52 relations: Acidosis, Amine, Amyl nitrite, Anxiety, Arsine, Benzocaine, Bloodstain pattern analysis, Blue baby syndrome, Chlorobenzene, Chloroquine, Chromate and dichromate, Coma, Confusion, Cyanide poisoning, Cytochrome b5 reductase, Cytochrome c oxidase, Dapsone, Death, Diaphorase, Dizziness, Epileptic seizure, Fatigue, Ferric, Ferrous, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, Headache, Heart arrhythmia, Heme, Hemichrome, Hemoglobin, Iron, Metalloprotein, Methemoglobinemia, Mucous membrane, Nitrate, Nitrite, Nitroglycerin, Oxygen, Palpitations, Paracetamol, Phenacetin, Phenazopyridine, Primaquine, Pulse oximetry, Pyruvate kinase deficiency, Quinone, Shortness of breath, Sodium nitroprusside, Sulfonamide (medicine), Tachypnea, ..., Toxicology (journal), 4-Nitroaniline. Expand index (2 more) » « Shrink index
Acidosis is a process causing increased acidity in the blood and other body tissues (i.e., an increased hydrogen ion concentration).
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amyl nitrite is a chemical compound with the formula C5H11ONO.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Arsine is an inorganic compound with the formula AsH3.
Benzocaine, sold under the brand name Orajel among others, is an ester local anesthetic commonly used as a topical pain reliever or in cough drops.
Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA), one of several specialties in the field of forensic science, involves the study and analysis of bloodstains at a known or suspected violent crime scene with the goal of helping investigators draw conclusions about the nature, timing and other details of the crime.
Blue baby syndrome refers to at least two situations that lead to cyanosis in infants: cyanotic heart disease and methemoglobinemia.
Chlorobenzene is an aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5Cl.
Chloroquine is a medication used to prevent and to treat malaria in areas where malaria is known to be sensitive to its effects.
Chromate salts contain the chromate anion,.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.
Cyanide poisoning is poisoning that results from exposure to a number of forms of cyanide.
Cytochrome-b5 reductase (also known as methemoglobin reductase) is a NADH-dependent enzyme that converts methemoglobin to hemoglobin.
The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase or Complex IV, is a large transmembrane protein complex found in bacteria, archaea, and in eukaryotes in their mitochondria.
Dapsone, also known as diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS), is an antibiotic commonly used in combination with rifampicin and clofazimine for the treatment of leprosy.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
Diaphorase may refer to.
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Ferric refers to iron-containing materials or compounds.
In chemistry, ferrous (Fe2+), indicates a divalent iron compound (+2 oxidation state), as opposed to ferric, which indicates a trivalent iron compound (+3 oxidation state).
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDD) is an inborn error of metabolism that predisposes to red blood cell breakdown.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.
A hemichrome (FeIII) is a form of low-spin methemoglobin (metHb).
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Metalloprotein is a generic term for a protein that contains a metal ion cofactor.
Methemoglobinemia is a condition caused by elevated levels of methemoglobin in the blood.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
The nitrite ion, which has the chemical formula, is a symmetric anion with equal N–O bond lengths.
Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin (TNG), trinitroglycerine, nitro, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), or 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane, is a heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid most commonly produced by nitrating glycerol with white fuming nitric acid under conditions appropriate to the formation of the nitric acid ester.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Palpitations are the perceived abnormality of the heartbeat characterized by awareness of cardiac muscle contractions in the chest: hard, fast and/or irregular beats.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
Phenacetin (or acetophenetidin) is a pain-relieving and fever-reducing drug, which was widely used between its introduction in 1887 and the 1983 ban imposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Phenazopyridine is a chemical which, when excreted into the urine, has a local analgesic effect.
Primaquine is a medication used to treat and prevent malaria and to treat ''Pneumocystis'' pneumonia.
Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive method for monitoring a person's oxygen saturation (SO2).
Pyruvate kinase deficiency is an inherited metabolic disorder of the enzyme pyruvate kinase which affects the survival of red blood cells.
The quinones are a class of organic compounds that are formally "derived from aromatic compounds by conversion of an even number of –CH.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), sold under the brand name Nitropress among others, is a medication used to lower blood pressure.
Sulfonamide (also called sulphonamide, sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs) is the basis of several groups of drugs.
Tachypnea or tachypnoea is abnormally rapid breathing.
Toxicology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the adverse effects of xenobiotics on the health of humans and other animals.
4-Nitroaniline, p-nitroaniline or 1-amino-4-nitrobenzene is an organic compound with the formula C6H6N2O2.