356 relations: Acetylation, Acne, Action potential, Activated carbon, Addiction, Adrenergic storm, Aggression, Agonist, Akira Ogata, Alcoholism, Alertness, Alpha blocker, Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, American Dental Association, Amide, Amphetamine, Anhedonia, Anorexia (symptom), Antidepressant, Antihypertensive drug, Antipsychotic, Anuria, Anxiety, Aphrodisiac, Apoptosis, Arteriosclerosis, Astrocyte, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Autoxidation, Behavioral addiction, Benzodiazepine, Benzoic acid, Beta blocker, Biological half-life, Biomarker, Bipolar disorder, Blood pressure, Blood–brain barrier, Blurred vision, Boxed warning, Bradycardia, Brain damage, Breaking Bad, Breast milk, Bruxism, Butyrate—CoA ligase, C-Fos, Calcium channel, CAMK, Cannabinoid, ..., Cardiogenic shock, Cardiovascular disease, Carnitine, Catecholamine, CCR2, Central nervous system, Chemical classification, Chemical formula, Chemical synapse, Chemist, Chirality (chemistry), Chloroform, Choline, Cingulate cortex, Circulatory collapse, Circulatory system, Clostridium, Cocaine, Cochrane (organisation), Cognitive behavioral therapy, Coma, Concentration, Contraindication, Controlled Substances Act, Convention on Psychotropic Substances, Craving (withdrawal), Creatine, CREB, Crystallinity, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, CYP2D6, Cytosol, D1-like receptor, Decongestant, Delirium, Delusion, Depressant, Depression (mood), Diethyl ether, Dimethylphenethylamine, Diuresis, Dizziness, Dopamine, Dopamine beta-hydroxylase, Dopamine dysregulation syndrome, Dopamine receptor, Dopamine transporter, Dopaminergic, Dopaminergic pathways, Downregulation and upregulation, Drug test, Drug tolerance, Drug withdrawal, Dysphoria, Dysuria, EHMT2, Ejaculation, Enantiomer, Endocytosis, Endoplasmic reticulum stress in beta cells, Enterococcus, Entorhinal cortex, Ephedrine, Epigenetics, Epileptic seizure, Ethanol, Eugeroic, Euphoria, European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Excitotoxicity, Faces of Meth, Fasciculation, Fatigue, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Fetus, Fever, Fixation (psychology), Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3, Flushing (physiology), FOSB, Free base, G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel, G protein–coupled receptor, Gastric acid, Gene expression, Generalized epilepsy, Geranium, Glaucoma, Glutamate transporter, Glycine, Glycine N-acyltransferase, Grandiosity, Grey matter, Half-life, Hallucination, Haloperidol, Heart arrhythmia, Hemodialysis, Hermann Göring, Hippocampus, Hippuric acid, Histone acetylation and deacetylation, Histone methylation, Histone methyltransferase, HIV/AIDS, Human microbiota, Hydrolysis, Hyperintensity, Hyperreflexia, Hypersensitivity, Hypersomnia, Hypertension, Hyperthermia, Hyperthyroidism, Hypertonia, Hypertrophy, Hypoesthesia, Hypotension, Idiopathic hypersomnia, Iminium, Inositol, Insomnia, Insufflation (medicine), International nonproprietary name, Intracerebral hemorrhage, Intracranial hemorrhage, Intramuscular injection, Intravaginal administration, Intravenous therapy, Iodine, Irritability, JunD, Junkers Ju 87, Jurisdiction, Kidney, Kidney failure, Labetalol, Lactobacillus, Lazăr Edeleanu, Leuckart reaction, Levomethamphetamine, Libido, Ligand (biochemistry), Ligand-gated ion channel, List of Schedule II drugs (US), Lucid dream, Luftwaffe, Lundbeck, Magnesium, Magnetic resonance imaging, Major depressive disorder, Mania, Medium spiny neuron, Membrane transport protein, Mesolimbic pathway, Meth (disambiguation), Meth mouth, Methamphetamine in the United States, Methylamine, Methylamphetamine, Methylphenidate, Metoprolol, Midbrain, Millimeter of mercury, Miscibility, Monoamine oxidase, Monoamine oxidase A, Monoamine oxidase B, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Monoamine transporter, Montana Meth Project, Mood swing, Myalgia, Mydriasis, N-Acetylaspartic acid, N-Methylformamide, Nagai Nagayoshi, Narcolepsy, National Geographic (U.S. TV channel), Nazi Germany, Needle sharing, Neonatal withdrawal, Neuron, Neuroplasticity, Neurotoxicity, NF-κB, Nicotine, NMDA