136 relations: Abbreviation, Acetic acid, Acetic anhydride, Alcohol, Alcohol dehydrogenase, Alcohol intoxication, Aldehyde dehydrogenase, Alpha-Oxygen, Aluminium, Alwin Mittasch, Anaerobic organism, Ancient Egypt, Antifreeze, Aquifer, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Aromatization, Atacama Large Millimeter Array, Atmosphere (unit), Back-formation, BASF, Benzene, Biodiesel, Buxus, C-Stoff, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Catalysis, Catalyst support, Cativa process, Central nervous system depression, Chemical compound, Chemical formula, China, Chromium, Combustibility and flammability, Commodity chemicals, Consumer electronics, Corrosion, Cytochrome c oxidase, Denatured alcohol, Denitrifying bacteria, Destructive distillation, Developing country, Direct methanol fuel cell, Embalming, Energy carrier, Energy density, Enzyme, Ethanol, ..., Eugène-Melchior Péligot, Excise tax in the United States, Formaldehyde, Gas to liquids, Gibbs free energy, Greek language, Heterogeneous catalysis, Hexamethylbenzene, Hydrazine, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, Hydrogenation, Hydroxy group, Hypoxia (medical), Imperial Chemical Industries, Internal combustion engine, Isobutylene, IUPAC nomenclature of chemistry, Jean-Baptiste Dumas, Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Jodrell Bank Observatory, Joule, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Litre, Liver, Manganese oxide, MERLIN, Metabolic acidosis, Metabolism, Metalloprotein, Methane monooxygenase, Methanethiol, Methanol (data page), Methyl group, Methyl tert-butyl ether, Methylamine, Michael Malloy, Miscibility, Mobil, Mole (unit), Monsanto process, Moonshine, Motunui, Nitrate, Nitrogen, Optic nerve, Organic chemistry, Outbreak, Oxygen, Parts-per notation, Pectin, Pipeline transport, Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Prohibition, Pyrolysis, Radical theory, Redox, Reference dose, Relative atomic mass, Robert Boyle, Royal Society of Chemistry, Sewage treatment, Shilov system, Silanol, Solvent, Sterno, Substituent, Suffix, Syngas, The BMJ, The Sceptical Chymist, Toxication, Toxicity, Transesterification, TW Hydrae, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Volatility (chemistry), Wastewater, Water injection (engine), Water-gas shift reaction, Windshield washer fluid, Wood, World War II, Zeolite, Zinc chloride, Zinc oxide. Expand index (86 more) » « Shrink index
An abbreviation (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
Acetic anhydride, or ethanoic anhydride, is the chemical compound with the formula (CH3CO)2O.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones with the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ to NADH).
Alcohol intoxication, also known as drunkenness or alcohol poisoning, is negative behavior and physical effects due to the recent drinking of ethanol (alcohol).
Aldehyde dehydrogenases are a group of enzymes that catalyse the oxidation of aldehydes.
Alpha-Oxygen (α-O) is a reactive oxygen species formed from an oxygen-atom abstraction (OAT) from nitrous oxide (N2O) by alpha-Iron (α-Fe) catalysts.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Alwin Mittasch (sorbian:Pawoł Alwin Mitaš) (born 27 December 1869 in Großdehsa/Dažin, today to Löbau, Germany; died 4 June 1953 in Heidelberg, Germany) was a German chemist as well as scientific historian of Sorbian descent.
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
An antifreeze is an additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid and increases its boiling point.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.
Aromatization is a chemical reaction in which an aromatic system is formed.
The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is an astronomical interferometer of radio telescopes in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.
The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.
In etymology, back-formation is the process of creating a new lexeme by removing actual or supposed affixes.
BASF SE is a German chemical company and the largest chemical producer in the world.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters.
Buxus is a genus of about 70 species in the family Buxaceae.
