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The A31 autoroute, also known as l'Autoroute de Lorraine-Bourgogne, is a French autoroute.
The A4 Autoroute, also known as autoroute de l'Est (English:Motorway of the East) is a French autoroute that travels between the cities of Paris and Strasbourg.
The Académie Royale d'Architecture (Royal Academy of Architecture), founded in 1671, was a French learned society, which had a leading role in influencing architectural theory and education, not only in France, but throughout Europe and the Americas from the late 17th century to the mid-20th.
Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), also known as Shanghai Ranking, is one of the annual publications of world university rankings.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Agenda 21 is a non-binding action plan of the United Nations with regard to sustainable development.
Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, Viscount de Tocqueville (29 July 180516 April 1859) was a French diplomat, political scientist and historian.
The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen, or Alsace-Moselle) was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871, after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War.
Charles Louis Ambroise Thomas (5 August 1811 – 12 February 1896) was a French composer, best known for his operas Mignon (1866) and Hamlet (1868, after Shakespeare) and as Director of the Conservatoire de Paris from 1871 until his death.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
André Schwarz-Bart (May 28, 1928, Metz, Moselle - September 30, 2006, Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe) was a French novelist of Polish-Jewish origins.
Antoine-Charles-Louis, Comte de Lasalle (10 May 1775, Metz6 July 1809, Wagram) was a French cavalry general during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, often called "The Hussar General".
Bridges for conveying water, called aqueducts or water bridges, are constructed to convey watercourses across gaps such as valleys or ravines.
The Palais omnisport Les Arènes, often abbreviated as Les Arènes, is an indoor sports arena in Metz, France.
ArcelorMittal S.A. is a Luxembourgish multinational steel manufacturing corporation headquartered in Luxembourg.
The Arsenal Concert Hall is a cultural venue dedicated specially to Classical and Erudite musics and located near the Esplanade garden in Metz, capital of the Lorraine region, France.
Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners.
Art music (alternately called classical music, cultivated music, serious music, and canonic music) is music that implies advanced structural and theoretical considerationsJacques Siron, "Musique Savante (Serious music)", Dictionnaire des mots de la musique (Paris: Outre Mesure): 242.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.
Arts et Métiers ParisTech is a French engineering and research graduate school (Grande Ecole).
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The ATP World Tour 250 series (previously known as the ATP World Series and ATP International Series) is the fifth-highest tier of men's tennis tournament after the four Grand Slam tournaments, ATP Finals, ATP World Tour Masters 1000, and ATP World Tour 500.
Austrasia was a territory which formed the northeastern section of the Merovingian Kingdom of the Franks during the 6th to 8th centuries.
An auteur ('author') is an artist, such as a film director, who applies a highly centralized and subjective control to many aspects of a collaborative creative work.
The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles, some of them are called automakers.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
The basilica of Saint-Pierre-aux-Nonnains is a pre-medieval church building in Metz, France.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Gravelotte (or Gravelotte–St. Privat) on 18 August 1870 was the largest battle during the Franco-Prussian War, named after Gravelotte, a village in Lorraine between Metz and the former French–German frontier.
The Battle of Metz was a battle fought during World War II at the city of Metz, France, from late September 1944 through mid-December between the U.S. Third Army commanded by Lieutenant General George Patton and the German Army commanded by General Otto von Knobelsdorff.
Bernard-Marie Koltès (9 April 1948 – 15 April 1989) was a French playwright and theatre director best known for his plays La Nuit juste avant les Forêts (The Night Just Before the Forests, 1976), Sallinger (1977) and Dans la Solitude des Champs de Coton (In the Solitude of Cotton Fields, 1986).
Bezirk Lothringen (Présidence F. ROTH La Présidence de Lorraine dans l’Empire allemand de 1871 à 1918, Annales de l’Est, Mémoire n° 50, Nancy, 1976, Moulin-les-Metz, 720 pages de la Lorraine; i.e. Department of Lorraine), also called German Lorraine (deutsches Lothringen), was the name for a Department ("Bezirk") in the western part of Alsace-Lorraine when it was part of the German Empire from 1871 to 1918.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
The Bishopric of Metz was a prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire.
A boiler is a closed vessel in which fluid (generally water) is heated.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
The Brevet de technicien supérieur (BTS) technician certificate is a national diploma of higher education in France, established in 1959.