receptor, Norepinephrine transporter, Nucleus accumbens, Obesity, Obetrol, Off-label use, Online dating service, Opioid, Oral administration, Oral hygiene, Over-the-counter drug, Oxidative stress, P-Hydroxynorephedrine, P53, Pallor, Paralimbic cortex, Paranoia, Parkinson's disease, Party and play, Peripheral nervous system, Peritoneal dialysis, Perspiration, PH, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacotherapy, Phencyclidine, Phentolamine, Phenylacetone, Phenylpropanolamine, Pholedrine, Phosphorus, Phosphorylation, Physical dependence, Placenta, Polyphagia, Post-acute-withdrawal syndrome, Precursor (chemistry), Prefrontal cortex, Priapism, Promoter (genetics), Propofol, Protein kinase A, Protein kinase C, Proton-pump inhibitor, Psychological dependence, Psychomotor agitation, Psychomotor retardation, Psychosis, Pulmonary hypertension, Punding, Racemic mixture, Raynaud syndrome, Reactive oxygen species, Recreational drug use, Redox, Reductive amination, Rhabdomyolysis, Rolling meth lab, Sedation, Sedative, Self-confidence, Serine, Serotonergic, Serotonin, Serotonin syndrome, Serotonin transporter, Sexual addiction, Sigma receptor, Sigma-1 receptor, Sigma-2 receptor, SLC1A2, SLC22A3, SLC22A5, Smoking, Sodium nitroprusside, Solubility, Stereotypy, Stimulant, Stimulant psychosis, Striatum, Structural isomer, Subcutaneous injection, Substance dependence, Substance use disorder, Substitute good, Substituted amphetamine, Substituted phenethylamine, Suicide, Suppository, Sympathomimetic drug, Synaptic vesicle, Synonym, TAAR1, Tachycardia, Tachypnea, Temmler, Therapy, Thyroid, Tic, Tourette syndrome, Trademark, Transcription factor, Tremor, United Nations, United States Adopted Name, Urinary retention, Ventral tegmental area, Vesicular monoamine transporter 1, Vesicular monoamine transporter 2, Viral vector, Vitamin C, Wakefulness, Wastewater, Wehrmacht, White matter, Xerostomia, Ya ba, 4-Hydroxyamphetamine, 4-Hydroxyphenylacetone. 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Acetylation (or in IUPAC nomenclature ethanoylation) describes a reaction that introduces an acetyl functional group into a chemical compound.
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
An adrenergic storm is a sudden and dramatic increase in serum levels of the catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline (also known as epinephrine and norepinephrine respectively), with a less significant increase in dopamine transmission.
Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
was a Japanese chemist and the first to synthesize methamphetamine in crystalline form in 1919.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
Alertness is the state of active attention by high sensory awareness such as being watchful and prompt to meet danger or emergency, or being quick to perceive and act.
Alpha-blockers, also known as α-blockers or α-adrenoreceptor antagonists, are a class of pharmacological agents that act as antagonists on α-adrenergic receptors (α-adrenoceptors).
The alpha-2 (α2) adrenergic receptor (or adrenoceptor) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gi heterotrimeric G-protein.
The American Dental Association (ADA) is an American professional association established in 1859 which has more than 155,000 members.
An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Anhedonia refers to a diverse array of deficits in hedonic function, including reduced motivation or ability to experience pleasure.
Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Anuria, sometimes called anuresis, is nonpassage of urine, in practice is defined as passage of less than 100 milliliters of urine in a day.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
An aphrodisiac or love drug is a substance that increases libido when consumed.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Arteriosclerosis is the thickening, hardening and loss of elasticity of the walls of arteries.
Astrocytes (Astro from Greek astron.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Autoxidation is any oxidation that occurs in open air or in presence of oxygen (and sometimes UV radiation) and forms peroxides and hydroperoxides.
