314 relations: Abdominal pain, Abscess, Absorption (pharmacology), Actavis, Addiction, Adrenergic storm, Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Adverse effect, Agonist, Akathisia, Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, ALZA, Alzheimer's disease, Amneal Pharmaceuticals, Amphetamine, Analgesic, Anger, Angina, Animal testing, Anorexia (symptom), Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant, Antihypotensive agent, Antipsychotic, Anxiety, Apathy, Apotex, Argentina, Artery, Atomoxetine, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Attention span, Attentional control, Australia, Autonomic nervous system, Barbara Sahakian, Barbiturate, Barr Pharmaceuticals, Basal (medicine), Behavior modification, Belgium, Benzodiazepine, Beta-adrenergic agonist, Bioavailability, Bioethics, Biological half-life, Bipolar disorder, Blood plasma, Blood pressure, Blurred vision, ..., Brazil, Bruxism, Bupropion, C-Fos, Canada, Cancer, Carboxylesterase 1, Cardiac arrest, Cardiovascular disease, Catecholamine, Central nervous system, Charles Bradley (doctor), Chemical classification, Chemical synapse, Chemical synthesis, Chronic condition, Circulatory collapse, Clinical trial, Clinical urine tests, Cocaethylene, Cocaine dependence, Cognition, Cognitive inhibition, Coma, Concentration, Concomitant drug, Confusion, Contraindication, Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, Controlled substance, Controlled Substances Act, Convention on Psychotropic Substances, Convulsion, Cost-effectiveness analysis, D1-like receptor, Daytrana, Defined daily dose, Delirium, Depression (mood), Derivative, Dermis, Dexmethylphenidate, Dextrorotation and levorotation, Diagnosis, Diastereomer, Diplopia, Dissociation constant, Dizziness, Dopamine, Dopamine receptor D1, Dopamine reuptake inhibitor, Dopamine transporter, Dopaminergic, Drug injection, Drug titration, Dysautonomia, Dyskinesia, Empirical evidence, Empirical research, Enantiomer, Epimer, Episodic memory, Ethanol, Ethylphenidate, Euphoria, Evergreening, Executive functions, Fatigue, Fever, Flushing (physiology), Food and Drug Administration, Formal fallacy, FOSB, FOSL1, FOSL2, France, G protein–coupled receptor, Gastrointestinal tract, Gateway drug theory, Gene expression, Germany, Glaucoma, Hallucination, HDMP-28, Heart, Heart arrhythmia, Hepatotoxicity, Heroin, HIV, Hives, Hospira, Human brain, Hyperhidrosis, Hyperreflexia, Hypersensitivity, Hypertension, Hyperthermia, Hypomania, IC50, India, Indirect agonist, Informed consent, Inhibitory control, Insomnia, Insufflation (medicine), Intravenous therapy, Isomer, Isopropylphenidate, John Harris (bioethicist), Lethargy, Libido, Liver, Locus coeruleus, Logorrhea (psychology), Magnetic resonance imaging, Major depressive disorder, Mallinckrodt, Malpractice, Mania, Mechanism of action, Medical error, Medium spiny neuron, Mesocortical pathway, Mesolimbic pathway, Meta-analysis, Metabolism, Methadone, Methamphetamine, Mexico, Modified-release dosage, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Monoamine releasing agent, Monoamine transporter, Mucous membrane, Multiple Sleep Latency Test, Mydriasis, Myocardial infarction, Narcolepsy, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Nausea, Necrosis, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter, Neurotransmitter transporter, New Zealand, Norepinephrine, Norepinephrine transporter, Norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor, Novartis, Nucleus accumbens, Off-label use, Ophthalmology, Opioid, Oral administration, Organizing (management), Orientation (mental), Orthostatic intolerance, Osmotic-controlled release oral delivery system, Pakistan, Palpitations, Paranoia, Parkinson's disease, Pethidine, Pfizer, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmascience, Phenelzine, Phenethylamine, Phosphorylation, Physical dependence, Piperidine, Placebo, Planning, Portugal, Prefrontal cortex, Pregnancy category, Prenatal development, Priapism, Problem solving, Propofol, Propylphenidate, Protein isoform, Pseudobulbar affect, Psychiatrist, Psychological dependence, Psychomotor agitation, Psychosis, Pulse, Racemic mixture, Rash, Rate of fire, Raynaud syndrome, Reactive oxygen species, Receptor (biochemistry), Recreational drug use, Reuptake, Reuptake inhibitor, Reward system, Rhabdomyolysis, Ritalinic acid, Route of administration, Salience (neuroscience), Schedule X, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonergic, Serotonin syndrome, Serotonin transporter, Side effect, Sigma-1 receptor, Signal transduction, Sleep disorder, Somnolence, Spain, Standardized test, State