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Methane

Index Methane

Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen). [1]

208 relations: Abiogenic petroleum origin, Abiotic component, Acetone, Acid gas, Activated carbon, Adsorption, Aerobic methane production, Alessandro Volta, Alkane, Alpha-Oxygen, Anaerobic digestion, Anaerobic organism, Anaerobic oxidation of methane, Anaerobic respiration, Archaea, Arctic methane emissions, Aroma compound, Asphyxia, Asphyxiant gas, Atmosphere (unit), Atmosphere of Earth, Atmosphere of Mars, Atmospheric methane, Atom, August Wilhelm von Hofmann, Bacteria, Benjamin Franklin, Benzene, Biogas, Biomass, Boiler (power generation), British thermal unit, Bromine, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbon tetrachloride, Carbon–hydrogen bond, Carbon–hydrogen bond activation, Catalysis, Cattle, Celsius, Chemical compound, Chemical formula, Chlorine, Chloroform, Chloromethane, Coal, Coal Oil Point seep field, Coalbed methane, ..., Coalbed methane extraction, Coenzyme-B sulfoethylthiotransferase, Combustibility and flammability, Combustion, Compressed natural gas, Condensation, Conjugate acid, Corrosive substance, Critical point (thermodynamics), Cryogenics, Curiosity (rover), Current Biology, Dakota Gasification Company, Decomposition, Deprotonation, Dichloromethane, Diesel fuel, Diethyl ether, Difluoromethane, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Dinosaur, Earth, Electricity, Electricity generation, Electrolysis, Energy conversion efficiency, Energy density, Enhanced coal bed methane recovery, Ethanol, Explosive material, Fahrenheit, Fayalite, Fermentation, Fischer–Tropsch process, Flatulence, Fluorine, Forsterite, Fossil fuel, Free-radical halogenation, Fuel, Gas, Gas to liquids, Gas turbine, Gasoline, Global Methane Initiative, Global warming, Global warming potential, Greenhouse gas, Group 14 hydride, Halogen, Halogenation, Halomethane, Heat of combustion, Helium, HVAC, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, Hydrogenation, Ice age, In situ resource utilization, Industrial gas, Interglacial, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Iodine, Iodoform, Ion, Italians, Italy, Joule, Kerosene, Kilo-, Lake Kivu, Lake Maggiore, Landfill, Life on Mars, Lignite, Limnic eruption, Liquefaction of gases, Liquefied natural gas, List of interstellar and circumstellar molecules, List of straight-chain alkanes, LNG carrier, Manure, Mars, Marsh gas, Methanation, Methane (data page), Methane clathrate, Methane monooxygenase, Methanium, Methanogen, Methanogenesis, Methanol, Methanotroph, Methenium, Methyl group, Methyl iodide, Methyllithium, Methylmagnesium chloride, Microorganism, Mole (unit), Molecule, Municipal solid waste, NASA, Natural gas, Natural gas field, Natural gas vehicle, Nitrogen, Olfaction, Olivine, Organic matter, Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, Paleoclimatology, Periodic Videos, Permafrost, Petroleum, Pipeline transport, Plastic crystal, Polymorphism (materials science), Radiative forcing, Radical (chemistry), Rice, Rocket propellant, Room temperature, Royal Society of Chemistry, Ruminant, Sabatier reaction, Science (journal), Seabed, Sediment, Serpentinite, Solar panel, Solar System, Solid solution, Space group, Space.com, Spontaneous combustion, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Standard cubic foot, Steam reforming, Stratum, Superacid, Switzerland, Syngas, Tert-Butylthiol, Tetrahedral molecular geometry, The New York Times, Thomas Gold, Titan (moon), Toluene, Toxicity, Transparency and translucency, Upper Big Branch Mine disaster, Vacuum flask, Water, West Virginia, Wind turbine, 2007 Zasyadko mine disaster. Expand index (158 more) »

Abiogenic petroleum origin

Abiogenic petroleum origin is a term used to describe a number of different hypotheses which propose that petroleum and natural gas are formed by inorganic means rather than by the decomposition of organisms.

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Abiotic component

In biology and ecology, abiotic components or abiotic factors are non-living chemical and physical parts of the environment that affect living organisms and the functioning of ecosystems.

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Acetone

Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.

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Acid gas

Acid gas is a particular typology of natural gas or any other gas mixture containing significant quantities of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2), or similar acidic gases.