Behavioral addiction is a form of addiction that involves a compulsion to engage in a rewarding non-drug-related behavior – sometimes called a natural reward – despite any negative consequences to the person's physical, mental, social or financial well-being.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Benzoic acid, C7H6O2 (or C6H5COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and a simple aromatic carboxylic acid.
Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
A biomarker, or biological marker, generally refers to a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Blurred vision is an ocular symptom.
In the United States, a boxed warning (sometimes "black box warning", colloquially) is a type of warning that appears on the package insert for certain prescription drugs, so called because the U.S. Food and Drug Administration specifies that it is formatted with a 'box' or border around the text.
Bradycardia is a condition wherein an individual has a very slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.
Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.
Breaking Bad is an American neo-Western crime drama television series created and produced by Vince Gilligan.
Breast milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child.
Bruxism is excessive teeth grinding or jaw clenching.
Butyrate—CoA ligase, also known as xenobiotic/medium-chain fatty acid-ligase (XM-ligase), is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction: The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, carboxylic acid, and CoA, whereas its 3 products are AMP, diphosphate, and acyl-CoA.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, c-Fos is a proto-oncogene that is the human homolog of the retroviral oncogene v-fos.
A calcium channel is an ion channel which shows selective permeability to calcium ions.
CAMK, also written as CaMK, is an abbreviation for the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase class of enzymes.
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.
Cardiogenic shock is a medical emergency resulting from inadequate blood flow due to the dysfunction of the ventricles of the heart.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Carnitine (β-hydroxy-γ-N-trimethylaminobutyric acid, 3-hydroxy-4-N,N,N- trimethylaminobutyrate) is a quaternary ammonium compound involved in metabolism in most mammals, plants and some bacteria. Carnitine may exist in two isomers, labeled D-carnitine and L-carnitine, as they are optically active. At room temperature, pure carnitine is a white powder, and a water-soluble zwitterion with low toxicity. Carnitine only exists in animals as the L-enantiomer, and D-carnitine is toxic because it inhibits the activity of L-carnitine. Carnitine, derived from an amino acid, is found in nearly all organisms and animal tissue. Carnitine is the generic expression for a number of compounds that include L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and propionyl-L-carnitine. It is most accumulated in cardiac and skeletal muscles as it accounts for 0.1% of its dry matter. It was first derived from meat extracts in 1905, therefore the name carnitine is derived from Latin "carnus" or flesh. The body synthesizes enough carnitine from lysine side chains to keep up with the needs of energy production in the body as carnitine acts as a transporter of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria to be oxidized and produce energy. Some individuals with genetic or medical disorders (like preterm infants) cannot make enough, so this makes carnitine a conditionally essential nutrient for them.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2 or CD192 (cluster of differentiation 192) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR2 gene. CCR2 is a chemokine receptor.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chemical classification systems attempt to classify elements or compounds according to certain chemical functional or structural properties.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.
Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
Choline is a water-soluble vitamin-like essential nutrient.
The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral cortex.
A circulatory collapse is defined as a general or specific failure of the circulation, either cardiac or peripheral in nature.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Clostridium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, which includes several significant human pathogens, including the causative agent of botulism and an important cause of diarrhea, Clostridium difficile.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that serves as a reason to withhold a certain medical treatment due to the harm that it would cause the patient.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.
The Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics signed in Vienna, Austria on 21 February 1971.
When going through withdrawal, craving is a psychological urge to administer a discontinued medication or recreational drug.
Creatine is a nitrogenous organic acid that occurs naturally in vertebrates.
CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) is a cellular transcription factor.
Crystallinity refers to the degree of structural order in a solid.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2D6 gene.
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
The D1-like receptors are a subfamily of dopamine receptors that bind the endogenous neurotransmitter dopamine.
A decongestant, or nasal decongestant, is a type of pharmaceutical drug that is used to relieve nasal congestion in the upper respiratory tract.
Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.
A delusion is a mistaken belief that is held with strong conviction even in the presence of superior evidence to the contrary.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).
Dimethylphenethylamine may refer to.
Diuresis is increased urination and the physiologic process that produces such an increase.
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), also known as dopamine beta-monooxygenase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DBH gene.
Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) is a dysfunction of the reward system observed in some individuals taking dopaminergic medications for an extended length of time.
Dopamine receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS).
The dopamine transporter (also dopamine active transporter, DAT, SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that pumps the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synaptic cleft back into cytosol.
