235 relations: A & C Black, ABC-CLIO, Albert Einstein, Albert Medal (Royal Society of Arts), Albert, Prince Consort, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Book Company (1890), Anglicanism, Animal magnetism, Anode, Antarctica, Autodidacticism, Aylesbury, Aylesbury Estate, Bank of England, Bank of England note issues, Banknotes of the pound sterling, Barbican Estate, Barnsbury, Basic Books, Basingstoke, BBC, Benzene, Berlin, Bioelectromagnetics, Bloomsbury Publishing, Blue plaque, British nationality law, Brunel University London, Brutalist architecture, Bunsen burner, C. N. R. Rao, Capacitance, Carbon, Cassell (publisher), Cathode, Chance Brothers, Charles Lyell, Chemistry, Chlorine, Church of Scotland, Clathrate hydrate, Coal dust, Colin A. Russell, Colloid, Copley Medal, Corrosion, Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey, Crawley, Crimean War, ..., Dahlem (Berlin), Deacon, Deep River, Ontario, Diamagnetism, Direct current, Dissenter, Doctor of Civil Law, Elder (Christianity), Electric battery, Electric motor, Electrical conductor, Electricity, Electrochemistry, Electrode, Electrolysis, Electromagnetic field, Electromagnetic induction, Electromagnetism, Electrostatics, Elephant and Castle, English Heritage, Environmental science, Ernest Rutherford, Every Saturday, Expert witness, Explosion, Farad, Faraday cage, Faraday constant, Faraday cup, Faraday effect, Faraday Institute for Science and Religion, Faraday Medal, Faraday paradox, Faraday rotator, Faraday wave, Faraday's ice pail experiment, Faraday's law of induction, Faraday's laws of electrolysis, Faraday-efficiency effect, Fellow of the Royal Society, Field (physics), Fife, Forensic engineering, Forensic science, Fox Broadcasting Company, French Academy of Sciences, Fullerian Professor of Chemistry, Gentleman, George Riebau, Glasite, Grace and favour, Grant (money), Great Stink, Halfpenny (British pre-decimal coin), Hampton Court Palace, Hans Christian Ørsted, Harriet Jane Moore, Haswell, County Durham, Henry Bence Jones, Hexachloroethane, Highgate Cemetery, Homopolar generator, Homopolar motor, Humphry Davy, Inductance, Institution of Engineering and Technology, International System of Units, Internet Archive, Invention, Ion, Isaac Newton, Isaac Watts, James Clerk Maxwell, James Elmes, James R. Osgood, Jane Marcet, Joel Henry Hildebrand, Johann Josef Loschmidt, John Cadogan, John Dalton, John Meurig Thomas, John Tatum (scientist), John Templeton Foundation, Joseph Agassi, Journal of Chemical Education, Kirkby, L. Pearce Williams, Lighthouse, Line of force, List of people who have declined a British honour, List of presidents of the Royal Society, London Borough of Islington, London Borough of Southwark, London South Bank University, Longman, Loughborough University, Macmillan Publishers, Mad Jack Fuller, Magnesium sulfate, Magnetism, Maxwell's equations, Mercury (element), Michael Faraday Memorial, Nanoparticle, Nanotechnology, National Gallery, National Geographic (U.S. TV channel), Nature (journal), Newbury, Berkshire, Newington Butts, Nitrogen trichloride, Northern Illinois University, Nottingham, Orders, decorations, and medals of the United Kingdom, Outhgill, Owen Gingerich, Oxford University Press, Oxidation state, Physics, Pieter Zeeman, Polarization (waves), Punch (magazine), Quantum, Random House, Ray (optics), Reston, Virginia, River Thames, Rodney Gordon, Royal Albert Hall, Royal Institution, Royal Institution Christmas Lectures, Royal Medal, Royal Mint, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Royal Philharmonic Society, Royal Society, Royal Society of Arts, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Rumford Medal, Savoy Place, Séance, Science History Institute, Scientist, Senghenydd colliery disaster, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, St Paul's Cathedral, Stevenage, Surrey, Swansea, Swansea University, Swindon, Table-turning, Taylor & Francis, Tetrachloroethylene, The Chemical History of a Candle, The Electric Boy, The Great Exhibition, The Illustrated London News, The New York Times, The Sydney Morning Herald, The Times, Thomas Graham (chemist), Thomas Phillips, Timeline of hydrogen technologies, Timeline of low-temperature technology, Transformer, Trigonometry, Trinity Buoy Wharf, University and State Library Düsseldorf, University of Chicago Press, University of Edinburgh, University of Oxford, Valet, Voltaic pile, Walworth, Westminster Abbey, Westmorland, Whitby, William Dance, William Hyde Wollaston, William Thomas Brande, William Whewell, Zeeman effect, 100 Greatest Britons. Expand index (185 more) » « Shrink index
A & C Black is a British book publishing company, owned since 2002 by Bloomsbury Publishing.
ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
The Albert Medal of the Royal Society of Arts (RSA) was instituted in 1864 as a memorial to Prince Albert, who had been President of the Society for 18 years.
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel; 26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria.
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America.
The American Book Company (ABC) was an educational book publisher in the United States that specialized in elementary school, secondary school and collegiate-level textbooks.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Animal magnetism, also known as mesmerism, was the name given by the German doctor Franz Mesmer in the 18th century to what he believed to be an invisible natural force (lebensmagnetismus) possessed by all living/animate beings (humans, animals, vegetables, etc.). He believed that the force could have physical effects, including healing.
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) or self-education (also self-learning and self-teaching) is education without the guidance of masters (such as teachers and professors) or institutions (such as schools).
Aylesbury is the county town of Buckinghamshire, England.
The Aylesbury Estate is a large housing estate located in Walworth, South East London.
The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.
The Bank of England, which is now the central bank of the United Kingdom, has issued banknotes since 1694.
Sterling banknotes are the banknotes in circulation in the United Kingdom and its related territories, denominated in pounds sterling (symbol: £; ISO 4217 currency code GBP). Sterling banknotes are official currency in the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, British Antarctic Territory, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and Tristan da Cunha in St Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.
The Barbican Estate is a residential estate that was built during the 1960s and the 1980s within the City of London in Central London, in an area once devastated by World War II bombings and today densely populated by financial institutions.
Barnsbury is an area of north London in the London Borough of Islington, in the N1 postal district.
Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York, now an imprint of Hachette Books.
Basingstoke is the largest town in the modern county of Hampshire (Southampton and Portsmouth being cities.) It is situated in south central England, and lies across a valley at the source of the River Loddon.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Bioelectromagnetics, also known as bioelectromagnetism, is the study of the interaction between electromagnetic fields and biological entities.
Bloomsbury Publishing plc (formerly M.B.N.1 Limited and Bloomsbury Publishing Company Limited) is a British independent, worldwide publishing house of fiction and non-fiction.
A blue plaque is a permanent sign installed in a public place in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to commemorate a link between that location and a famous person, event, or former building on the site, serving as a historical marker.
British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom which concerns citizenship and other categories of British nationality.
Brunel University London is a public research university located in Uxbridge, West London, United Kingdom.
Brutalist architecture flourished from 1951 to 1975, having descended from the modernist architectural movement of the early 20th century.
A Bunsen burner, named after Robert Bunsen, is a common piece of laboratory equipment that produces a single open gas flame, which is used for heating, sterilization, and combustion.
Chintamani Nagesa Ramachandra Rao FRS, also known as C. N. R. Rao (born 30 June 1934), is an Indian chemist who has worked mainly in solid-state and structural chemistry.
Capacitance is the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Cassell & Co is a British book publishing house, founded in 1848 by John Cassell (1817–1865), which became in the 1890s an international publishing group company.
A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.
Chance Brothers and Company was a glassworks originally based in Spon Lane, Smethwick, West Midlands (formerly in Staffordshire), in England.
Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, (14 November 1797 – 22 February 1875) was a Scottish geologist who popularised the revolutionary work of James Hutton.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.
Clathrate hydrates, or gas clathrates, gas hydrates, clathrates, hydrates, etc., are crystalline water-based solids physically resembling ice, in which small non-polar molecules (typically gases) or polar molecules with large hydrophobic moieties are trapped inside "cages" of hydrogen bonded, frozen water molecules.