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Activated carbon

Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.

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Adsorption

Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.

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Aerobic methane production

Aerobic methane production is a potential biological pathway for atmospheric methane (CH4) production under oxygenated conditions.

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Alessandro Volta

Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (18 February 1745 – 5 March 1827) was an Italian physicist, chemist, and a pioneer of electricity and power,Giuliano Pancaldi, "Volta: Science and culture in the age of enlightenment", Princeton University Press, 2003.

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Alkane

In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.

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Alpha-Oxygen

Alpha-Oxygen (α-O) is a reactive oxygen species formed from an oxygen-atom abstraction (OAT) from nitrous oxide (N2O) by alpha-Iron (α-Fe) catalysts.

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Anaerobic digestion

Anaerobic digestion is a collection of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen.

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Anaerobic organism

An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.

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Anaerobic oxidation of methane

Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a microbial process occurring in anoxic marine and freshwater sediments.

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Anaerobic respiration

Anaerobic respiration is respiration using electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen (O2).

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Archaea

Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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Arctic methane emissions

Arctic methane release is the release of methane from seas and soils in permafrost regions of the Arctic.

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Aroma compound

An aroma compound, also known as an odorant, aroma, fragrance, or flavor, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor.

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Asphyxia

Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.

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Asphyxiant gas

An asphyxiant gas is a nontoxic or minimally toxic gas which reduces or displaces the normal oxygen concentration in breathing air.

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Atmosphere (unit)

The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Atmosphere of Mars

The atmosphere of the planet Mars is composed mostly of carbon dioxide.

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Atmospheric methane

Atmospheric methane is the methane present in earth's atmosphere.

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Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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August Wilhelm von Hofmann

August Wilhelm von Hofmann (8 April 18185 May 1892) was a German chemist.

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Bacteria

Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

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Benzene

Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.

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Biogas

Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen.

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Biomass

Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.

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Boiler (power generation)

A boiler or steam generator is a device used to create steam by applying heat energy to water.

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British thermal unit

The British thermal unit (Btu or BTU) is a traditional unit of heat; it is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.

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Bromine

Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.

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Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Carbon tetrachloride

Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane, also recognized by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.

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Carbon–hydrogen bond

The carbon-hydrogen bond (C–H bond) is a bond between carbon and hydrogen atoms that can be found in many organic compounds.

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Carbon–hydrogen bond activation

Carbon–hydrogen bond functionalization (C–H functionalization) is a type of reaction in which a carbon–hydrogen bond is cleaved and replaced with a carbon-X bond (where X is usually carbon, oxygen, or nitrogen).

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Catalysis

Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.

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Cattle

Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.

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Celsius

The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).

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Chemical compound

A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.

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Chemical formula

A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.

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Chlorine

Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Chloroform

Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.

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Chloromethane

Chloromethane, also called methyl chloride, Refrigerant-40, R-40 or HCC 40, is a chemical compound of the group of organic compounds called haloalkanes.

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Coal

Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

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Coal Oil Point seep field

The Coal Oil Point seep field (COP) in the Santa Barbara Channel offshore from Goleta, California, is a marine petroleum seep area of about three square kilometres, within the Offshore South Ellwood Oil Field and stretching from the coastline southward more than.

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Coalbed methane

Coalbed methane (CBM or coal-bed methane), coalbed gas, coal seam gas (CSG), or coal-mine methane (CMM) is a form of natural gas extracted from coal beds.

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Coalbed methane extraction

Coalbed methane extraction (CBM extraction) is a method for extracting methane from a coal deposit.

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Coenzyme-B sulfoethylthiotransferase

In enzymology, coenzyme-B sulfoethylthiotransferase, also known as methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) or most systematically as 2-(methylthio)ethanesulfonate:N-(7-thioheptanoyl)-3-O-phosphothreonine S-(2-sulfoethyl)thiotransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the final step in the formation of methane.

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Combustibility and flammability

Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible.

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Combustion

Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.

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Compressed natural gas

Compressed natural gas (CNG) (methane stored at high pressure) is a fuel which can be used in place of gasoline (petrol), Diesel fuel and propane/LPG.

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Condensation

Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vapourisation.

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Conjugate acid

A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+) by a base—in other words, it is a base with a hydrogen ion added to it.