A bridge castle (Brückenburg) is a type of castle that was built to provide military observation and security for a river crossing.
Bus rapid transit (BRT, BRTS, busway, transitway) is a bus-based public transport system designed to improve capacity and reliability relative to a conventional bus system.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
The cantons of Metz are administrative divisions of the Moselle department, in northeastern France.
Cardinal Jules Raymond Mazarin, 1st Duke of Rethel, Mayenne and Nevers (14 July 1602 – 9 March 1661), born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino or Mazarino, was an Italian cardinal, diplomat, and politician, who served as the Chief Minister to the kings of France Louis XIII and Louis XIV from 1642 until his death.
A cardo was the Latin name given to a north-south street in Ancient Roman cities and military camps as an integral component of city planning.
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
The Carolingian Renaissance was the first of three medieval renaissances, a period of cultural activity in the Carolingian Empire.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.
Centre Georges Pompidou, commonly shortened to Centre Pompidou and also known as the Pompidou Centre in English, is a complex building in the Beaubourg area of the 4th arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles, rue Montorgueil, and the Marais.
The Centre Pompidou-Metz is a museum of modern and contemporary arts located in Metz, capital of Lorraine, France.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
A chamber of commerce (or board of trade) is a form of business network, for example, a local organization of businesses whose goal is to further the interests of businesses.
Charcuterie (or; northern or southern, from chair "meat" and cuit "cooked") is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products, such as bacon, ham, sausage, terrines, galantines, ballotines, pâtés, and confit, primarily from pork.
Charles Pierre Baudelaire (April 9, 1821 – August 31, 1867) was a French poet who also produced notable work as an essayist, art critic, and pioneering translator of Edgar Allan Poe.
Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport (Aéroport de Paris-Charles-de-Gaulle), also known as Roissy Airport (name of the local district), is the largest international airport in France and the second largest in Europe.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Charles-François de Broglie, marquis de Ruffec (Paris, 19 August 1719Saint-Jean-d'Angély, 16 August 1781), was a French soldier and diplomat from an ancient, noble and distinguished French military family (see House of Broglie).
Self-portrait on glass Window Charles-Laurent Maréchal (27 January 1801 – 17 January 1887) was a French painter.
Charles-Louis Clérisseau (28 August 1721 – 9 January 1820) was a French architectural draughtsman, antiquary and artist.
In sociology and later criminology, the Chicago school (sometimes described as the ecological school) was the first major body of works emerging during the 1920s and 1930s specializing in urban sociology, and the research into the urban environment by combining theory and ethnographic fieldwork in Chicago, now applied elsewhere.
Christian de Portzamparc (born 5 May 1944) is a French architect and urbanist.
A Christmas market, also known as Christkindlmarkt (literally: Baby Jesus Market), Christkindlesmarkt, Christkindlmarket, Christkindlimarkt, and Weihnachtsmarkt, is a street market associated with the celebration of Christmas during the four weeks of Advent.
Christopher Fratin (1 January 1801 – 16 August 1864), also known as Christophe Fratin, was a noted French sculptor in the animalier style, and one of the earliest French sculptors to portray animals in bronze.
Saint Chrodegang (Chrodogangus; Chrodegang, Hruotgang;Spellings of his name in (Latin) primary sources are extremely varied: Chrodegangus, Grodegandus, Grodegangus, Grodogangus, Chrodogandus, Krodegandus, Chrodegrangus, Chrotgangus, Ruotgangus, Droctegangus, Chrodegand, and Sirigangus. In English it is also found as Godegrand, Gundigran, Ratgang, Rodigang, and Sirigang. died 6 March 766 AD) was the Frankish Bishop of Metz from 742 or 748 until his death.
A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city.
The classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles (CPGE) (English: Higher School Preparatory Classes), commonly called classes prépas or prépas, are part of the French post-secondary education system.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Saint Clement of Metz (Clemens de Metiae; Clément de Metz) is venerated as the first Bishop of Metz.
Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time.
Commandry (British English), or commandery (American English), was the smallest division of the European landed estate or manor under the control of a commander of a military order.
Commerce relates to "the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale.” Commerce includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that operate in any country or internationally.
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic.
The Concordat of 1801 was an agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII, signed on 15 July 1801 in Paris.