Coal dust is a fine powdered form of coal, which is created by the crushing, grinding, or pulverizing of coal.
Colin Archibald Russell (–) was Emeritus Professor of History of Science and Technology at the Open University and was a research scholar affiliated to the History and Philosophy of Science Department, Cambridge University.
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
The Copley Medal is a scientific award given by the Royal Society, for "outstanding achievements in research in any branch of science." It alternates between the physical and the biological sciences.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey is a 2014 American science documentary television series.
Crawley is a town and borough in West Sussex, England.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
Dahlem is a locality of the Steglitz-Zehlendorf borough in southwestern Berlin.
A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions.
Deep River is a town in Renfrew County, Ontario, Canada.
Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force.
Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.
A dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, "to disagree") is one who disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, etc.
Doctor of Civil Law (DCL; Doctor Civilis Legis) is a degree offered by some universities, such as the University of Oxford, instead of the more common Doctor of Laws (LLD) degrees.
An elder in Christianity is a person who is valued for wisdom and holds a position of responsibility and/or authority in a Christian group.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.
Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.
The Elephant and Castle is an area around a major road junction in South London, England, in the London Borough of Southwark.
English Heritage (officially the English Heritage Trust) is a registered charity that manages the National Heritage Collection.
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography (geodesy), and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.
Every Saturday (1866–1874) was an American literary magazine published in Boston, Massachusetts, in the mid-19th century.
An expert witness, in England, Wales and the United States, is a person whose opinion by virtue of education, training, certification, skills or experience, is accepted by the judge as an expert.
An explosion is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases.
The farad (symbol: F) is the SI derived unit of electrical capacitance, the ability of a body to store an electrical charge.
A Faraday cage or Faraday shield is an enclosure used to block electromagnetic fields.
The Faraday constant, denoted by the symbol and sometimes stylized as ℱ, is named after Michael Faraday.
A Faraday cup is a metal (conductive) cup designed to catch charged particles in vacuum.
In physics, the Faraday effect or Faraday rotation is a magneto-optical phenomenon—that is, an interaction between light and a magnetic field in a medium.
The Faraday Institute for Science and Religion is an interdisciplinary academic research institute based at St Edmund's College, Cambridge, England.
The Faraday Medal is the top medal awarded by the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) (previously called the Institution of Electrical Engineers).
The Faraday paradox or Faraday's paradox is any experiment in which Michael Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction appears to predict an incorrect result.
A Faraday rotator is a polarization rotator based on the Faraday effect, which in turn is based on a magneto-optic effect.
Faraday waves, also known as Faraday ripples, named after Michael Faraday, are nonlinear standing waves that appear on liquids enclosed by a vibrating receptacle.
Faraday's ice pail experiment is a simple electrostatics experiment performed in 1843 by British scientist Michael Faraday that demonstrates the effect of electrostatic induction on a conducting container.
Faraday's law of induction is a basic law of electromagnetism predicting how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive force (EMF)—a phenomenon called electromagnetic induction.
Faraday's laws of electrolysis are quantitative relationships based on the electrochemical researches published by Michael Faraday in 1834.
The Faraday-efficiency effect refers to the potential for misinterpretation of data from experiments in electrochemistry through failure to take into account a Faraday efficiency of less than 100 per cent.
Fellowship of the Royal Society (FRS, ForMemRS and HonFRS) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society judges to have made a "substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science".
In physics, a field is a physical quantity, represented by a number or tensor, that has a value for each point in space and time.
Fife (Fìobha) is a council area and historic county of Scotland.
Forensic engineering has been defined as "the investigation of failures - ranging from serviceability to catastrophic - which may lead to legal activity, including both civil and criminal". It therefore includes the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not operate or function as intended, causing personal injury, damage to property or economic loss.
Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.
The Fox Broadcasting Company (often shortened to Fox and stylized as FOX) is an American commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox.
The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.
The Fullerian Chairs at the Royal Institution in London, England, were established by John 'Mad Jack' Fuller.
In modern parlance, a gentleman (from gentle + man, translating the Old French gentilz hom) is any man of good, courteous conduct.