C-Stoff ("C stuff") was a reductant used in bipropellant rocket fuels (as a fuel itself) developed by Hellmuth Walter Kommanditgesellschaft in Germany during World War II.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
In chemistry, a catalyst support is the material, usually a solid with a high surface area, to which a catalyst is affixed.
The Cativa process is a method for the production of acetic acid by the carbonylation of methanol.
Central nervous system depression or CNS depression refers to physiological depression of the central nervous system that can result in decreased rate of breathing, decreased heart rate, and loss of consciousness possibly leading to coma or death.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible.
Commodity chemicals (or bulk commodities or bulk chemicals) are a group of chemicals that are made on a very large scale to satisfy global markets.
Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic (analog or digital) equipments intended for everyday use, typically in private homes.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase or Complex IV, is a large transmembrane protein complex found in bacteria, archaea, and in eukaryotes in their mitochondria.
Denatured alcohol, also called methylated spirit (methylated spirits in Australia and New Zealand) or denatured rectified spirit, is ethanol that has additives to make it poisonous, bad tasting, foul smelling or nauseating, to discourage recreational consumption.
Denitrifying bacteria are a diverse group of bacteria that encompass many different phyla.
Destructive distillation is the chemical process of the decomposition of unprocessed material by heating it to a high temperature; the term generally applies to processing of organic material in the absence of air or in the presence of limited amounts of oxygen or other reagents, catalysts, or solvents, such as steam or phenols.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Direct-methanol fuel cells or DMFCs are a subcategory of proton-exchange fuel cells in which methanol is used as the fuel.
Embalming is the art and science of preserving human remains by treating them (in its modern form with chemicals) to forestall decomposition.
An energy carrier is a substance (energy form) or sometimes a phenomenon (energy system) that contains energy that can be later converted to other forms such as mechanical work or heat or to operate chemical or physical processes.
Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Eugène-Melchior Péligot (24 March 1811 in Paris – 15 April 1890 in Paris), also known as Eugène Péligot, was a French chemist who isolated the first sample of uranium metal in 1841.
Excise tax in the United States is an indirect tax on listed items.
Gas to liquids (GTL) is a refinery process to convert natural gas or other gaseous hydrocarbons into longer-chain hydrocarbons, such as gasoline or diesel fuel.
In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum of reversible work that may be performed by a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
In chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis refers to the form of catalysis where the phase of the catalyst differs from that of the reactants.
Hexamethylbenzene, also known as mellitene, is a hydrocarbon with the molecular formula C12H18 and the condensed structural formula C6(CH3)6.
Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.
Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) was a British chemical company and was, for much of its history, the largest manufacturer in Britain.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
Isobutylene (or 2-methylpropene) is a hydrocarbon of industrial significance.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature.
Jean Baptiste André Dumas (14 July 180010 April 1884) was a French chemist, best known for his works on organic analysis and synthesis, as well as the determination of atomic weights (relative atomic masses) and molecular weights by measuring vapor densities.
The Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics at the University of Manchester, is among the largest astrophysics groups in the UK.
The Jodrell Bank Observatory (originally the Jodrell Bank Experimental Station, then the Nuffield Radio Astronomy Laboratories from 1966 to 1999) is a British observatory that hosts a number of radio telescopes, and is part of the Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics at the University of Manchester.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Manganese oxide is any of a variety of manganese oxides and hydroxides.
The Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) is an interferometer array of radio telescopes spread across England.
Metabolic acidosis is a condition that occurs when the body produces excessive quantities of acid or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metalloprotein is a generic term for a protein that contains a metal ion cofactor.
Methane monooxygenase, or MMO, is an enzyme capable of oxidizing the C-H bond in methane as well as other alkanes.
Methanethiol (also known as methyl mercaptan) is an organosulfur compound with the chemical formula.
This page provides supplementary chemical data on methanol.
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
Methyl tert-butyl ether (also known as MTBE and tert-butyl methyl ether) is an organic compound with a structural formula (CH3)3COCH3.