The Congrès internationaux d'architecture moderne (CIAM), or International Congresses of Modern Architecture, was an organization founded in 1928 and disbanded in 1959, responsible for a series of events and congresses arranged across Europe by the most prominent architects of the time, with the objective of spreading the principles of the Modern Movement focusing in all the main domains of architecture (such as landscape, urbanism, industrial design, and many others).
Contemporary art is the art of today, produced in the late 20th century or in the 21st century.
Contextualism describes a collection of views in philosophy which emphasize the context in which an action, utterance, or expression occurs, and argues that, in some important respect, the action, utterance, or expression can only be understood relative to that context.
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
The Coupe Charles Simon, commonly known as the Coupe de France, is the premier knockout cup competition in French football organized by the French Football Federation.
The Coupe de la Ligue, known outside France as the French League Cup, is a knockout cup competition in French football organized by the Ligue de Football Professionnel.
The Coupe Gambardella is a French football cup competition held between the under-19s of the French football clubs, organized by the French Football Federation (FFF).
A courthouse (sometimes spelled court house) is a building that is home to a local court of law and often the regional county government as well, although this is not the case in some larger cities.
The Metz Covered Market is a historic market with permanent stalls and shops in a large covered structure in the historical centre of Metz, capital of the Lorraine region in France.
Cubism is an early-20th-century art movement which brought European painting and sculpture historically forward toward 20th century Modern art.
A cuesta is a hill or ridge with a gentle slope on one side, and a steep slope on the other.
German culture has spanned the entire German-speaking world.
The damson or damson plum (Prunus domestica subsp. insititia, or sometimes Prunus insititia),M.
In Roman city planning, a decumanus was an east-west-oriented road in a Roman city, castrum (military camp), or colonia.
A defensive wall is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors.
A department store is a retail establishment offering a wide range of consumer goods in different product categories known as "departments".
In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.
Dijon is a city in eastern:France, capital of the Côte-d'Or département and of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region.
Djambala is the main town of Djambala District and the Plateaux Region of the Republic of Congo.
Dominique Gros (born January 2, 1943 in Riom, Puy-de-Dôme), is a French politician, he is the current mayor of Metz, in act since March 21, 2008.
The Drogo Sacramentary (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, MS lat. 9428) is a Carolingian illuminated manuscript on vellum of c.850 AD, one of the monuments of Carolingian book illumination.
In law, a dwelling (also residence, abode) is a self-contained unit of accommodation used by one or more households as a home, such as a house, apartment, mobile home, houseboat, vehicle or other 'substantial' structure.
The estates general was a general assembly representing the French estates of the realm: the clergy (First Estate), the nobility (Second Estate), and the commoners (Third Estate).
The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.
Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (26 April 1798 – 13 August 1863) was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school.
EUREGIO is a cross-border region between the Netherlands and Germany and the first Euroregion.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
European route E 50 is an A-type east–west connection across the European continent.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
In European politics, the term Euroregion usually refers to a transnational co-operation structure between two (or more) contiguous territories located in different European countries.
Football Club de Metz, commonly referred to as FC Metz or simply Metz, is a French association football club based in Metz, Lorraine.
Fnac is a large French retail chain selling cultural and electronic products, founded by André Essel and Max Théret in 1954.
The Fort de Queuleu is a fortification to the southeast of Metz, near Queuleu, France.
The Fortifications of Metz, a city in northeastern France, are extensive, due to the city's strategic position near the border of France and Germany.
A forum (Latin forum "public place outdoors", plural fora; English plural either fora or forums) was a public square in a Roman municipium, or any civitas, reserved primarily for the vending of goods; i.e., a marketplace, along with the buildings used for shops and the stoas used for open stalls.
François Rabelais (between 1483 and 1494 – 9 April 1553) was a French Renaissance writer, physician, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholar.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (Freie Reichsstadt, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
The Fifth Republic, France's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958.
The French Resistance (La Résistance) was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
Since 1985, the French Ministry of Culture and Communication has pursued a policy of preserving and promoting France's heritage.
The French Women's Handball Championship (Championnat de France de handball féminin) is the premier women's handball league in France.
Fruit brandy or fruit spirit is a distilled beverage produced from mash, juice, wine or residues of culinary fruits.
Henri Constant Gabriel Pierné (16 August 186317 July 1937) was a French composer, conductor, and organist.
The Galeries Lafayette is an upmarket French department store chain.