school, Stereocenter, Stereotypy, Stimulant, Stimulant psychosis, Striatum, Stroke, Substance use disorder, Substituted phenethylamine, Suicidal ideation, Summary offence, Suspension (chemistry), Sweden, Systematic review, TAAR1, Tachycardia, Terminal illness, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Thailand, The BMJ, The Observer, Therapy, Tic, Transcription (biology), Transdermal patch, Transesterification, Tranylcypromine, Treatment-resistant depression, Tremor, Tricyclic antidepressant, UCB (company), Unified atomic mass unit, United Kingdom, United States, Urine, Vasoconstriction, Verbal reasoning, Vesicular monoamine transporter 2, Vitamin K antagonist, Vomiting, Weight loss, Working memory, Xerostomia, 2-Benzylpiperidine, 3,4-Dichloromethylphenidate, 4-Fluoromethylphenidate, 4-Methylmethylphenidate, 5-HT1A receptor, 5-HT2B receptor. 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Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.
An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.
In pharmacology (and more specifically pharmacokinetics), absorption is the movement of a drug from the site of administration to bloodstream.
Actavis Generics (formerly known as Watson Pharmaceuticals and Actavis PLC, prior to the acquisition of Allergan Inc) is a global pharmaceutical company focused on developing, manufacturing and commercializing branded pharmaceuticals, generic and over-the-counter medicines, and biologic products.
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
An adrenergic storm is a sudden and dramatic increase in serum levels of the catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline (also known as epinephrine and norepinephrine respectively), with a less significant increase in dopamine transmission.
Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (also referred to as adult ADHD, adult with ADHD, or simply ADHD in adults, formerly AADD) is the neurobiological condition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Akathisia is a movement disorder characterized by a feeling of inner restlessness and inability to stay still.
The alpha-2 (α2) adrenergic receptor (or adrenoceptor) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gi heterotrimeric G-protein.
ALZA Corporation was a pharmaceutical and medical systems company.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Amneal Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is a publicly traded generics and specialty pharmaceutical company.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Anger or wrath is an intense negative emotion.
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.
Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under study.
Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
An antihypotensive agent, also known as a vasopressor agent or pressor, is any medication that tends to raise reduced blood pressure.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Apathy is a lack of feeling, emotion, interest, and concern.
Apotex Inc. is a Canadian pharmaceutical corporation.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
Atomoxetine, sold under the brand name Strattera among others, is a norepinephrine (noradrenaline) reuptake inhibitor which is approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Attention span is the amount of concentrated time a person can spend on a task without becoming distracted.
Attentional control refers to an individual's capacity to choose what they pay attention to and what they ignore.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
Barbara Jacquelyn Sahakian, is Professor of Clinical Neuropsychology at the Department of Psychiatry and Medical Research Council (MRC)/Wellcome Trust Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Barr Pharmaceuticals was a global specialty and generic drug manufacturer with operations in 30 countries.
Basal when used in a medical sense refers to a minimal level that is necessary for health or life.
Behavior modification refers to behavior-change procedures that were employed during the 1970s and early 1980s.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Beta adrenergic agonists or beta agonists are medications that relax muscles of the airways, which widen the airways and result in easier breathing.
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
Bioethics is the study of the ethical issues emerging from advances in biology and medicine.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Blurred vision is an ocular symptom.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Bruxism is excessive teeth grinding or jaw clenching.