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Corrosive substance

A corrosive substance is one that will destroy and damage other substances with which it comes into contact.

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Critical point (thermodynamics)

In thermodynamics, a critical point (or critical state) is the end point of a phase equilibrium curve.

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Cryogenics

In physics, cryogenics is the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.

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Curiosity (rover)

Curiosity is a car-sized rover designed to explore Gale Crater on Mars as part of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL).

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Current Biology

Current Biology is a scientific journal that covers all areas of biology, especially molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, neurobiology, ecology and evolutionary biology.

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Dakota Gasification Company

The Dakota Gasification Company is a synthetic natural gas producing company founded in 1984 in Beulah, North Dakota, United States.

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Decomposition

Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken down into simpler organic matter.

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Deprotonation

Deprotonation is the removal (transfer) of a proton (a hydrogen cation, H+) from a Brønsted–Lowry acid in an acid-base reaction.

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Dichloromethane

Methylene dichloride (DCM, or methylene chloride, or dichloromethane) is a geminal organic compound with the formula CH2Cl2.

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Diesel fuel

Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.

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Diethyl ether

Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).

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Difluoromethane

Difluoromethane, also called HFC-32 or R-32, is an organic compound of the dihalogenoalkane variety.

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Dimethyl sulfoxide

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2SO.

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Dinosaur

Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.

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Earth

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Electricity

Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.

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Electricity generation

Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.

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Electrolysis

In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.

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Energy conversion efficiency

Energy conversion efficiency (η) is the ratio between the useful output of an energy conversion machine and the input, in energy terms.

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Energy density

Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.

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Enhanced coal bed methane recovery

Enhanced coal bed methane recovery is a method of producing additional coalbed methane from a source rock, similar to enhanced oil recovery applied to oil fields.

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Ethanol

Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Explosive material

An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.

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Fahrenheit

The Fahrenheit scale is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by Dutch-German-Polish physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736).

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Fayalite

Fayalite (Fe2SiO4; commonly abbreviated to Fa), also called iron chrysolite, is the iron-rich end-member of the olivine solid-solution series.

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Fermentation

Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.

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Fischer–Tropsch process

The Fischer–Tropsch process is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons.

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Flatulence

Flatulence is defined in the medical literature as "flatus expelled through the anus" or the "quality or state of being flatulent", which is defined in turn as "marked by or affected with gases generated in the intestine or stomach; likely to cause digestive flatulence".

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Fluorine

Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.

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Forsterite

Forsterite (Mg2SiO4; commonly abbreviated as Fo) is the magnesium-rich end-member of the olivine solid solution series.

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Fossil fuel

A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.

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Free-radical halogenation

In organic chemistry, free-radical halogenation is a type of halogenation.

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Fuel

A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.

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Gas

Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).

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Gas to liquids

Gas to liquids (GTL) is a refinery process to convert natural gas or other gaseous hydrocarbons into longer-chain hydrocarbons, such as gasoline or diesel fuel.

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Gas turbine

A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine.

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Gasoline

Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.

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Global Methane Initiative

The Global Methane Initiative (GMI) is a voluntary, international partnership that brings together national governments, private sector entities, development banks, NGOs and other interested stakeholders in a collaborative effort to reduce methane gas emissions and advance methane recovery and use as a clean energy source.

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Global warming

Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.

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Global warming potential

Global warming potential (GWP) is a relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere.

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Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.

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Group 14 hydride

Group 14 hydrides are chemical compounds composed of hydrogen atoms and carbon group atoms (the elements of group 14 are carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, and lead).

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Halogen

The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).

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Halogenation

Halogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the addition of one or more halogens to a compound or material.

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Halomethane

Halomethane compounds are derivatives of methane (CH4) with one or more of the hydrogen atoms replaced with halogen atoms (F, Cl, Br, or I).

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Heat of combustion

The heating value (or energy value or calorific value) of a substance, usually a fuel or food (see food energy), is the amount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it.

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Helium

Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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HVAC

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort.

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Hydrocarbon

In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

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Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrogenation

Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.

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Ice age

An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.

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In situ resource utilization

In space exploration, in situ resource utilization (ISRU) is defined as "the collection, processing, storing and use of materials encountered in the course of human or robotic space exploration that replace materials that would otherwise be brought from Earth." ISRU is the practice of leveraging resources found or manufactured on other astronomical objects (the Moon, Mars, asteroids, etc.) to fulfill or enhance the requirements and capabilities of a space mission.