Methylamine is an organic compound with a formula of CH3NH2.
Michael Malloy (1873 – February 22, 1933), later known as either Mike the Durable or Iron Mike, was a homeless Irish man who lived in New York City during the 1920s and 1930s.
Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.
Mobil, previously known as the Socony-Vacuum Oil Company, is a major American oil company which merged with Exxon in 1999 to form a parent company called ExxonMobil. It was previously one of the Seven Sisters which dominated the global petroleum industry from the mid-1940s until the 1970s.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
The Monsanto process is an industrial method for the manufacture of acetic acid by catalytic carbonylation of methanol.
Moonshine was originally a slang term for high-proof distilled spirits usually produced illicitly, without government authorization.
Motunui (large island in Maori, from Motu Nui) is a settlement in northern Taranaki, in the North Island of New Zealand.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
In epidemiology, an outbreak is a sudden increase in occurrences of a disease in a particular time and place.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Pectin (from πηκτικός, "congealed, curdled") is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants.
Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe.
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is a technique widely used in biochemistry, forensic chemistry, genetics, molecular biology and biotechnology to separate biological macromolecules, usually proteins or nucleic acids, according to their electrophoretic mobility.
Prohibition is the illegality of the manufacturing, storage in barrels or bottles, transportation, sale, possession, and consumption of alcohol including alcoholic beverages, or a period of time during which such illegality was enforced.
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
Radical theory is an obsolete scientific theory in chemistry describing the structure of organic compounds.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A reference dose is the United States Environmental Protection Agency's maximum acceptable oral dose of a toxic substance.
Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity defined as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element in a given sample to one unified atomic mass unit.
Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.
The Shilov system is a classic example of catalytic C-H bond activation and oxidation which preferentially activates stronger C-H bonds over weaker C-H bonds for an overall partial oxidation.
A silanol is a functional group in silicon chemistry with the connectivity Si–O–H.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Sterno ("canned heat") is a fuel made from denatured and jellied alcohol.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms which replaces one or more hydrogen atoms on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon, becoming a moiety of the resultant new molecule.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
Syngas, or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
The Sceptical Chymist: or Chymico-Physical Doubts & Paradoxes is the title of a book by Robert Boyle, published in London in 1661.
Toxication or toxification is the conversion of a chemical compound into a more toxic form in living organisms or in substrates such as soil or water.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
In organic chemistry, transesterfication is the process of exchanging the organic group R″ of an ester with the organic group R′ of an alcohol.
TW Hydrae is a T Tauri star approximately 194 light-years away in the constellation of Hydra (the Sea Serpent).
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize.
Wastewater (or waste water) is any water that has been affected by human use.
In internal combustion engines, water injection, also known as anti-detonant injection (ADI), can spray water into the incoming air or fuel-air mixture, or directly into the cylinder to cool certain parts of the induction system where "hot points" could produce premature ignition.
The water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) describes the reaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen (the mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (not water) is known as water gas): The water gas shift reaction was discovered by Italian physicist Felice Fontana in 1780.
Windshield washer fluid (also called windshield wiper fluid, wiper fluid, screen wash (in the UK), or washer fluid) is a fluid for motor vehicles that is used in cleaning the windshield with the windshield wiper while the vehicle is being driven.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.
Zinc chloride is the name of chemical compounds with the formula ZnCl2 and its hydrates.
Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.
CH3OH, CH4O, Carbinol, Colonial spirits, Columbian spirits, Columnian spirits, Hydroxymethane, M-Stoff, MeOH, Meoh, Methanol toxicty, Methanolic, Methyl Alcohol, Methyl alcohol, Methyl alcohol poisoning, Methyl hydrate, Methyl hydroxide, Methylol, Pyroligneous spirit, Pyroxylic spirit, Wood Alcohol, Wood alchohol, Wood alcohol, Wood naphta, Wood naphtha, Wood spirit.