320 relations: Age of Enlightenment, Agrégation, AIDES, Alain Badiou, Alasdair MacIntyre, All but dissertation, Altar server, Anti-psychiatry, Anti-racism, Antisemitism, Antonin Artaud, Antonio Negri, Atheism, Augustine of Hippo, Auschwitz concentration camp, École normale supérieure (Paris), Éditions Gallimard, Édouard Manet, Élisabeth Roudinesco, Émile Durkheim, Étienne Balibar, Baccalauréat, Bachelor of Arts, BDSM, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Biopolitics, Biopower, Black Friday (1978), Blaise Pascal University, Bourgeoisie, Capital punishment, Carolina Rediviva, Catholic Church, Cato Institute, Chomsky–Foucault debate, Christian Fouchet, Class conflict, Classical liberalism, Classical music, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Claude Mauriac, Collège de France, Communication studies, Continental philosophy, Corriere della Sera, Critical theory, Cultural studies, Dandy, Daniel Defert, Daniel Lagache, ..., David M. Halperin, David Macey, Dialectic, Diana Taylor (professor), Didier Eribon, Disciplinary institution, Discipline and Punish, Discourse, Discourse analysis, Dispositif, Doctors' plot, Eastern Bloc, Ecogovernmentality, Edgar Allan Poe, Edgar Faure, Edmund Husserl, Education in Russia, Edward Said, Electroencephalography, Ellen West, Episteme, Epistemology, Erasmus, Erving Goffman, Ethics, Existentialism, Félix Guattari, Feminism, Fernand Braudel, Fondation Dosne-Thiers, Fontainebleau, Foucauldian discourse analysis, François Châtelet, François Mitterrand, François Regnault, François Wahl, Francisco Goya, Franz Kafka, French Communist Party, French philosophy, French presidential election, 1981, French Resistance, Friedrich Nietzsche, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Gaston Bachelard, Genealogy (philosophy), Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Georges Bataille, Georges Canguilhem, Georges Dumézil, Gilles Deleuze, Giorgio Agamben, Governmentality, Habilitation, Hannibal, Hans-Ulrich Wehler, Henri Gouhier, Henri Weber, Herculine Barbin, Hermann Broch, Heterotopia (space), Historiography, History of ideas, History of medicine, History of science, HIV, HIV/AIDS, Homophobia, Hubert Dreyfus, Ian Hacking, Ignacio Ramonet, Immanuel Kant, Impressionism, Insanity, Introduction to Kant's Anthropology, Iran, Iranian Revolution, Islamism, Ivan Pavlov, Jacques Derrida, Jacques Lacan, Jacques Rancière, Jaguar Cars, James Miller (academic), Jasbir Puar, Jürgen Habermas, Jean Barraqué, Jean Delay, Jean Genet, Jean Hyppolite, Jean Piaget, Jean-Marie Domenach, Jean-Paul Sartre, Johann Sebastian Bach, Jorge Luis Borges, Jorge Majfud, José Guilherme Merquior, Judith Butler, Judith Miller (philosopher), Jules Vuillemin, Karl Jaspers, Karl Marx, Klaus Croissant, Knowledge, Le Monde, Left-wing politics, Leonid Brezhnev, Libération, Licentiate (degree), Lille, Limit-experience, Literary criticism, Literary theory, Literature, Louis Althusser, Ludwig Binswanger, Lycée Henri-IV, Madness and Civilization, Madrid, Maoism, Margaret Mead, Mario Vargas Llosa, Mark Olssen, Marquis de Sade, Martin Heidegger, Marxism, Marxism–Leninism, Master of Arts, Maurice Blanchot, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Max Weber, Médecins du Monde, Medical ethics, Mehdi Bazargan, Mental disorder, Metaphysics, Michel Serres, Ministry of National Education (France), Modernity, Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari, Molière, My Secret Life (memoir), Nancy Fraser, Napoleonic Wars, National service, Nazi Germany, New York University, Nikolas Rose, Noam Chomsky, Non-Aristotelian drama, Norbert Elias, Nouvelle Revue Française, Olivier Guichard, Omori Sogen, Panopticism, Paris, Paris 8 University, Parrhesia, Paul Rabinow, Paul Veyne, Philosophy and literature, Philosophy of technology, Pierre Bourdieu, Pierre Nora, Pierre Vidal-Naquet, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Plön, Poitiers, Poland, Polish October, Polish United