Bupropion, sold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, c-Fos is a proto-oncogene that is the human homolog of the retroviral oncogene v-fos.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Liver carboxylesterase 1 also known as carboxylesterase 1 (CES1, hCE-1 or CES1A1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CES1 gene.
Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Charles Bradley (1902–1979) was a Rhode Island physician who was best known for the serendipitous discovery that the use of Benzedrine in children with behavior problems resulted in an improvement in their performance in a residential setting.
Chemical classification systems attempt to classify elements or compounds according to certain chemical functional or structural properties.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
A circulatory collapse is defined as a general or specific failure of the circulation, either cardiac or peripheral in nature.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Clinical urine tests are various tests of urine for diagnostic purposes.
Cocaethylene (ethylbenzoylecgonine) is the ethyl ester of benzoylecgonine.
Cocaine dependence is a psychological desire to use cocaine regularly.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Cognitive inhibition refers to the mind's ability to tune out stimuli that are irrelevant to the task/process at hand or to the mind's current state.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
Concomitant drugs are two or more drugs used or given at or almost at the same time (one after the other, on the same day, etc.). The term has two contextual uses: as used in medicine or as used in drug abuse.
Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.
In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that serves as a reason to withhold a certain medical treatment due to the harm that it would cause the patient.
The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (Loi réglementant certaines drogues et autres substances) (the Act) is Canada's federal drug control statute.
A controlled substance is generally a drug or chemical whose manufacture, possession, or use is regulated by a government, such as illicitly used drugs or prescription medications that are designated a Controlled Drug in the United Kingdom.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.
The Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics signed in Vienna, Austria on 21 February 1971.
A convulsion is a medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.
Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a form of economic analysis that compares the relative costs and outcomes (effects) of different courses of action.
The D1-like receptors are a subfamily of dopamine receptors that bind the endogenous neurotransmitter dopamine.
Daytrana is a transdermal patch developed and marketed by Noven Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
The defined daily dose (DDD) is a statistical measure of drug consumption, defined by the World Health Organization (WHO).
Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).
The dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous tissues, that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain.
Dexmethylphenidate, sold under the trade names Focalin among others, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Dextrorotation and levorotation (also spelled as laevorotation)The first word component dextro- comes from Latin word for dexter "right (as opposed to left)".
Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.
Diastereomers (sometimes called diastereoisomers) are a type of a stereoisomer.
Diplopia, commonly known as double vision, is the simultaneous perception of two images of a single object that may be displaced horizontally, vertically, diagonally (i.e., both vertically and horizontally), or rotationally in relation to each other.
In chemistry, biochemistry, and pharmacology, a dissociation constant (K_d) is a specific type of equilibrium constant that measures the propensity of a larger object to separate (dissociate) reversibly into smaller components, as when a complex falls apart into its component molecules, or when a salt splits up into its component ions.
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene.
A dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DRI) is a class of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitter dopamine by blocking the action of the dopamine transporter (DAT).
The dopamine transporter (also dopamine active transporter, DAT, SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that pumps the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synaptic cleft back into cytosol.
Dopaminergic means "related to dopamine" (literally, "working on dopamine"), dopamine being a common neurotransmitter.
Drug injection is a method of introducing a drug into the bloodstream via a hollow hypodermic needle and a syringe, which is pierced through the skin into the body (usually intravenous, but also intramuscular or subcutaneous).
Drug titration is the process of adjusting the dose of a medication for the maximum benefit without adverse effects.
Dysautonomia or autonomic dysfunction is a condition in which the autonomic nervous system (ANS) does not work properly.
Dyskinesia refers to a category of movement disorders that are characterized by involuntary muscle movements, including movements similar to tics or chorea and diminished voluntary movements.
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.
Empirical research is research using empirical evidence.
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
In stereochemistry, an epimer is one of a pair of stereoisomers.