The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes.
The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire.
The Gare de l'Est ("Station of the East" in English), officially Paris-Est, is one of the six large SNCF termini in Paris.
Lorraine TGV is a railway station located in Louvigny, France, on the LGV Est, a high-speed rail line running from Paris to Strasbourg.
The Gare de Metz-Ville is the main railway station serving the city of Metz, capital of Lorraine, France. Sometimes spoken of as the Station Palace as it displays the apartments of the German Kaiser Wilhelm II, Metz station has been registered as a Historic Monument since 15 January 1975. This designation gives legal protection to the station's facade, the roof, the departure hall, the honorary lounge, and the former station restaurant with its interior decorations.
Garrison (various spellings) (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, "to equip") is the collective term for a body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
Georges-Henri Pingusson (July 26, 1894 – October 22, 1978) was a French architect.
Georgia Tech Lorraine (GTL) is a campus of the Georgia Institute of Technology in Metz, France and is part of Georgia Tech's International Plan.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette (6 September 1757 – 20 May 1834), in the United States often known simply as Lafayette, was a French aristocrat and military officer who fought in the American Revolutionary War.
Gloucester is a city and district in Gloucestershire, England, of which it is the county town.
Goin (Göhn) is a commune in the Moselle department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
Gothic art was a style of medieval art that developed in Northern France out of Romanesque art in the 12th century AD, led by the concurrent development of Gothic architecture.
A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn for threshed grain or animal feed.
Grand Est (Great East, Großer Osten — both in the Alsatian and the Lorraine Franconian dialect), previously Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine (ACAL or less commonly, ALCA), is an administrative region in eastern France.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
Gravelotte (Gravelotte) is a commune in the Moselle department in Grand Est in north-eastern France, with a population of 652 by 1999.
The Greater Region (Grande Région, Großregion, Groussregioun) is the area of Saarland, Lorraine, Luxembourg, Rhineland-Palatinate, Wallonia and the rest of the French Community of Belgium, and the German-speaking Community of Belgium.
Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church.
Groupe Banque Populaire is a French group of cooperative banks.
Groupe Caisse d'épargne is a French semi-cooperative banking group, founded in 1818, with around 4700 branches in the country.
Groupe PSA (informally PSA; PSA Group in English; formerly known as PSA Peugeot Citroën from 1991 to 2016) is a French multinational manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles sold under the Peugeot, Citroën, DS, Opel and Vauxhall brands.
Gustave Kahn (21 December 1859, in Metz – 5 September 1936, in Paris) was a French Symbolist poet and art critic.
Handball (also known as team handball, fieldball, European handball or Olympic handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.
An hôtel particulier ("hôtel" being rendered in Middle English as "inn"—as only used now in Inns of Court—and "particulier" meaning "personal" or "private") is a townhouse of a grand sort, comparable to the British townhouse.
Headquarters (commonly referred to as HQ or HD) is/are the locations where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are coordinated.
Hermann von Münster (c. 1330 - March 1392) was a German master glassmaker, native of Münster, in Westphalia, and active in Lorraine.
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.
High-speed rail is a type of rail transport that operates significantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of specialized rolling stock and dedicated tracks.
Metz, the capital and the prefecture of both the Lorraine region and the Moselle department in France, has a recorded history dating back over 3,000 years.
Hockey is a sport in which two teams play against each other by trying to maneuver a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Hot air balloon festivals are held annually in many places throughout the year, allowing hot air balloons operators to gather- as well as for the general public- to participate in various activities.
A housing estate (or sometimes housing complex) is a group of homes and other buildings built together as a single development.
Hradec Králové (Königgrätz) is a city of the Czech Republic, in the Hradec Králové Region of Bohemia.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
Hybrid vehicle drivetrains transmit power to the driving wheels for hybrid vehicles.
An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
Inland navigation is transport with ships via inland waterways (such as canals, rivers and lakes) between inland ports or quays and wharfs.
The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques), abbreviated INSEE, is the national statistics bureau of France.
The title of intendant (intendant, Portuguese and intendente) has been used in several countries through history.
An intersection is an at-grade junction where two or more roads meet or cross.
Jacques Villon (July 31, 1875 – June 9, 1963), also known as Gaston Duchamp, was a French Cubist and abstract painter and printmaker.