Dopaminergic means "related to dopamine" (literally, "working on dopamine"), dopamine being a common neurotransmitter.
Dopaminergic pathways, sometimes called dopaminergic projections, are the sets of projection neurons in the brain that synthesize and release the neurotransmitter dopamine.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
A drug test is a technical analysis of a biological specimen, for example urine, hair, blood, breath, sweat, and/or oral fluid/saliva — to determine the presence or absence of specified parent drugs or their metabolites.
Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use.
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
Dysphoria (from δύσφορος (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction.
In medicine, specifically urology, dysuria refers to painful urination.
Euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (EHMT2), also known as G9a, is a histone methyltransferase that in humans is encoded by the EHMT2 gene.
Ejaculation is the discharge of semen (normally containing sperm) from the male reproductory tract, usually accompanied by orgasm.
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
Beta cells are heavily engaged in the synthesis and secretion of insulin.
Enterococcus is a large genus of lactic acid bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes.
The entorhinal cortex (EC) (ento.
Ephedrine is a medication and stimulant.
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Eugeroics (originally, "eugrégorique" or "eugregoric"), also known as wakefulness-promoting agents and wakefulness-promoting drugs, are a class of drugs that promote wakefulness and alertness.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is an agency of the European Union located in Lisbon, Portugal.
Excitotoxicity is the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged or killed by excessive stimulation by neurotransmitters such as glutamate and similar substances.
Faces of Meth is a drug prevention project run by the Multnomah County Sheriff's Office in the U.S. state of Oregon.
A fasciculation, or muscle twitch, is a small, local, involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation which may be visible under the skin.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
"Fixation" (Fixierung) is a concept (in human psychology) that was originated by Sigmund Freud (1905) to denote the persistence of anachronistic sexual traits.
Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3), also known as dimethylaniline monooxygenase 3 and trimethylamine monooxygenase, is a flavoprotein enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FMO3 gene.
For a person to flush is to become markedly red in the face and often other areas of the skin, from various physiological conditions.
FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, also known as Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, FOSB or FosB, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOSB gene.
Free base (freebase, free-base) is the conjugate base (deprotonated) form of an amine, as opposed to its conjugate acid (protonated) form.
The G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channels (GIRKs) are a family of inward-rectifier potassium ion channels which are activated (opened) via a signal transduction cascade starting with ligand-stimulated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs).
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl).
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Generalized epilepsy, also known as primary generalized epilepsy or idiopathic epilepsy, is a form of epilepsy characterised by generalised seizures with no apparent cause.
Geranium is a genus of 422 species of flowering annual, biennial, and perennial plants that are commonly known as the cranesbills.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.
Glutamate transporters are a family of neurotransmitter transporter proteins that move glutamate – the principal excitatory neurotransmitter – across a membrane.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
In enzymology, a glycine N-acyltransferase (GLYAT), also known as acyl-CoA:glycine N-acyltransferase (ACGNAT), is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acyl-CoA and glycine, whereas its two products are CoA and N-acylglycine.
Grandiosity refers to an unrealistic sense of superiority, a sustained view of oneself as better than others that causes the narcissist to view others with disdain or as inferior, as well as to a sense of uniqueness: the belief that few others have anything in common with oneself and that one can only be understood by a few or very special people.
Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
Haloperidol, marketed under the trade name Haldol among others, is a typical antipsychotic medication.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Hemodialysis, also spelled haemodialysis, commonly called kidney dialysis or simply dialysis, is a process of purifying the blood of a person whose kidneys are not working normally.
Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Hippuric acid (Gr. hippos, horse, ouron, urine) is a carboxylic acid found in the urine of horses and other herbivores.
Histone acetylation and deacetylation are the processes by which the lysine residues within the N-terminal tail protruding from the histone core of the nucleosome are acetylated and deacetylated as part of gene regulation.
Histone methylation is a process by which methyl groups are transferred to amino acids of histone proteins that make up nucleosomes, which the DNA double helix wraps around to form chromosomes.