Episodic memory is the memory of autobiographical events (times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual who, what, when, where, why knowledge) that can be explicitly stated or conjured.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethylphenidate (EPH) is a psychostimulant and a close analog of methylphenidate.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
Evergreening is any of various legal, business and technological strategies by which producers extend their patents over products that are about to expire, in order to retain royalties from them, by either taking out new patents (for example over associated delivery systems, or new pharmaceutical mixtures), or by buying out, or frustrating competitors, for longer periods of time than would normally be permissible under the law.
Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
For a person to flush is to become markedly red in the face and often other areas of the skin, from various physiological conditions.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
In philosophy, a formal fallacy, deductive fallacy, logical fallacy or non sequitur (Latin for "it does not follow") is a pattern of reasoning rendered invalid by a flaw in its logical structure that can neatly be expressed in a standard logic system, for example propositional logic.
FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, also known as Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, FOSB or FosB, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOSB gene.
Fos-related antigen 1 (FRA1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOSL1 gene.
Fos-related antigen 2 (FRA2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOSL2 gene.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gateway drug theory (alternatively, stepping-stone theory, escalation hypothesis, or progression hypothesis) is a comprehensive catchphrase for the medical theory that the use of a psychoactive drug can be coupled to an increased probability of the use of further drugs.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
HDMP-28 or methylnaphthidate is a piperidine based stimulant drug, closely related to methylphenidate, but with the benzene ring replaced by naphthalene.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Hives, also known as urticaria, is a kind of skin rash with red, raised, itchy bumps.
Hospira was an American global pharmaceutical and medical device company with headquarters in Lake Forest, Illinois.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
Hyperhidrosis is a condition characterized by abnormally increased sweating, in excess of that required for regulation of body temperature.
Hyperreflexia (or hyper-reflexia) is defined as overactive or overresponsive reflexes.
Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hyperthermia is elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation that occurs when a body produces or absorbs more heat than it dissipates.
Hypomania (literally "under mania" or "less than mania") is a mood state characterized by persistent disinhibition and elevation (euphoria).
The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is a measure of the potency of a substance in inhibiting a specific biological or biochemical function.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
In pharmacology, an indirect agonist or indirect-acting agonist is a substance that enhances the release or action of an endogenous neurotransmitter but has no specific agonist activity at the neurotransmitter receptor itself.
Informed consent is a process for getting permission before conducting a healthcare intervention on a person, or for disclosing personal information.
Inhibitory control, also known as response inhibition, is a cognitive process that permits an individual to inhibit their impulses and natural, habitual, or dominant behavioral responses to stimuli (prepotent responses) in order to select a more appropriate behavior that is consistent with completing their goals.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
Insufflation (lit) is the act of blowing something (such as a gas, powder, or vapor) into a body cavity.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.
Isopropylphenidate (also known as IPH and IPPD) is a piperidine based stimulant drug, closely related to methylphenidate, but with the methyl ester replaced by an isopropyl ester.
John Morley Harris, FMedSci, FRSA, FRSB (born 21 August 1945), is a British bioethicist and philosopher.
Lethargy is a state of tiredness, weariness, fatigue, or lack of energy.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.
In psychology, logorrhea or logorrhoea (from Ancient Greek λόγος logos "word" and ῥέω rheo "to flow") is a communication disorder that causes excessive wordiness and repetitiveness, which can sometimes lead to incoherency.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals, based in Staines-upon-Thames, England, with its U.S. headquarters in St. Louis, Missouri, produces specialty pharmaceutical products, including generic drugs and imaging agents.
In the law of torts, malpractice, also known as professional negligence, is an "instance of negligence or incompetence on the part of a professional".
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.
A medical error is a preventable adverse effect of care, whether or not it is evident or harmful to the patient.
Medium spiny neurons (MSNs), also known as spiny projection neurons, are a special type of GABAergic inhibitory cell representing 95% of neurons within the human striatum, a basal ganglia structure.
The mesocortical pathway is a dopaminergic pathway that connects the ventral tegmentum to the prefrontal cortex.
The mesolimbic pathway, sometimes referred to as the reward pathway, is a dopaminergic pathway in the brain.
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used to treat pain and as maintenance therapy or to help with tapering in people with opioid dependence.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Modified-release dosage is a mechanism that (in contrast to immediate-release dosage) delivers a drug with a delay after its administration (delayed-release dosage) or for a prolonged period of time (extended-release dosage) or to a specific target in the body (targeted-release dosage).