Jacques-François Blondel (8 January 1705 – 9 January 1774) was an 18th-century French architect and teacher.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
Jürgen Kröger (16 November 1856 in Haale, Germany – 27 February 1928 in Aukrug) was a German architect, active from 1880 to 1920.
Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (5 July 1889 – 11 October 1963) was a French poet, writer, designer, playwright, artist and filmmaker.
Jean Dubuisson (September 18, 1914 – October 22, 2011) was a French architect who is regarded as one of the leading practitioners of the French post-World War II years.
Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier was a French chemistry and physics teacher, and one of the first pioneers of aviation.
Jean-Marie Pelt (24 October 1933 – 23 December 2015) was a French biologist, botanist and pharmacist with degrees in both Biology and Pharmacy.
Jean-Michel Wilmotte (born 1948 in Soissons (Picardy) in 1948) is a French architect.
Jean-Paul Viguier (born 4 May 1946) is a French architect.
Jean-Victor Poncelet (1 July 1788 – 22 December 1867) was a French engineer and mathematician who served most notably as the Commanding General of the École Polytechnique.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Kaiser is the German word for "emperor".
Kansas City is the largest city in the U.S. state of Missouri.
Karmiel (כַּרְמִיאֵל, lit. "God's vineyards") is a city in northern Israel.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or simply as Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by papal bull Omne Datum Optimum of the Holy See.
Koblenz (Coblence), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a German city situated on both banks of the Rhine where it is joined by the Moselle.
Laïcité, literally "secularity", is a French concept of secularism.
Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
In academic terms, French law can be divided into two main categories: private law ("droit privé") and public law ("droit public").
Ligue 1, also called Ligue 1 Conforama for sponsorship reasons with Conforama, is a French professional league for men's association football clubs.
Ligue 2, also known as Domino's Ligue 2 due to sponsorship by Domino's Pizza, is a French professional football league.
Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.
The nave is the central approach to the high altar, the main body of the church, in Romanesque and Gothic Christian abbey, cathedral basilica and church architecture.
The following table presents an incomplete list of monuments classified monument historique in the city of Metz, capital of the French region of Lorraine and prefecture of the department of Moselle.
This article lists some but by no means all of the oldest known church buildings in the world.
Lorraine (Lorrain: Louréne; Lorraine Franconian: Lottringe; German:; Loutrengen) is a cultural and historical region in north-eastern France, now located in the administrative region of Grand Est.
Lorraine Franconian (Lorraine Franconian: Plàtt, lothrìnger Plàtt; francique lorrain, platt lorrain; Lothringisch) is an ambiguous designation for dialects of West Central German (Westmitteldeutsch), a group of High German dialects spoken in the Moselle department of the former north-eastern French region of Lorraine (See Linguistic boundary of Moselle).
Lorraine Regional Natural Park (French: Parc naturel régional de Lorraine) is a protected area of pastoral countryside in the Grand Est region of northeastern France.
Lotharingia (Latin: Lotharii regnum) was a medieval successor kingdom of the Carolingian Empire, comprising the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany), Saarland (Germany), and Lorraine (France).
Louis de Cormontaigne (1696 at Strasbourg – 1752 in Metz) was a French military engineer.
Louvigny is a commune in the Moselle department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Luxembourg Airport is the main airport in Luxembourg.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg, Luxembourg, Luxemburg), also known as Luxembourg City (Stad Lëtzebuerg or d'Stad, Ville de Luxembourg, Stadt Luxemburg, Luxemburg-Stadt), is the capital city of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (also named "Luxembourg"), and the country's most populous commune.
Lycée Fabert is a senior high school in Metz, Moselle department, Lorraine, France.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
The Maginot Line (Ligne Maginot), named after the French Minister of War André Maginot, was a line of concrete fortifications, obstacles, and weapon installations built by France in the 1930s to deter invasion by Germany and force them to move around the fortifications.
Marc Zakharovich Chagall (born Moishe Zakharovich Shagal; 28 March 1985) was a Russian-French artist of Belarusian Jewish origin.
Marzipan is a confection consisting primarily of sugar or honey and almond meal (ground almonds), sometimes augmented with almond oil or extract.
Métrolor, as its name suggests (as a contraction of "métro" and "Lorraine"), is a brand for the internal passenger train service of the Lorraine region, where the trains' frequency and network's density are comparable to rapid transit systems.