Histone methyltransferases (HMT) are histone-modifying enzymes (e.g., histone-lysine N-methyltransferases and histone-arginine N-methyltransferases), that catalyze the transfer of one, two, or three methyl groups to lysine and arginine residues of histone proteins.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
The human microbiota is the aggregate of microorganisms that resides on or within any of a number of human tissues and biofluids, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, biliary and gastrointestinal tracts.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hyperintensities refer to areas of high intensity on types of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the human brain or that of other mammals that reflect lesions produced largely by demyelination and axonal loss.
Hyperreflexia (or hyper-reflexia) is defined as overactive or overresponsive reflexes.
Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity.
Hypersomnia, or hypersomnolence, is a neurological disorder of excessive time spent sleeping or excessive sleepiness.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hyperthermia is elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation that occurs when a body produces or absorbs more heat than it dissipates.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
Hypertonia is a term sometimes used synonymously with spasticity and rigidity in the literature surrounding damage to the central nervous system, namely upper motor neuron lesions.
Hypertrophy (from Greek ὑπέρ "excess" + τροφή "nourishment") is the increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells.
Hypoesthesia (also spelled as hypesthesia) is a common side effect of various medical conditions which manifests as a reduced sense of touch or sensation, or a partial loss of sensitivity to sensory stimuli.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Idiopathic hypersomnia is a neurological disorder which is characterized primarily by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS).
An iminium salt or cation in organic chemistry has the general structure + and is as such a protonated or substituted imine.
Myo-inositol, or simply inositol, is a carbocyclic sugar that is abundant in brain and other mammalian tissues, mediates cell signal transduction in response to a variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors and participates in osmoregulation It is a sugar alcohol with half the sweetness of sucrose (table sugar).
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
Insufflation (lit) is the act of blowing something (such as a gas, powder, or vapor) into a body cavity.
The International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is an official generic and non-proprietary name given to a pharmaceutical drug or an active ingredient.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), also known as cerebral bleed, is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain tissue or ventricles.
Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), also known as intracranial bleed, is bleeding within the skull.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Intravaginal administration is a route of administration where the substance is applied inside the vagina.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
Irritability is the excitatory ability that living organisms have to respond to changes in their environment.
Transcription factor JunD is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JUND gene.
The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka (from Sturzkampfflugzeug, "dive bomber") is a German dive bomber and ground-attack aircraft.
Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Labetalol is a medication used to treat high blood pressure.
Lactobacillus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic or microaerophilic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria.
Lazăr Edeleanu (1 September 1861, Bucharest – 7 April 1941) was a Romanian chemist of Jewish origin.
The Leuckart reaction is the chemical reaction that converts aldehydes or ketones to amines by reductive amination in the presence of heat.
LevomethamphetamineOther names include l-methamphetamine, levodesoxyephedrine, l-desoxyephedrine, levmetamfetamine (INN and USAN).
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Ligand-gated ion channels (LICs, LGIC), also commonly referred as ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion-channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.
This is the list of Schedule II drugs as defined by the United States Controlled Substances Act.
A lucid dream is a dream during which the dreamer is aware that they are dreaming.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
Medium spiny neurons (MSNs), also known as spiny projection neurons, are a special type of GABAergic inhibitory cell representing 95% of neurons within the human striatum, a basal ganglia structure.
A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter) is a membrane protein involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a biological membrane.
The mesolimbic pathway, sometimes referred to as the reward pathway, is a dopaminergic pathway in the brain.
Meth or meths may refer to.
Meth mouth is severe tooth decay and tooth loss, as well as tooth fracture, acid erosion, and other oral problems, potentially symptomatic of extended use of the drug methamphetamine.
Methamphetamine in the United States is regulated under Schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act.
Methylamine is an organic compound with a formula of CH3NH2.
Methylamphetamine may refer to.
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Metoprolol, marketed under the tradename Lopressor among others, is a medication of the selective β1 receptor blocker type.
The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.
A millimeter of mercury is a manometric unit of pressure, formerly defined as the extra pressure generated by a column of mercury one millimetre high and now defined as precisely pascals.
Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.
L-Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.
Monoamine oxidase A, also known as MAO-A, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAOA gene.
Monoamine oxidase B, also known as MAOB, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAOB gene.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
Monoamine transporters (MATs) are protein structures that function as integral plasma-membrane transporters to regulate concentrations of extracellular monoamine neurotransmitters.