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Industrial gas

Industrial gases are gaseous materials that are manufactured for use in Industry.

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Interglacial

An interglacial period (or alternatively interglacial, interglaciation) is a geological interval of warmer global average temperature lasting thousands of years that separates consecutive glacial periods within an ice age.

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Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.

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Iodine

Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.

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Iodoform

Iodoform is the organoiodine compound with the formula CHI3.

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Ion

An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Italians

The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Joule

The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.

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Kerosene

Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.

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Kilo-

Kilo is a decimal unit prefix in the metric system denoting multiplication by one thousand (103).

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Lake Kivu

Lake Kivu is one of the African Great Lakes.

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Lake Maggiore

Lake Maggiore (Lago Maggiore, literally 'Greater Lake') or Lago Verbàno (Lacus Verbanus) is a large lake located on the south side of the Alps.

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Landfill

A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial.

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Life on Mars

The possibility of life on Mars is a subject of significant interest to astrobiology due to its proximity and similarities to Earth.

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Lignite

Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.

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Limnic eruption

A limnic eruption, also termed a lake overturn, is a rare type of natural disaster in which dissolved carbon dioxide suddenly erupts from deep lake waters, forming a gas cloud capable of suffocating wildlife, livestock, and humans.

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Liquefaction of gases

Liquefaction of gases is physical conversion of a gas into a liquid state (condensation).

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Liquefied natural gas

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4, with some mixture of ethane C2H6) that has been converted to liquid form for ease and safety of non-pressurized storage or transport.

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List of interstellar and circumstellar molecules

This is a list of molecules that have been detected in the interstellar medium and circumstellar envelopes, grouped by the number of component atoms.

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List of straight-chain alkanes

The following is a list of straight-chain and branched alkanes and their common names, sorted by number of carbon atoms.

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LNG carrier

An LNG carrier is a tank ship designed for transporting liquefied natural gas (LNG).

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Manure

Manure is organic matter, mostly derived from animal feces except in the case of green manure, which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture.

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Mars

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Marsh gas

Marsh gas, swamp gas and bog gas hydrogen sulfide sulfide and carbon dioxide as minor compositions, produced naturally within some geographical marshes, swamps, and bogs.

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Methanation

Methanation is the conversion of COx to methane CH4 through hydrogenation.

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Methane (data page)

and save the page --> This page provides supplementary chemical data on methane.

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Methane clathrate

Methane clathrate (CH4·5.75H2O) or (4CH4·23H2O), also called methane hydrate, hydromethane, methane ice, fire ice, natural gas hydrate, or gas hydrate, is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice.

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Methane monooxygenase

Methane monooxygenase, or MMO, is an enzyme capable of oxidizing the C-H bond in methane as well as other alkanes.

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Methanium

In chemistry, methanium is a complex positive ion with formula +, namely a molecule with one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms and one hydrogen molecule, bearing a +1 electric charge.

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Methanogen

Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions.

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Methanogenesis

Methanogenesis or biomethanation is the formation of methane by microbes known as methanogens.

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Methanol

Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).

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Methanotroph

Methanotrophs (sometimes called methanophiles) are prokaryotes that metabolize methane as their only source of carbon and energy.

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Methenium

In organic chemistry, methenium (also called methylium, the methyl cation, or protonated methylene) is a positive ion with the formula.

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Methyl group

A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.

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Methyl iodide

Methyl iodide, also called iodomethane, and commonly abbreviated "MeI", is the chemical compound with the formula CH3I.

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Methyllithium

Methyllithium is the simplest organolithium reagent with the empirical formula CH3Li.

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Methylmagnesium chloride

Methylmagnesium chloride is an organometallic compound with the general formula CH3MgCl.

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Microorganism

A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Mole (unit)

The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.

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Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Municipal solid waste

Municipal solid waste (MSW), commonly known as trash or garbage in the United States and rubbish in Britain, is a waste type consisting of everyday items that are discarded by the public.

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NASA

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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Natural gas

Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.

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Natural gas field

Natural gas originates by the same geological thermal cracking process that converts kerogen to petroleum.

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Natural gas vehicle

A natural gas vehicle (NGV) is an alternative fuel vehicle that uses compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG).

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Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Olfaction

Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.

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Olivine

The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.