The Mediomatrici (Greek: Μεδιομάτρικες) were an ancient Celtic people of Gaul, who belong to the division of Belgae.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century.
Metallography is the study of the physical structure and components of metals, by using microscopy.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Cathedral of Saint Stephen of Metz (French: Cathédrale Saint Étienne de Metz), also known as Metz Cathedral, is a historic Roman Catholic cathedral in Metz, capital of Lorraine, France.
Metz HB (Metz Handball) is a French handball club from Metz, capital of Lorraine.
Metz Métropole is the métropole, an intercommunal structure, centred on the city of Metz.
The Science Park of Metz is located in the South-East of the city, in the area of Grigy.
Metz–Nancy–Lorraine Airport or Aéroport de Metz–Nancy–Lorraine is an airport serving the Lorraine région of France.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
mirabelle plums, also known as mirabelle prunes (Prunus domestica subsp. syriaca), is a cultivar group of plum trees of the genus Prunus.
Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
* Monument historique is a designation given to some national heritage sites in France.
The Moselle (la Moselle,; Mosel; Musel) is a river flowing through France, Luxembourg, and Germany.
Moselle is the most populous department in Lorraine, in the east of France, and is named after the river Moselle, a tributary of the Rhine, which flows through the western part of the department.
The Moselle Open (Open de Moselle from 2003 to 2010) is a professional tennis tournament played on indoor hard courts.
Moselle wine is produced in three countries along the Moselle river: France, Luxembourg (the Musel) and Germany (the Mosel).
A movie theater/theatre (American English), cinema (British English) or cinema hall (Indian English) is a building that contains an auditorium for viewing films (also called movies) for entertainment.
The Museum of Metz (Musée de la Cour d'Or - Metz Métropole), in Metz, France, was founded in 1839.
Music notation or musical notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or otherwise-produced symbols.
Nancy (Nanzig) is the capital of the north-eastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, and formerly the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine, and then the French province of the same name.
Nantes (Gallo: Naunnt or Nantt) is a city in western France on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
A neume (sometimes spelled neum) is the basic element of Western and Eastern systems of musical notation prior to the invention of five-line staff notation.
Nicolas Michelin (born 25 January 1955) is a French architect and urban planner.
Oktōēchos (here transcribed "Octoechos"; Greek: ὁ Ὀκτώηχος; from ὀκτώ "eight" and ἦχος "sound, mode" called echos; Slavonic: Осмогласие, Osmoglasie from о́смь "eight" and гласъ, Glagolitic: ⰳⰾⰰⱄⱏ, "voice, sound") is the eight-mode system used for the composition of religious chant in Byzantine, Syriac, Armenian, Georgian, Latin and Slavic churches since the Middle Ages.
The Opéra-Théâtre de Metz Métropole is a 750-seat opera house and theatre located on the Petit-Saulcy island in Metz, capital of the Lorraine region, France.
An opera house is a theatre building used for opera performances that consists of a stage, an orchestra pit, audience seating, and backstage facilities for costumes and set building.
An oppidum (plural oppida) is a large fortified Iron Age settlement.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Paraments or Parements (from Late Latin paramentum, adornment, parare, to prepare, equip) are the hangings or ornaments of a room of state.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Paris Basin is one of the major geological regions of France having developed since the Triassic on a basement formed by the Variscan orogeny.
Pastry is a dough of flour, water and shortening (solid fats, including butter) that may be savoury or sweetened.
A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.
Paul Chemetov (born 10 october 1928) is a French architect and urbanist.
Paul Niclausse (1879–1958) was a French sculptor, most famous for his art deco medals cast in bronze.
Paul-Marie Verlaine (30 March 1844 – 8 January 1896) was a French poet associated with the Decadent movement.
Pâté is a mixture of cooked ground meat and fat minced into a spreadable paste.
Pétanque (petanca) is a sport that falls into the category of boules sports, along with Raffa, bocce, boule lyonnaise, lawn bowls and crown green bowling.
Philippe Starck (born January 18, 1949) is a French designer known since the start of his career in the 1980s for his interior, product, industrial and architectural design including furniture.
The Pierre de Jaumont (lit. "stone of Jaumont") is an oolitic limestone of the Upper Jurassic, found in Malancourt-la-Montagne, part of the commune of Montois-la-Montagne, in Lorraine, France.