The Montana Meth Project (MMP) is a Montana-based non-profit organization founded by businessman Thomas Siebel which seeks to reduce methamphetamine use, particularly among teenagers.
A mood swing is an extreme or rapid change in mood.
Myalgia, or muscle pain, is a symptom of many diseases and disorders.
Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually having a non-physiological cause, or sometimes a physiological pupillary response.
N-Acetylaspartic acid, or N-acetylaspartate (NAA), is a derivative of aspartic acid with a formula of C6H9NO5 and a molecular weight of 175.139.
N-Methylformamide (NMF) is a colorless, nearly odorless, organic compound with molecular formula CH3NHCHO, which is a liquid at room temperature.
was a notable Japanese organic chemist and pharmacologist, best known for his study of ephedrine.
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.
National Geographic (formerly National Geographic Channel and also commercially abbreviated and trademarked as Nat Geo or Nat Geo TV) is an American digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by National Geographic Partners, majority-owned by 21st Century Fox with the remainder owned by the National Geographic Society.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Needle sharing is the practice of intravenous drug-users by which a syringe is shared by multiple individuals to administer intravenous drugs, and is a primary vector for diseases which can be transmitted through blood (blood-borne pathogens).
Neonatal withdrawal or neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a withdrawal syndrome of infants after birth caused by in utero exposure to drugs of dependence.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time.
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.
NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
The norepinephrine transporter (NET), also known as solute carrier family 6 member 2 (SLC6A2), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A2 gene.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Obetrol was the brand of amphetamine mixed salts based drugs indicated for treatment of exogenous obesity by the American pharmaceutical company Obetrol Pharmaceuticals.
Off-label use is the use of pharmaceutical drugs for an unapproved indication or in an unapproved age group, dosage, or route of administration.
Online dating (or Internet dating) is a system that enables people to find and introduce themselves to new personal connections over the Internet, usually with the goal of developing personal, romantic, or sexual relationships.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping one's mouth clean and free of disease and other problems (e.g. bad breath) by regular brushing and cleaning between the teeth.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.
p-Hydroxynorephedrine, or 4-hydroxynorephedrine, is the para-hydroxy analog of norephedrine and an active sympathomimetic metabolite of amphetamine in humans.
Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).
Pallor is a pale color of the skin that can be caused by illness, emotional shock or stress, stimulant use, or anemia, and is the result of a reduced amount of oxyhaemoglobin and is visible in skin conjuctivae or mucous membrane.
The paralimbic cortex is an area of three-layered cortex that includes the following regions: the piriform cortex, entorhinal cortex, the parahippocampal cortex on the medial surface of the temporal lobe, and the cingulate cortex just above the corpus callosum.
Paranoia is an instinct or thought process believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Party and play, party 'n' play (PNP or PnP), or chemsex is the consumption of drugs to facilitate sexual activity.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a type of dialysis that uses the peritoneum in a person's abdomen as the membrane through which fluid and dissolved substances are exchanged with the blood.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
Pharmacotherapy is therapy using pharmaceutical drugs, as distinguished from therapy using surgery (surgical therapy), radiation (radiation therapy), movement (physical therapy), or other modes.
Phencyclidine (PCP), also known as angel dust among other names, is a drug used for its mind altering effects.
Phentolamine (Regitine) is a reversible nonselective α-adrenergic antagonist.
Phenylacetone is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5CH2COCH3.
Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is a sympathomimetic agent which is used as a decongestant and appetite suppressant.
Pholedrine (Paredrinol, Pulsotyl, Veritol), also known as 4-hydroxy-N-methylamphetamine (4-HMA), 4-hydroxymethamphetamine, and para-hydroxymethamphetamine, is a drug that stimulates the sympathetic nervous system.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
Polyphagia or hyperphagia is excessive hunger or increased appetite.
Post-acute-withdrawal syndrome (PAWS) describe a set of persistent impairments that occur after withdrawal from alcohol, opiates, benzodiazepines, antidepressants and other substances.
In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
Priapism is a condition in which a penis remains erect for hours in the absence of stimulation or after stimulation has ended.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
Propofol, marketed as Diprivan among others, is a short-acting medication that results in a decreased level of consciousness and lack of memory for events.
In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKANot to be confused with pKa, the symbol for the acid dissociation constant.) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP).