Workers' Party, Political philosophy, Polo neck, Positivism, Post-structuralism, Postmodernism, Postsexualism (Michel Foucault), Power (social and political), Power-knowledge, Presses Universitaires de France, Psychopathology, Puppet state, Raymond Roussel, Red-light district, Reeperbahn, Renaissance, Renata Salecl, René Descartes, René Magritte, Richard Rorty, Richard Wolin, Roger Garaudy, Roland Barthes, Rorschach test, Ruhollah Khomeini, SAGE Publications, Sainte-Anne Hospital Center, Samuel Beckett, Self-harm, Sepsis, Serialism, Seuil, Sexual Morality and the Law, Sidi Bou Said, Sigmund Freud, Simone de Beauvoir, Simone Signoret, Social conservatism, Social constructionism, Social control, Social theory, Socialist Party (France), Socialist state, Society of Jesus, Sociology, Solidarity (Polish trade union), Sorbonne, Soviet Union, Sten Lindroth, Stoicism, Structuralism, Subject (philosophy), Suicide, Sweden, Talal Asad, Tehran, Tel Quel, The Advocate, The Archaeology of Knowledge, The Birth of the Clinic, The Death of Virgil, The History of Sexuality, The Order of Things, The Phenomenology of Spirit, The Raven, Time (magazine), Transvestism, Truth, Tunis, Tunis University, Tunisia, Uenohara, Yamanashi, University at Buffalo, University of California, Berkeley, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Lille Nord de France, University of Paris, University of Poitiers, University of Reading, University of Vermont, University of Warsaw, Untimely Meditations, Upper middle class, Uppsala, Uppsala University, Vendeuvre, Vendeuvre-du-Poitou, Vichy France, Vincennes, Visibilités, Waiting for Godot, Warsaw, Web of Science, West Germany, Western philosophy, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, World War II, Zen, 1982 demonstrations in Poland, 20th-century philosophy. 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The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
In France, the agrégation is a competitive examination for civil service in the French public education system.
AIDES is a French community-based non-profit organisation that was founded in 1984 by Daniel Defert, following the death of his partner Michel Foucault.
Alain Badiou (born 17 January 1937) is a French philosopher, formerly chair of Philosophy at the École normale supérieure (ENS) and founder of the faculty of Philosophy of the Université de Paris VIII with Gilles Deleuze, Michel Foucault and Jean-François Lyotard.
Alasdair Chalmers MacIntyre (born 12 January 1929) is a Scottish philosopher, primarily known for his contribution to moral and political philosophy, but also known for his work in history of philosophy and theology.
"All but dissertation" (ABD) is a term identifying a stage in the process of obtaining a research doctorate in the United States.
An altar server is a lay assistant to a member of the clergy during a Christian liturgy.
Anti-psychiatry is a movement based on the view that psychiatric treatment is often more damaging than helpful to patients.
Anti-racism includes beliefs, actions, movements, and policies adopted or developed to oppose racism.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Antoine Marie Joseph Artaud, better known as Antonin Artaud (4 September 1896 – 4 March 1948), was a French dramatist, poet, essayist, actor, and theatre director, widely recognized as one of the major figures of twentieth-century theatre and the European avant-garde.
Antonio "Toni" Negri (born 1 August 1933) is an Italian Marxist sociologist and political philosopher, best known for his co-authorship of Empire and secondarily for his work on Spinoza.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
The École normale supérieure (also known as Normale sup', Ulm, ENS Paris, l'École and most often just as ENS) is one of the most selective and prestigious French grandes écoles (higher education establishment outside the framework of the public university system) and a constituent college of Université PSL.