George Riebau was a bookseller and bookbinder in Blandford Street, London to whom Michael Faraday was apprenticed in 1805 at the age of fourteen.
The Glasites or Glassites were a small Christian church founded in about 1730 in Scotland by John Glas.
A grace-and-favour home is a residential property owned by a monarch by virtue of his or her position as head of state and leased, often rent-free, to persons as part of an employment package or in gratitude for past services rendered.
Grants are non-repayable funds or products disbursed or gifted by one party (grant makers), often a government department, corporation, foundation or trust, to a recipient, often (but not always) a nonprofit entity, educational institution, business or an individual.
The Great Stink was an event in central London in July and August 1858 during which the hot weather exacerbated the smell of untreated human waste and industrial effluent that was present on the banks of the River Thames.
The British pre-decimal halfpenny (d) coin, usually simply known as a halfpenny (pronounced), historically occasionally also as the obol, was a unit of currency that equalled half of a penny or of a pound sterling.
Hampton Court Palace is a royal palace in the borough of Richmond upon Thames, London, England, south west and upstream of central London on the River Thames.
Hans Christian Ørsted (often rendered Oersted in English; 14 August 17779 March 1851) was a Danish physicist and chemist who discovered that electric currents create magnetic fields, which was the first connection found between electricity and magnetism.
Harriet Jane Carrick Moore (1801 – 6 March 1884) was a British watercolour artist who is best known for her drawings of Michael Faraday's work at the Royal Institution.
Haswell is a village in County Durham, in England.
Henry Bence Jones FRS (31 December 1813 – 20 April 1873) was an English physician and chemist.
Hexachloroethane, also known as perchloroethane (PCA), C2Cl6, is a white crystalline solid at room temperature with a camphor-like odor.
Highgate Cemetery is a place of burial in north London, England.
A homopolar generator is a DC electrical generator comprising an electrically conductive disc or cylinder rotating in a plane perpendicular to a uniform static magnetic field.
A homopolar motor is a direct current electric motor with two magnetic poles, the conductors of which always cut unidirectional lines of magnetic flux by rotating a conductor around a fixed axis so that the conductor is at right angles to a static magnetic field.
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.
In electromagnetism and electronics, inductance is the property of an electrical conductor by which a change in electric current through it induces an electromotive force (voltage) in the conductor.
The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) is a multidisciplinary professional engineering institution.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.
An invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition or process.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Isaac Watts (17 July 1674 – 25 November 1748) was an English Christian minister (Congregational), hymn writer, theologian, and logician.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
James Elmes (15 October 1782, London – 2 April 1862, Greenwich) was an English architect, civil engineer, and writer on the arts.
James R. Osgood (1836–1892) was an American publisher known for his involvement with the publishing company that would become Houghton Mifflin.
Jane Marcet (née Haldimand) (1 January 1769 – 28 June 1858) was an innovative writer of popular introductory science books.
Joel Henry Hildebrand (November 16, 1881 – April 30, 1983) was an American educator and a pioneer chemist.
Johann Josef Loschmidt (15 March 1821 – 8 July 1895), who referred to himself mostly as Josef Loschmidt (omitting his first name), was a notable Austrian scientist who performed ground-breaking work in chemistry, physics (thermodynamics, optics, electrodynamics), and crystal forms.
Sir John Ivan George Cadogan HonFREng CBE FRS FRSE FRSC PLSW (born 8 October 1930), commonly known as John Cadogan, is a British scientist specializing in organic chemistry.
John Dalton FRS (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist.
Sir John Meurig Thomas (born 15 December 1932) is a Welsh chemist and educator primarily known for his work on heterogeneous catalysis, solid-state chemistry, and surface and materials science.
John Tatum (1772 – 1858) was a British scientist and philosopher and a London silversmith by trade.
The John Templeton Foundation (Templeton Foundation) is a philanthropic organization with a spiritual or religious inclination that funds inter-disciplinary research about human purpose and ultimate reality.
Joseph Agassi (יוסף אגסי; born in Jerusalem on May 7, 1927) is an Israeli academic with contributions in logic, scientific method, and philosophy.
The Journal of Chemical Education is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal available in both print and electronic versions.
Kirkby is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Knowsley, Merseyside, England.