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
A monoamine releasing agent (MRA), or simply monoamine releaser, is a drug that induces the release of a monoamine neurotransmitter from the presynaptic neuron into the synapse, leading to an increase in the extracellular concentrations of the neurotransmitter.
Monoamine transporters (MATs) are protein structures that function as integral plasma-membrane transporters to regulate concentrations of extracellular monoamine neurotransmitters.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
The Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) is a sleep disorder diagnostic tool.
Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually having a non-physiological cause, or sometimes a physiological pupillary response.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Neurotransmitter transporters are a class of membrane transport proteins that span the cellular membranes of neurons.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
The norepinephrine transporter (NET), also known as solute carrier family 6 member 2 (SLC6A2), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A2 gene.
A norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) is a drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine by blocking the action of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and the dopamine transporter (DAT), respectively.
Novartis International AG is a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.
Off-label use is the use of pharmaceutical drugs for an unapproved indication or in an unapproved age group, dosage, or route of administration.
Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Organizing is a systematic process of structuring, integrating, co-ordinating task goals, and activities to resources in order to attain objectives.
Orientation is a function of the mind involving awareness of three dimensions: time, place and person.
Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is the development of symptoms when standing upright which are relieved when reclining.
The osmotic-controlled release oral delivery system (OROS) is an advanced controlled release oral drug delivery system in the form of a rigid tablet with a semi-permeable outer membrane and one or more small laser drilled holes in it.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Palpitations are the perceived abnormality of the heartbeat characterized by awareness of cardiac muscle contractions in the chest: hard, fast and/or irregular beats.
Paranoia is an instinct or thought process believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Pethidine, also known as meperidine and sold under the brand name Demerol among others, is a synthetic opioid pain medication of the phenylpiperidine class.
Pfizer Inc. is an American pharmaceutical conglomerate headquartered in New York City, with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
Founded by the pharmacists Morris Goodman and Ted Wise in 1983, Pharmascience is a leading manufacturer of generic and branded drugs in Canada.
Phenelzine (Nardil, Nardelzine) is a non-selective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class which is used as an antidepressant and anxiolytic.
Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.
Piperidine is an organic compound with the molecular formula (CH2)5NH.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
Planning is the process of thinking about the activities required to achieve a desired goal.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
The pregnancy category of a medication is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy.
Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation.
Priapism is a condition in which a penis remains erect for hours in the absence of stimulation or after stimulation has ended.
Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, to find solutions to problems.
Propofol, marketed as Diprivan among others, is a short-acting medication that results in a decreased level of consciousness and lack of memory for events.
Propylphenidate (also known as PPH) is a piperidine based stimulant drug, closely related to methylphenidate, but with the methyl ester replaced by an propyl ester.
A protein isoform, or "protein variant" is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that originate from a single gene or gene family and are the result of genetic differences.
Pseudobulbar affect (PBA), or emotional incontinence, is a type of emotional disturbance characterized by uncontrollable episodes of crying and/or laughing, or other emotional displays.
A psychiatrist is a physician who specializes in psychiatry, the branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, study, and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychological dependence is a form of dependence that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., a state of unease or dissatisfaction, a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, or anxiety) upon cessation of drug use or exposure to a stimulus.
Psychomotor agitation is a set of signs and symptoms that stem from mental tension and anxiety.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
In medicine, a pulse represents the tactile arterial palpation of the heartbeat by trained fingertips.
In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.
A rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.
Rate of fire is the frequency at which a specific weapon can fire or launch its projectiles.
Raynaud syndrome, also known as Raynaud's phenomenon, is a medical condition in which spasm of arteries cause episodes of reduced blood flow.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Reuptake is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter located along the plasma membrane of an axon terminal (i.e., the pre-synaptic neuron at a synapse) or glial cell after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.
A reuptake inhibitor (RI) is a type of drug known as a reuptake modulator that inhibits the plasmalemmal transporter-mediated reuptake of a neurotransmitter from the synapse into the pre-synaptic neuron.