Éditions Gallimard is one of the leading French publishers of books.
Édouard Manet (23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was a French painter.
Élisabeth Roudinesco (Rudinescu; born 10 September 1944) is a French historian and psychoanalyst, affiliated researcher in history at Paris Diderot University, in the group « Identités-Cultures-Territoires ». She also conducts a seminar on the history of psychoanalysis at the École Normale Supérieure.
David Émile Durkheim (or; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist.
Étienne Balibar (born 23 April 1942) is a French philosopher.
The baccalauréat, often known in France colloquially as bac, is an academic qualification that French students take after high school.
A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both.
BDSM is a variety of often erotic practices or roleplaying involving bondage, discipline, dominance and submission, sadomasochism, and other related interpersonal dynamics.
The (BnF, English: National Library of France) is the national library of France, located in Paris.
Biopolitics is an intersectional field between biology and politics.
Biopower (or biopouvoir in French) is a term coined by French scholar, historian, and social theorist Michel Foucault.
Black Friday (Persian: جمعه سیاه Jom'e-ye Siyāh) is the name given to 8 September 1978 (17 Shahrivar 1357 Iranian calendar) because of the shootings in Jaleh Square (Persian: میدان ژاله Meydān-e Jāleh) in Tehran, Iran.
Blaise Pascal University (Université Blaise-Pascal), also known as Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand II or just Clermont-Ferrand II, is a public university with its main campus on in Clermont-Ferrand, France, with satellite locations in other parts of the region of Auvergne, including Vichy, Moulins, Montluçon, and Aubière.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
Carolina Rediviva is the main building of the Uppsala University Library in Uppsala, Sweden.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
The Chomsky–Foucault debate was a debate about human nature, between Noam Chomsky and Michel Foucault in the Netherlands, in November 1971.
Christian Fouchet (17 November 1911 – 11 August 1974) was a French politician.
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
Claude Lévi-Strauss (28 November 1908, Brussels – 30 October 2009, Paris) was a French anthropologist and ethnologist whose work was key in the development of the theory of structuralism and structural anthropology.
Claude Mauriac (25 April 1914, Paris – 22 March 1996) was a French author and journalist, the eldest son of the author François Mauriac.
The Collège de France, founded in 1530, is a higher education and research establishment (grand établissement) in France and an affiliate college of PSL University.
Communication studies or communication sciences is an academic discipline that deals with processes of human communication.
Continental philosophy is a set of 19th- and 20th-century philosophical traditions from mainland Europe.
The Corriere della Sera (English: Evening Courier) is an Italian daily newspaper published in Milan with an average daily circulation of 410,242 copies in December 2015.
Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities.
Cultural studies is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that concentrates upon the political dynamics of contemporary culture, its historical foundations, defining traits, conflicts, and contingencies.
A dandy, historically, is a man who places particular importance upon physical appearance, refined language, and leisurely hobbies, pursued with the appearance of nonchalance in a cult of self.
Daniel Defert (born 10 September 1937) is a French sociologist and HIV/AIDS activist.
Daniel Lagache (December 3, 1903 – December 3, 1972) was a French physician, psychoanalyst, and professor at the Sorbonne.
David M. Halperin (born April 2, 1952) is an American theorist in the fields of gender studies, queer theory, critical theory, material culture and visual culture.
David Macey (5 October 1949 – 7 October 2011) was an English translator and intellectual historian of the French left.
Dialectic or dialectics (διαλεκτική, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.
Diana Taylor is an American academic.
Didier Eribon (born 10 July 1953) is a French author and philosopher, and a historian of French intellectual life.
Disciplinary institutions (French: institution disciplinaire) is a concept proposed by Michel Foucault in Discipline and Punish (1975).
Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (Surveiller et punir : Naissance de la prison) is a 1975 book by the French philosopher Michel Foucault.
Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications.
Discourse analysis (DA), or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use, or any significant semiotic event.
Dispositif is a term used by the French intellectual Michel Foucault, generally to refer to the various institutional, physical, and administrative mechanisms and knowledge structures which enhance and maintain the exercise of power within the social body.
The Doctors' plot (дело врачей, "doctors' case", also known as the case of doctors-saboteurs or doctors-killers) was an antisemitic campaign organized by Joseph Stalin.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Ecogovernmentality, (or environmentality), is the application of Foucault’s concepts of biopower and governmentality to the analysis of the regulation of social interactions with the natural world.
Edgar Allan Poe (born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American writer, editor, and literary critic.
Edgar Faure (18 August 1908 – 30 March 1988) was a French politician, essayist, historian, and memoirist.
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (or;; 8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938) was a German philosopher who established the school of phenomenology.
In Russia the state provides most education services, regulating education through the Ministry of Education and Science.
Edward Wadie Said (إدوارد وديع سعيد,; 1 November 1935 – 25 September 2003) was a professor of literature at Columbia University, a public intellectual, and a founder of the academic field of postcolonial studies.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.
Ellen West (1888-1921) was a troubled patient of Dr.
"Episteme" is a philosophical term derived from the Ancient Greek word ἐπιστήμη epistēmē, which can refer to knowledge, science or understanding, and which comes from the verb ἐπίστασθαι, meaning "to know, to understand, or to be acquainted with".
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (28 October 1466Gleason, John B. "The Birth Dates of John Colet and Erasmus of Rotterdam: Fresh Documentary Evidence," Renaissance Quarterly, The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Renaissance Society of America, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Spring, 1979), pp. 73–76; – 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam,Erasmus was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae.
Erving Goffman (11 June 1922 – 19 November 1982) was a Canadian-American sociologist and writer, considered by some "the most influential American sociologist of the twentieth century".
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
Pierre-Félix Guattari (April 30, 1930 – August 29, 1992) was a French psychotherapist, philosopher, semiologist, and activist.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
Fernand Braudel (24 August 1902 – 27 November 1985) was a French historian and a leader of the Annales School.
The Fondation Dosne-Thiers is a history library located in the 9th arrondissement of Paris at 27, place St-Georges, Paris, France.
Fontainebleau is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France.
Foucauldian discourse analysis is a form of discourse analysis, focusing on power relationships in society as expressed through language and practices, and based on the theories of Michel Foucault.
François Châtelet (27 April 1925 – 26 December 1985) was a historian of philosophy, political philosophy and professor in the socratic tradition.
François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (26 October 1916 – 8 January 1996) was a French statesman who was President of France from 1981 to 1995, the longest time in office of any French president.
François Regnault (born 1938) is a French philosopher, playwright and dramaturg.
François Wahl (born 13 May 1925 - 15 September 2014) was a French editor and structuralist.
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (30 March 1746 – 16 April 1828) was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker.
Franz Kafka (3 July 1883 – 3 June 1924) was a German-speaking Bohemian Jewish novelist and short story writer, widely regarded as one of the major figures of 20th-century literature.
The French Communist Party (Parti communiste français, PCF) is a communist party in France.
French philosophy, here taken to mean philosophy in the French language, has been extremely diverse and has influenced Western philosophy as a whole for centuries, from the medieval scholasticism of Peter Abelard, through the founding of modern philosophy by René Descartes, to 20th century philosophy of science, existentialism, phenomenology, structuralism, and postmodernism.
The French presidential election of 1981 took place on 10 May 1981, giving the presidency of France to François Mitterrand, the first Socialist president of the Fifth Republic.
The French Resistance (La Résistance) was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Fyodor Mikhailovich DostoevskyHis name has been variously transcribed into English, his first name sometimes being rendered as Theodore or Fedor.
Gaston Bachelard (27 June 1884 – 16 October 1962) was a French philosopher.