Leslie Pearce Williams (September 8, 1927 – February 8, 2015) was a chaired professor at Cornell University's Department of History who also chaired the department for many years.
A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses and to serve as a navigational aid for maritime pilots at sea or on inland waterways.
A line of force in Faraday's extended sense is synonymous with Maxwell's line of induction.
The following is a partial list of people who have declined a British honour, such as a knighthood or other grade of honour.
The President of the Royal Society (PRS) is the elected Head of the Royal Society of London who presides over meetings of the society's council.
The London Borough of Islington is a London borough in Inner London, England.
The London Borough of Southwark in south London, England forms part of Inner London and is connected by bridges across the River Thames to the City of London.
London South Bank University (LSBU) is a public university in Newington, London.
Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.
Loughborough University (abbreviated as Lough for post-nominals) is a public research university in the market town of Loughborough, Leicestershire, in the East Midlands of England.
Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.
John Fuller (20 February 1757 – 11 April 1834), better known as "Mad Jack" Fuller (although he himself preferred to be called "Honest John" Fuller), was Squire of the hamlet of Brightling, in Sussex, and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1780 and 1812.
Magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt with the formula MgSO4(H2O)x where 0≤x≤7.
Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.
Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
The Michael Faraday Memorial is a monument to the Victorian scientist Michael Faraday.
Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometres (nm) in size with a surrounding interfacial layer.
Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.
The National Gallery is an art museum in Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, in Central London.
National Geographic (formerly National Geographic Channel and also commercially abbreviated and trademarked as Nat Geo or Nat Geo TV) is an American digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by National Geographic Partners, majority-owned by 21st Century Fox with the remainder owned by the National Geographic Society.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Newbury is a market town in Berkshire, England, which is the administrative headquarters of West Berkshire.
Newington Butts is a former hamlet, now an area of the London Borough of Southwark, that gives its name to a segment of the A3 road running south-west from the Elephant and Castle junction.
Nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, is the chemical compound with the formula NCl3.
Northern Illinois University (NIU) is a public research university in DeKalb, Illinois, United States, with satellite centers in Chicago, Hoffman Estates, Naperville, Rockford, and Oregon.
Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England, north of London, in the East Midlands.
The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals' personal bravery, achievement, or service to the United Kingdom and the British Overseas Territories.
Outhgill is a hamlet in Mallerstang, Cumbria.
Owen Jay Gingerich (born 1930) is professor emeritus of astronomy and of the history of science at Harvard University and a senior astronomer emeritus at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Pieter Zeeman (25 May 1865 – 9 October 1943) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Hendrik Lorentz for his discovery of the Zeeman effect.
Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.
Punch; or, The London Charivari was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire established in 1841 by Henry Mayhew and engraver Ebenezer Landells.
In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.
Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.
In optics a ray is an idealized model of light, obtained by choosing a line that is perpendicular to the wavefronts of the actual light, and that points in the direction of energy flow.
Reston is one of the leading "New Town" planned communities in the United States.
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.
Rodney H Gordon (2 February 1933 – 30 May 2008) was an English architect.
The Royal Albert Hall is a concert hall on the northern edge of South Kensington, London, which has held the Proms concerts annually each summer since 1941.
The Royal Institution of Great Britain (often abbreviated as the Royal Institution or Ri) is an organisation devoted to scientific education and research, based in London.
The Royal Institution Christmas Lectures are a series of lectures on a single topic each, which have been held at the Royal Institution in London each year since 1825, missing 1939–42 because of the Second World War.
A Royal Medal, known also as The King's Medal or The Queen's Medal, depending on the gender of the monarch at the time of the award, is a silver-gilt medal, of which three are awarded each year by the Royal Society, two for "the most important contributions to the advancement of natural knowledge" and one for "distinguished contributions in the applied sciences", done within the Commonwealth of Nations.
The Royal Mint is a government-owned mint that produces coins for the United Kingdom.
The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, abbreviated: KNAW) is an organization dedicated to the advancement of science and literature in the Netherlands.
The Royal Philharmonic Society is a British music society, formed in 1813.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
The Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) is a London-based, British organisation committed to finding practical solutions to social challenges.
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden.