The Place Saint-Jacques (St. James's square) is situated in the centre of Metz in front of the centre Saint-Jacques, a three-storey mall.
A post-war period or postwar period is the interval immediately following the end of a war.
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.
A potée is a French culinary term which, in general, refers to any preparation cooked in an earthenware pot.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
A prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) is an administrative jurisdiction or subdivision in any of various countries and within some international church structures, and in antiquity a Roman district governed by an appointed prefect.
A prefecture (préfecture) in France may refer to.
Prince William, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, (William Henry; 25 November 1743 – 25 August 1805), was a grandson of King George II and a younger brother of King George III of the United Kingdom.
Printemps (meaning "spring" in French) is a French department store chain (grand magasin, literally "big store").
The Pritzker Architecture Prize is awarded annually "to honor a living architect or architects whose built work demonstrates a combination of those qualities of talent, vision and commitment, which has produced consistent and significant contributions to humanity and the built environment through the art of architecture." Founded in 1979 by Jay A. Pritzker and his wife Cindy, the award is funded by the Pritzker family and sponsored by the Hyatt Foundation.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values.
Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.
Quiche is a savoury open tart or flan consisting of pastry crust filled with eggs, milk or cream, and cheese, meat, seafood or vegetables.
Raiding, also known as depredation, is a military tactic or operational warfare mission which has a specific purpose and is not normally intended to capture and hold a location but instead finish with the raiding force quickly retreating to a previous defended position prior to enemy forces being able to respond in a coordinated manner or formulate a counter-attack.
The Regional Contemporary Art Fund of Lorraine (FRAC Lorraine) is a public collection of contemporary art of the Lorraine region and located in the regional capital, Metz.
France is divided into 18 administrative regions (région), including 13 metropolitan regions and 5 overseas regions.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Contributions to painting and architecture have been especially rich.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
Rennes (Roazhon,; Gallo: Resnn) is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit.
The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.
Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) is one of the 16 states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Ricardo Bofill Leví (born 5 December 1939) is a Spanish architect, who, since 1963, continues to lead the international architectural and urban design practice Ricardo Bofill Taller de Arquitectura.
Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Robert Schuman (29 June 18864 September 1963) was a Luxembourg-born French statesman.
Roger Bissière (22 September 1886 – 2 December 1964) was a French artist.
Roger-Henri Expert (18 April 1882 – 13 April 1955) was a French architect.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Metz (Latin: Dioecesis Metensis; French: Diocèse de Metz) is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romanesque Revival (or Neo-Romanesque) is a style of building employed beginning in the mid-19th century inspired by the 11th- and 12th-century Romanesque architecture.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Rudy Ricciotti (born 1952) is a French architect and publisher.
Saarbrücken (Sarrebruck, Rhine Franconian: Saarbrigge) is the capital and largest city of the state of Saarland, Germany.
SaarLorLux or Saar-Lor-Lux (also SarLorLux in French), a portmanteau of Saarland, Lorraine and Luxembourg, is a euroregion of five different regional authorities located in four different European states.
Saint Nicholas (Ἅγιος Νικόλαος,, Sanctus Nicolaus; 15 March 270 – 6 December 343), also called Nikolaos of Myra or Nicholas of Bari, was Bishop of Myra, in Asia Minor (modern-day Demre, Turkey), and is a historic Christian saint.
Saint-Denis (or unofficially Saint-Denis de la Réunion for disambiguation) is the préfecture (administrative capital) of the French overseas region and department of Réunion, in the Indian Ocean.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
The Séré de Rivières system was named after Raymond Adolphe Séré de Rivières, its originator.
Schengen is a small wine-making town and commune in far south-eastern Luxembourg, on the western bank of the river Moselle.
Scy-Chazelles (Sigach) is a commune in the Moselle department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
The Seille (Selle) is a river in north-eastern France.
SFR (Société française du radiotéléphone) is a French telecommunications company that provides voice, video, data, and Internet telecommunications and professional services to consumers and businesses.
is a Japanese architect, known for his innovative work with paper, particularly recycled cardboard tubes used to quickly and efficiently house disaster victims.
The Siege of Metz during the Italian War of 1551–59 lasted from October 1552 to January (1-5), 1553.
The Socialist Party (Parti socialiste, PS) is a social-democratic political party in France, and the largest party of the French centre-left.