Protein kinase C, commonly abbreviated to PKC (EC 18.104.22.168), is a family of protein kinase enzymes that are involved in controlling the function of other proteins through the phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine amino acid residues on these proteins, or a member of this family.
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of stomach acid production.
Psychological dependence is a form of dependence that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., a state of unease or dissatisfaction, a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, or anxiety) upon cessation of drug use or exposure to a stimulus.
Psychomotor agitation is a set of signs and symptoms that stem from mental tension and anxiety.
Psychomotor retardation (also known as "psychomotor impairment" or "motormental retardation" or "psychomotor slowing") involves a slowing-down of thought and a reduction of physical movements in an individual.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH or PHTN) is a condition of increased blood pressure within the arteries of the lungs.
Punding is a term that was coined originally to describe complex prolonged, purposeless, and stereotyped behaviour in phenmetrazine and chronic amphetamine users, by Swedish forensic psychiatrist G. Rylander, in 1968.
In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.
Raynaud syndrome, also known as Raynaud's phenomenon, is a medical condition in which spasm of arteries cause episodes of reduced blood flow.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Reductive amination (also known as reductive alkylation) is a form of amination that involves the conversion of a carbonyl group to an amine via an intermediate imine.
Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly.
A rolling meth lab is a transportable laboratory that is used to illegally produce methamphetamine.
Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
The concept of self-confidence is commonly used as self-assurance in one's personal judgment, ability, power, etc.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Serotonergic or serotoninergic means "pertaining to or affecting serotonin".
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a group of symptoms that may occur following use of certain serotonergic medications or drugs.
The serotonin transporter (SERT or 5-HTT) also known as the sodium-dependent serotonin transporter and solute carrier family 6 member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A4 gene.
Sexual addiction, also known as sex addiction, is a proposed state characterized by compulsive participation or engagement in sexual activity, particularly sexual intercourse, despite negative consequences.
Schematic σ receptor The sigma receptors σ1 and σ2 bind to ligands such as 4-PPBP (4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl) piperidine), SA 4503 (cutamesine), ditolylguanidine, dimethyltryptamine, and siramesine.
The sigma-1 receptor (σ1R), one of two sigma receptor subtypes, is a chaperone protein at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that modulates calcium signaling through the IP3 receptor.
The sigma-2 receptor (σ2R) is a sigma receptor subtype that has been found highly expressed in malignant cancer cells, and is currently under investigation for its potential diagnostic and therapeutic uses.
Excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) also known as solute carrier family 1 member 2 (SLC1A2) and glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A2 gene.
Solute carrier family 22 member 3 (SLC22A3) also known as the organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) or extraneuronal monoamine transporter (EMT) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC22A3 gene.
SLC22A5 is a membrane transport protein associated with primary carnitine deficiency.
Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.
Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), sold under the brand name Nitropress among others, is a medication used to lower blood pressure.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
A stereotypy is a repetitive or ritualistic movement, posture, or utterance.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Stimulant psychosis, also known as stimulant-induced psychotic disorder, is a psychosis symptom which involves hallucinations, paranoia, and/or delusions and typically occurs following an overdose on psychostimulants; however, it has also been reported to occur in approximately 0.1% of individuals, or 1 out of every 1,000 people, within the first several weeks after starting amphetamine or methylphenidate therapy.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
Structural isomerism, or constitutional isomerism (per IUPAC), is a form of isomerism in which molecules with the same molecular formula have different bonding patterns and atomic organization, as opposed to stereoisomerism, in which molecular bonds are always in the same order and only spatial arrangement differs.
A subcutaneous injection is administered as a bolus into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis, collectively referred to as the cutis.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
A substance use disorder (SUD), also known as a drug use disorder, is a condition in which the use of one or more substances leads to a clinically significant impairment or distress.
A substitute good is one good that can be used instead of another.
Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.
Substituted phenethylamines (or simply phenethylamines) are a chemical class of organic compounds that are based upon the phenethylamine structure; the class is composed of all the derivative compounds of phenethylamine which can be formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the phenethylamine core structure with substituents.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
A suppository is a solid dosage form that is inserted into the rectum (rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository), or urethra (urethral suppository), where it dissolves or melts and exerts local or systemic effects.
Sympathomimetic drugs (also known as adrenergic drugs and adrenergic amines) are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system.
