vallombrosa is a summer resort in the Province of Florence in the Italian region of Tuscany.
Vārāhamihira (505–587 CE), also called Vārāha or Mihira, was an Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer who lived in Ujjain.
Vilhelm Friman Koren Bjerknes (14 March 1862 – 9 April 1951) was a Norwegian physicist and meteorologist who did much to found the modern practice of weather forecasting.
The Walker circulation, also known as the Walker cell, is a conceptual model of the air flow in the tropics in the lower atmosphere (troposphere).
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.
There is often confusion between weather and climate.
Weather buoys are instruments which collect weather and ocean data within the world's oceans, as well as aid during emergency response to chemical spills, legal proceedings, and engineering design.
Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere for a given location and time.
A weather front is a boundary separating two masses of air of different densities, and is the principal cause of meteorological phenomena outside the tropics.
A weather map displays various meteorological features across a particular area at a particular point in time and has various symbols which all have specific meanings.
The Weather Prediction Center (WPC), located in College Park, Maryland, is one of nine service centers under the umbrella of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), a part of the National Weather Service (NWS), which in turn is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the U.S. government.
Weather reconnaissance is the acquisition of weather data used for research and planning.
The weather satellite is a type of satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and climate of the Earth.
A weather station is a facility, either on land or sea, with instruments and equipment for measuring atmospheric conditions to provide information for weather forecasts and to study the weather and climate.
William Clement Ley (6 July 1840 - 22 April 1896) was an English clergyman and pioneer meteorologist who studied clouds and examined their dynamics and use in weather forecasting.
William Ferrel (January 29, 1817 – September 18, 1891), an American meteorologist, developed theories which explained the mid-latitude atmospheric circulation cell in detail, and it is after him that the Ferrel cell is named.
Wind-chill or windchill, (popularly wind chill factor) is the lowering of body temperature due to the passing-flow of lower-temperature air.
Winter is the coldest season of the year in polar and temperate zones (winter does not occur in the tropical zone).
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories.
A 22° halo is an optical phenomenon that belongs to the family of ice crystal halos, in the form of a ring with a radius of approximately 22° around the Sun or Moon.
A 46° halo is a rare member of the family of ice crystal halos, appearing as a large ring centred on the Sun at roughly twice the distance as the much more common 22° halo.
The 557th Weather Wing is a United States Air Force formation and its lead military meteorology center.
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