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Organic matter

Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.

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Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum

The Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), alternatively (ETM1), and formerly known as the "Initial Eocene" or "" was a time period with more than 8 °C warmer global average temperature than today.

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Paleoclimatology

Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.

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Periodic Videos

The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.

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Permafrost

In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.

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Petroleum

Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Pipeline transport

Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe.

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Plastic crystal

A plastic crystal is a crystal composed of weakly interacting molecules that possess some orientational or conformational degree of freedom.

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Polymorphism (materials science)

In materials science, polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure.

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Radiative forcing

Radiative forcing or climate forcing is the difference between insolation (sunlight) absorbed by the Earth and energy radiated back to space.

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Radical (chemistry)

In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.

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Rice

Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

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Rocket propellant

Rocket propellant is a material used either directly by a rocket as the reaction mass (propulsive mass) that is ejected, typically with very high speed, from a rocket engine to produce thrust, and thus provide spacecraft propulsion, or indirectly to produce the reaction mass in a chemical reaction.

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Room temperature

Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.

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Royal Society of Chemistry

The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".

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Ruminant

Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions.

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Sabatier reaction

The Sabatier reaction or Sabatier process was discovered by the French chemist Paul Sabatier in the 1910s.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Seabed

The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean.

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Sediment

Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.

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Serpentinite

Serpentinite is a rock composed of one or more serpentine group minerals, the name originating from the similarity of the texture of the rock to that of the skin of a snake.

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Solar panel

Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity.

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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Solid solution

A solid solution is a solid-state solution of one or more solutes in a solvent.

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Space group

In mathematics, physics and chemistry, a space group is the symmetry group of a configuration in space, usually in three dimensions.

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Space.com

Space.com is a space and astronomy news website.

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Spontaneous combustion

Spontaneous combustion or spontaneous ignition is a type of combustion which occurs by self-heating (increase in temperature due to exothermic internal reactions), followed by thermal runaway (self heating which rapidly accelerates to high temperatures) and finally, autoignition.

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Standard conditions for temperature and pressure

Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.

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Standard cubic foot

A standard cubic foot (scf) is a unit used both in the natural gas industry to represent an amount of natural gas and in other industries where other gases are used.

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Steam reforming

Steam reforming is a method for producing hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or other useful products from hydrocarbon fuels such as natural gas.

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Stratum

In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.

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Superacid

According to the classical definition, a superacid is an acid with an acidity greater than that of 100% pure sulfuric acid, which has a Hammett acidity function (H0) of −12.

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Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Syngas

Syngas, or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide.

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Tert-Butylthiol

tert-Butylthiol, also known as 2-methylpropane-2-thiol, 2-methyl-2-propanethiol, tert-butyl mercaptan (TBM), and t-BuSH, is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)3CSH.

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Tetrahedral molecular geometry

In a tetrahedral molecular geometry, a central atom is located at the center with four substituents that are located at the corners of a tetrahedron.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Thomas Gold

Thomas Gold (May 22, 1920June 22, 2004) was an Austrian-born astrophysicist, a professor of astronomy at Cornell University, a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, and a Fellow of the Royal Society (London).

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Titan (moon)

Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.

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Toluene

Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.

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Toxicity

Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.

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Transparency and translucency

In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.

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Upper Big Branch Mine disaster

The Upper Big Branch Mine disaster occurred on April 5, 2010 roughly underground in Raleigh County, West Virginia at Massey Energy's Upper Big Branch coal mine located in Montcoal.

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Vacuum flask

A vacuum flask (also known as a Dewar flask, Dewar bottle or thermos) is an insulating storage vessel that greatly lengthens the time over which its contents remain hotter or cooler than the flask's surroundings.

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Water

Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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West Virginia

West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States.

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Wind turbine

A wind turbine is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy into electrical energy.

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2007 Zasyadko mine disaster

The 2007 Zasyadko mine disaster was a mining accident that happened on November 18, 2007 at the Zasyadko coal mine (Шахта ім.) in the eastern Ukrainian city of Donetsk.

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CH4, CH₄, Carbane, Carbon tetrahydride, Carburetted hydrogen, Ch4, Hydrogen carbide, LCH4, Liquid methane, Liquid methane rocket fuel, Marsh Gas, Marsh gas,firedamp, Metane, Methan, Methane gas, Methane plume, Methyl hydride.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methane

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