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).
Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly.
Ritalinic acid is a substituted phenethylamine and an inactive major metabolite of the psychostimulant drugs methylphenidate and ethylphenidate.
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.
The salience (also called saliency) of an item – be it an object, a person, a pixel, etc.
Schedule X is a class of prescription drugs in India appearing as an appendix to the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules introduced in 1945.These are drugs which cannot be purchased over the counter without the prescription of a qualified doctor.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Serotonergic or serotoninergic means "pertaining to or affecting serotonin".
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a group of symptoms that may occur following use of certain serotonergic medications or drugs.
The serotonin transporter (SERT or 5-HTT) also known as the sodium-dependent serotonin transporter and solute carrier family 6 member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A4 gene.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
The sigma-1 receptor (σ1R), one of two sigma receptor subtypes, is a chaperone protein at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that modulates calcium signaling through the IP3 receptor.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal.
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
A standardized test is a test that is administered and scored in a consistent, or "standard", manner.
State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.
In a molecule, a stereocenter is a particular instance of a stereogenic element that is geometrically a point.
A stereotypy is a repetitive or ritualistic movement, posture, or utterance.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Stimulant psychosis, also known as stimulant-induced psychotic disorder, is a psychosis symptom which involves hallucinations, paranoia, and/or delusions and typically occurs following an overdose on psychostimulants; however, it has also been reported to occur in approximately 0.1% of individuals, or 1 out of every 1,000 people, within the first several weeks after starting amphetamine or methylphenidate therapy.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
A substance use disorder (SUD), also known as a drug use disorder, is a condition in which the use of one or more substances leads to a clinically significant impairment or distress.
Substituted phenethylamines (or simply phenethylamines) are a chemical class of organic compounds that are based upon the phenethylamine structure; the class is composed of all the derivative compounds of phenethylamine which can be formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the phenethylamine core structure with substituents.
Suicidal ideation, also known as suicidal thoughts, is thinking about or having an unusual preoccupation with suicide.
A summary offence is a crime in some common law jurisdictions that can be proceeded against summarily, without the right to a jury trial and/or indictment (required for an indictable offence).
In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize studies.
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR1 gene.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Terminal illness is an incurable disease that cannot be adequately treated and is reasonably expected to result in the death of the patient.
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. (טבע תעשיות פרמצבטיות בע"מ) is an Israeli multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Petah Tikva, Israel.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
A tic is a sudden, repetitive, nonrhythmic motor movement or vocalization involving discrete muscle groups.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
A transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream.
In organic chemistry, transesterfication is the process of exchanging the organic group R″ of an ester with the organic group R′ of an alcohol.
Tranylcypromine (contracted from trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine; original trade name Parnate)Drugs.com.
Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) or treatment-refractory depression is a term used in clinical psychiatry to describe cases of major depressive disorder (MDD) that do not respond adequately to appropriate courses of at least two antidepressants.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
UCB (Union Chimique Belge) is a multinational biopharmaceutical company headquartered in Brussels, Belgium.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Verbal reasoning is understanding and reasoning using concepts framed in words.
The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) also known as solute carrier family 18 member 2 (SLC18A2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC18A2 gene.
Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) are a group of substances that reduce blood clotting by reducing the action of vitamin K. They are used as anticoagulant medications in the prevention of thrombosis, and in pest control, as rodenticides.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing.
Xerostomia, also known as dry mouth and dry mouth syndrome, is dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause.
2-Benzylpiperidine is a stimulant drug of the piperidine class.
3,4-Dichloromethylphenidate is a stimulant drug related to methylphenidate.
4-Fluoromethylphenidate (also known as 4-FMPH and 4F-MPH) is a stimulant drug that acts as a higher potency dopamine reuptake inhibitor than the closely related methylphenidate.
threo-4-Methylmethylphenidate (4-MeTMP) is a stimulant drug related to methylphenidate.
The serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor) is a subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT receptor) that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B (5-HT2B) also known as serotonin receptor 2B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR2B gene.
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