Solange Bertrand (March 20, 1913 – January 22, 2011) was a French abstract painter, sculptor, and engraver.
Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking.
Stade Municipal Saint-Symphorien is a multi-purpose stadium in Metz, France, located on the "island saint-Symphorien".
The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Subdivision is the act of dividing land into pieces that are easier to sell or otherwise develop, usually via a plat.
A suckling pig is a piglet fed on its mother's milk (i.e., a piglet which is still a "suckling").
École supérieure d'électricité, commonly known as Supélec, was a French graduate school of engineering.
Sustainable architecture is architecture that seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy, and development space and the ecosystem at large.
Sustainable refurbishment describes working on existing buildings to improve their environmental performance using sustainable methods and materials.
Sustainable transport refers to the broad subject of transport that is sustainable in the senses of social, environmental and climate impacts and the ability to, in the global scope, supply the source energy indefinitely.
Table tennis, also known as ping-pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball back and forth across a table using small bats.
Tachisme (alternative spelling: Tachism, derived from the French word tache, stain) is a French style of abstract painting popular in the 1940s and 1950s.
TDF (which stands for Télédiffusion de France officially renamed TDF in 2004) is a French company which provides radio and television transmission services, services for telecommunications operators, and other multimedia services – digitization of content, encoding, storage, etc.
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
The TGV (Train à Grande Vitesse, "high-speed train") is France's intercity high-speed rail service, operated by the SNCF, the state-owned national rail operator.
In ancient Rome, thermae (from Greek θερμός thermos, "hot") and balneae (from Greek βαλανεῖον balaneion) were facilities for bathing.
The Three Bishoprics (les Trois-Évêchés) constituted a province of pre-revolutionary France consisting of the dioceses of Metz, Verdun, and Toul within the Lorraine region.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
A town square is an open public space commonly found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings.
A transport hub (also transport interchange) is a place where passengers and cargo are exchanged between vehicles or between transport modes.
A transport network, or transportation network is a realisation of a spatial network, describing a structure which permits either vehicular movement or flow of some commodity.
The Treaty of Chambord was an agreement signed on 15 January 1552 at the Château de Chambord between the Catholic King Henry II of France and three Protestant princes of the Holy Roman Empire led by Elector Maurice of Saxony.
The Treaty of Frankfurt (Traité de Francfort; Friede von Frankfurt) was a peace treaty signed in Frankfurt on 10 May 1871, at the end of the Franco-Prussian War.
The Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, who was the son of Charlemagne.
Trier (Tréier), formerly known in English as Treves (Trèves) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle.
A tripoint, trijunction, triple point or tri-border area is a geographical point at which the boundaries of three countries or subnational entities meet.
Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).
The two-round system (also known as the second ballot, runoff voting or ballotage) is a voting method used to elect a single winner, where the voter casts a single vote for their chosen candidate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Army Central, formerly the Third United States Army, commonly referred to as the Third Army and as ARCENT is a military formation of the United States Army, which saw service in World War I and World War II, in the 1991 Gulf War, and in the coalition occupation of Iraq.
The University of Lorraine, often abbreviated in UL, is a grand établissement created on 1 January 2012 by the merger of Henri Poincaré, Nancy 2 and Paul Verlaine Universities, and the National Polytechnic Institute of Lorraine (INPL), etc...
The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Urban ecology is the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings in the context of an urban environment.
Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.
Valentin Bousch (circa 1490 – August 1541) was a Renaissance stained glass glazier and painter from Strasbourg, active in the Duchy of Lorraine and the Republic of Metz.
Van Hool NV is a Belgian family-owned coachbuilder and manufacturer of buses, coaches, trolleybuses, and trailers.
Voies navigables de France (VNF, Navigable Waterways of France) is the French navigation authority responsible for the management of the majority of France's inland waterways network and the associated facilities—towpaths, commercial and leisure ports, lock-keeper's houses and other structures.
A war memorial is a building, monument, statue or other edifice to celebrate a war or victory, or (predominating in modern times) to commemorate those who died or were injured in a war.
Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
The Women's EHF Champions League is an official competition for women's handball clubs of Europe, organised annually by the European Handball Federation (EHF).
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yichang (old postal name 'Ichang') is a prefecture-level city located in western Hubei province, China.
The 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and State (French) was passed by the Chamber of Deputies on 9 December 1905.