In philosophy, genealogy is a historical technique in which one questions the commonly understood emergence of various philosophical and social beliefs by attempting to account for the scope, breadth or totality of discourse, thus extending the possibility of analysis, as opposed to the Marxist use of the term ideology to explain the totality of historical discourse within the time period in question by focusing on a singular or dominant discourse (ideology).
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
Georges Albert Maurice Victor Bataille (10 September 1897 – 9 July 1962) was a French intellectual and literary figure working in literature, philosophy, anthropology, economics, sociology and history of art.
Georges Canguilhem (or; 4 June 1904 – 11 September 1995) was a French philosopher and physician who specialized in epistemology and the philosophy of science (in particular, biology).
Georges Dumézil (4 March 1898 – 11 October 1986, Paris) was a French comparative philologist best known for his analysis of sovereignty and power in Proto-Indo-European religion and society.
Gilles Deleuze (18 January 1925 – 4 November 1995) was a French philosopher who, from the early 1960s until his death in 1995, wrote on philosophy, literature, film, and fine art.
Giorgio Agamben (born 22 April 1942) is an Italian philosopher best known for his work investigating the concepts of the state of exception, form-of-life (borrowed from Ludwig Wittgenstein) and homo sacer.
Governmentality is a concept first developed by the French philosopher Michel Foucault in the later years of his life, roughly between 1977 and his death in 1984, particularly in his lectures at the Collège de France during this time.
Habilitation defines the qualification to conduct self-contained university teaching and is the key for access to a professorship in many European countries.
Hannibal Barca (𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋 𐤁𐤓𐤒 ḥnb‘l brq; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general, considered one of the greatest military commanders in history.
Hans-Ulrich Wehler (September 11, 1931 – July 5, 2014) was a German historian known for his role in promoting social history through the "Bielefeld School", and for his critical studies of 19th-century Germany.
Henri Gouhier (5 December 1898 – 31 March 1994) was a French philosopher, a historian of philosophy, and a literary critic.
Henri Weber (born 23 June 1944) is a French politician and Member of the European Parliament for the north-west of France.
Herculine Barbin (1838–1868) was a French intersex person who was determined as female at birth and raised in a convent, but was later reclassified as male by a court of law, after an affair and physical examination.
Hermann Broch (November 1, 1886 – May 30, 1951) was a 20th-century Austrian writer, considered one of the major Modernists.
Heterotopia is a concept in human geography elaborated by philosopher Michel Foucault to describe places and spaces that function in non-hegemonic conditions.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
The history of ideas is a field of research in history that deals with the expression, preservation, and change of human ideas over time.
The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present.
The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Homophobia encompasses a range of negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality or people who are identified or perceived as being lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT).
Hubert Lederer Dreyfus (October 15, 1929 – April 22, 2017) was an American philosopher and professor of philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley.
Ian MacDougall Hacking (born February 18, 1936) is a Canadian philosopher specializing in the philosophy of science.
Ignacio Ramonet Miguez (born 5 May 1943) is a Spanish journalist and writer.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterised by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
Insanity, craziness, or madness is a spectrum of both group and individual behaviors characterized by certain abnormal mental or behavioral patterns.
Introduction to Kant's Anthropology (Introduction à l'Anthropologie) is an introductory essay to Michel Foucault's translation of Immanuel Kant's 1798 book Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View — a textbook deriving from lectures he delivered annually between 1772/73 and 1795/96.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (a; 27 February 1936) was a Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning.
Jacques Derrida (born Jackie Élie Derrida;. See also. July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was a French Algerian-born philosopher best known for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction, which he discussed in numerous texts, and developed in the context of phenomenology.
Jacques Marie Émile Lacan (13 April 1901 – 9 September 1981) was a French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist who has been called "the most controversial psycho-analyst since Freud".
Jacques Rancière (born 1940) is a French philosopher, Professor of Philosophy at European Graduate School in Saas-Fee and Emeritus Professor of Philosophy at the University of Paris VIII: Vincennes—Saint-Denis who came to prominence when he co-authored Reading Capital (1968), with the structuralist Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser.