The Rumford Medal is an award bestowed by Britain's Royal Society every alternating year for "an outstandingly important recent discovery in the field of thermal or optical properties of matter made by a scientist working in Europe".
Savoy Place is a large red brick building on the north bank of the River Thames in London.
A séance or seance is an attempt to communicate with spirits.
The Science History Institute is an institution that preserves and promotes understanding of the history of science.
A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world.
The Senghenydd colliery disaster, also known as the Senghenydd explosion (Tanchwa Senghennydd), occurred at the Universal Colliery in Senghenydd, near Caerphilly, Glamorgan, Wales, on 14 October 1913.
The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK) is the oldest Anglican mission organisation, and the leading publisher of Christian books in the United Kingdom.
St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London.
Stevenage is a town and borough in Hertfordshire, England.
Surrey is a county in South East England, and one of the home counties.
Swansea (Abertawe), is a coastal city and county, officially known as the City and County of Swansea (Dinas a Sir Abertawe) in Wales, UK.
Swansea University (Prifysgol Abertawe) is a public research university located in Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom.
Swindon is a large town in Wiltshire, South West England, between Bristol, to the west, and Reading, the same distance east.
Table-turning (also known as table-tapping, table-tipping or table-tilting) is a type of séance in which participants sit around a table, place their hands on it, and wait for rotations.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
Tetrachloroethylene, also known under the systematic name tetrachloroethene, or perchloroethylene ("perc" or "PERC"), and many other names, is a chlorocarbon with the formula Cl2C.
The Chemical History of a Candle was the title of a series of six lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames given by Michael Faraday at the Royal Institution in 1848, as part of the series of Christmas lectures for young people founded by Faraday in 1825 and still given there every year.
"The Electric Boy" is the tenth episode of the American documentary television series Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey.
The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations or The Great Exhibition, sometimes referred to as the Crystal Palace Exhibition in reference to the temporary structure in which it was held, was an international exhibition that took place in Hyde Park, London, from 1 May to 15 October 1851.
The Illustrated London News appeared first on Saturday 14 May 1842, as the world's first illustrated weekly news magazine.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) is a daily compact newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney, Australia.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
Thomas Graham (20 December 1805 – 16 September 1869) was a British chemist who is best-remembered today for his pioneering work in dialysis and the diffusion of gases.
Thomas Phillips RA (18 October 1770 – 20 April 1845) was a leading English portrait and subject painter.
This is a timeline of the history of hydrogen technology.
The following is a timeline of low-temperature technology and cryogenic technology (refrigeration down to –273.15 °C, –459.67 °F or 0 K).
A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.
Trigonometry (from Greek trigōnon, "triangle" and metron, "measure") is a branch of mathematics that studies relationships involving lengths and angles of triangles.
Trinity Buoy Wharf, in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, is the site of London's only lighthouse, by the confluence of the River Thames and Bow Creek, at Leamouth.
The University and State Library Düsseldorf (Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Düsseldorf, abbreviated ULB Düsseldorf) is a central service institution of Heinrich Heine University.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
Valet and varlet are terms for male servants who serve as personal attendants to their employer.
The voltaic pile was the first electrical battery that could continuously provide an electric current to a circuit.
Walworth is a district of south east London, England, within the London Borough of Southwark.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
Westmorland (formerly also spelt Westmoreland;R. Wilkinson The British Isles, Sheet The British Isles. even older spellings are Westmerland and Westmereland) is a historic county in north west England.
Whitby is a seaside town, port and civil parish in the Borough of Scarborough and English county of North Yorkshire.
William Dance (20 December 1755 – 5 June 1840) was an English pianist and violinist.
William Hyde Wollaston (6 August 1766 – 22 December 1828) was an English chemist and physicist who is famous for discovering the chemical elements palladium and rhodium.
William Thomas Brande FRS FRSE (11 January 1788 – 11 February 1866) was an English chemist.
William Whewell (24 May 1794 – 6 March 1866) was an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science.
The Zeeman effect, named after the Dutch physicist Pieter Zeeman, is the effect of splitting a spectral line into several components in the presence of a static magnetic field.
The 100 Greatest Britons was a television series broadcast by the BBC in 2002.