In a neuron, synaptic vesicles (or neurotransmitter vesicles) store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.
A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR1 gene.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Tachypnea or tachypnoea is abnormally rapid breathing.
Temmler Werke GmbH was founded in Detmold in 1917 by Hermann Temmler.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
A tic is a sudden, repetitive, nonrhythmic motor movement or vocalization involving discrete muscle groups.
Tourette syndrome (TS or simply Tourette's) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic.
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-markThe styling of trademark as a single word is predominantly used in the United States and Philippines only, while the two-word styling trade mark is used in many other countries around the world, including the European Union and Commonwealth and ex-Commonwealth jurisdictions (although Canada officially uses "trade-mark" pursuant to the Trade-mark Act, "trade mark" and "trademark" are also commonly used).
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
United States Adopted Names are unique nonproprietary names assigned to pharmaceuticals marketed in the United States.
Urinary retention is an inability to completely empty the bladder.
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) (tegmentum is Latin for covering), also known as the ventral tegmental area of Tsai, or simply ventral tegmentum, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the midbrain.
Vesicular monoamine transporter 1 (VMAT1) also known as chromaffin granule amine transporter (CGAT) or solute carrier family 18 member 1 (SLC18A1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC18A1 gene.
The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) also known as solute carrier family 18 member 2 (SLC18A2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC18A2 gene.
Viral vectors are tools commonly used by molecular biologists to deliver genetic material into cells.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Wakefulness is a daily recurring brain state and state of consciousness in which an individual is conscious and engages in coherent cognitive and behavioral responses to the external world such as communication, ambulation, eating, and sex.
Wastewater (or waste water) is any water that has been affected by human use.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.
Xerostomia, also known as dry mouth and dry mouth syndrome, is dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause.
Ya ba (also yaba, yaa baa, ya baa or yah bah; ยาบ้า, literally "mad drug", formerly known as ya ma (ยาม้า; literally "horse drug"), are tablets containing a mixture of methamphetamine and caffeine.
4-Hydroxyamphetamine (4HA), also known as hydroxyamfetamine, hydroxyamphetamine, oxamphetamine, norpholedrine, para-hydroxyamphetamine, and α-methyltyramine, is a drug that stimulates the sympathetic nervous system.
4-Hydroxyphenylacetone is the para-hydroxy analog of phenylacetone, an inactive metabolite of amphetamine in humans.
(dextro)-Methamphetamine, (dextro)-methamphetamine, ATC code N06BA03, ATCvet code QN06BA03, Batu (drug), Bingdu, CRYSTALMETH, Crystal Meth, Crystal meth, Crystal methamphetamine, Crystal methedrine, Crystal methodone, Crystal meths, Crystal-meth, Crystalmeth, D-Methamphetamine, D-methamphetamine, Desoxyephedrine, Desoxyn, Desoxypseudoephedrine, Desyphed, Desyphed hydrochloride, Dexmetamfetamine, Dextromethamphetamine, Dextromethamphetamine (medical), Dextromethamphetamine hydrochloride, Ephedrane, High-speed chicken feed, Hiropon, ICE, the drug of power, Ice (methamphetamine), Ice pipe, Isophan, Medical meth, Metamfetamine, Metamfetamine-m, Meth, Meth Amphetamine, Meth head, Meth heads, Meth pipe, Meth spiral, Meth-amphetamines, Methadrine, Methametaphene, Methamp, Methampex, Methamphetamin, Methamphetamine (Crystal Meth), Methamphetamine (D-), Methamphetamine (medical), Methamphetamine abuse, Methamphetamine hydrochloride, Methamphetamines, Methanphetamine, Methanphetamines, Methedrine, Methyl-alpha-methyl-phenyl-ethyl-amine, Methyl-amphetamine, Methyl-α-methyl-phenyl-ethyl-amine, N,α-Dimethylphenethylamine, N,α-dimethylphenethylamine, N-Methylamphetamine, N-methyl alpha-methylphenethylamine, N-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-amine, N-methyl-alpha-methylphenethylamine, N-methylamphetamine, Norodin, Pervitin, Philopon, Pilot's chocolate, Pilot's salt, Racemethamphetamine, Racemic methamphetamine, Side effects of methamphetamine, Stimulex, Syndrox, Tik.