Jaguar is the luxury vehicle brand of Jaguar Land Rover, a British multinational car manufacturer with its headquarters in Whitley, Coventry, England and owned by the Indian company Tata Motors since 2008.
James Miller (born 1947) is an American writer and academic.
Jasbir K. Puar is a U.S.-based queer theorist who currently works as an associate professor in the Department of Women's and Gender Studies at Rutgers University.
Jürgen Habermas (born 18 June 1929) is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism.
Jean-Henri-Alphonse Barraqué (January 17, 1928August 17, 1973) was a French composer and writer on music who developed an individual form of serialism which is displayed in a small output.
Jean Delay (14 November 1907, Bayonne – 29 May 1987, Paris) was a French psychiatrist, neurologist, writer, and a member of the Académie française (Chair 17).
Jean Genet (–) was a French novelist, playwright, poet, essayist, and political activist.
Jean Hyppolite (January 8, 1907 – October 26, 1968) was a French philosopher known for championing the work of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and other German philosophers, and educating some of France's most prominent post-war thinkers.
Jean Piaget (9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Swiss psychologist and epistemologist known for his pioneering work in child development.
Jean-Marie Domenach (February 13, 1922 – July 5, 1997) was a French writer and intellectual.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a composer and musician of the Baroque period, born in the Duchy of Saxe-Eisenach.
Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo (24 August 1899 – 14 June 1986) was an Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator, and a key figure in Spanish-language literature.
Jorge Majfud (born 1969) is a Uruguayan American writer.
José Guilherme Merquior (April 22, 1941 – January 7, 1991) was a Brazilian diplomat, academic, writer, literary critic and philosopher.
Judith Butler FBA (born February 24, 1956) is an American philosopher and gender theorist whose work has influenced political philosophy, ethics and the fields of third-wave feminist, queer and literary theory.
Judith Miller (3 July, 1941 – 6 December, 2017) was a French psychoanalyst, born in Antibes.
Jules Vuillemin (15 February 1920 – 16 January 2001) was a French philosopher, Professor of Philosophy of Knowledge at the prestigious Collège de France, in Paris, from 1962 to 1990, succeeding Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Professor emeritus from 1991 to 2001.
Karl Theodor Jaspers (23 February 1883 – 26 February 1969) was a German-Swiss psychiatrist and philosopher who had a strong influence on modern theology, psychiatry, and philosophy.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Klaus Croissant (24 May 1931 – 28 March 2002) was a lawyer of the Red Army Faction, later an East German spy and a political activist for Berlin's Alternativen Liste für Demokratie und Umweltschutz and, after 1990, the PDS.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Le Monde (The World) is a French daily afternoon newspaper founded by Hubert Beuve-Méry at the request of Charles de Gaulle (as Chairman of the Provisional Government of the French Republic) on 19 December 1944, shortly after the Liberation of Paris, and published continuously since its first edition.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
Libération (popularly known as Libé), is a daily newspaper in France, founded in Paris by Jean-Paul Sartre and Serge July in 1973 in the wake of the protest movements of May 1968.
A licentiate is a degree below that of a PhD given by universities in some countries.
Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.
A limit-experience (expérience limite) is a type of action or experience which approaches the edge of living in terms of its intensity and its seeming impossibility.
Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature.
Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for analyzing literature.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
Louis Pierre Althusser (16 October 1918 – 22 October 1990) was a French Marxist philosopher.
Ludwig Binswanger (13 April 1881 – 5 February 1966) was a Swiss psychiatrist and pioneer in the field of existential psychology.
The Lycée Henri-IV is a public secondary school located in Paris.
Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason (Folie et Déraison: Histoire de la folie à l'âge classique) is a 1964 abridged edition of a 1961 book by the French philosopher Michel Foucault.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Maoism, known in China as Mao Zedong Thought, is a political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong, whose followers are known as Maoists.
Margaret Mead (December 16, 1901 – November 15, 1978) was an American cultural anthropologist who featured frequently as an author and speaker in the mass media during the 1960s and 1970s.
Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa, 1st Marquess of Vargas Llosa (born March 28, 1936), more commonly known as Mario Vargas Llosa, is a Peruvian writer, politician, journalist, essayist and college professor.
Mark Olssen, FAcSS, a political theorist, holds a professorial chair of higher education at the Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand, and is Emeritus Professor of Political Theory and Education Policy in the Department of Politics within the Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Surrey.
Donatien Alphonse François, Marquis de Sade (2 June 1740 – 2 December 1814), was a French nobleman, revolutionary politician, philosopher, and writer, famous for his libertine sexuality.
Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
A Master of Arts (Magister Artium; abbreviated MA; also Artium Magister, abbreviated AM) is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts in colloquial speech.
Maurice Blanchot (22 September 1907 – 20 February 2003) was a French writer, philosopher, and literary theorist.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty (14 March 1908 – 3 May 1961) was a French phenomenological philosopher, strongly influenced by Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger.
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.
Médecins du monde (MdM) or Doctors of the World, provides emergency and long-term medical care to the world's most vulnerable people.
Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values to the practice of clinical medicine and in scientific research.
Mehdi Bazargan (مهدی بازرگان; 1 September 1907 – 20 January 1995) was an Iranian scholar, academic, long-time pro-democracy activist and head of Iran's interim government, making him Iran's first prime minister after the Iranian Revolution of 1979.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Michel Serres (born 1 September 1930) is a French philosopher and author.
The Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research (Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche), or simply "Ministry of National Education", as the title has changed no small number of times in the course of the Fifth Republic is the French government cabinet member charged with running France's public educational system and with the supervision of agreements and authorizations for private teaching organizations.
Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of Renaissance, in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".
Sayyid Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari (Məhəmməd Kazım Şəriətmədari, محمد کاظم شریعتمداری), also spelled Shariat-Madari (5 January 1905 – 3 April 1986), was an Iranian Grand Ayatollah.
Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known by his stage name Molière (15 January 162217 February 1673), was a French playwright, actor and poet, widely regarded as one of the greatest writers in the French language and universal literature.
My Secret Life, by "Walter", is the memoir of a gentleman describing the author's sexual development and experiences in Victorian England.
Nancy Fraser (born 20 May 1947) is an American critical theorist, feminist, and the Henry A. and Louise Loeb Professor of Political and Social Science and professor of philosophy at The New School in New York City.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
National service is a system of either compulsory or voluntary government service, usually military service.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
New York University (NYU) is a private nonprofit research university based in New York City.
Nikolas Rose (born 1947) is a prominent British sociologist and social theorist.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
Non-Aristotelian drama, or the 'epic form' of the drama, is a kind of play whose dramaturgical structure departs from the features of classical tragedy in favour of the features of the epic, as defined in each case by the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle in his Poetics (c.335 BCE) The German modernist theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht coined the term 'non-Aristotelian drama' to describe the dramaturgical dimensions of his own work, beginning in 1930 with a series of notes and essays entitled "On a non-aristotelian drama".
Norbert Elias (22 June 1897 – 1 August 1990) was a German sociologist of Jewish descent, who later became a British citizen.
La Nouvelle Revue Française (The New French Review) is a literary magazine based in France.
Olivier Guichard (27 July 1920 – 20 January 2004) was a French politician.
was a Japanese Rinzai Rōshi, a successor in the Tenryū-ji line of Rinzai Zen, and former president of Hanazono University, the Rinzai university in Kyoto, Japan.
Panopticism is a social theory named after the Panopticon, originally developed by French philosopher Michel Foucault in his book Discipline and Punish. The "panopticon" refers to an experimental laboratory of power in which behaviour could be modified, and Foucault viewed the panopticon as a symbol of the disciplinary society of surveillance.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The University of Paris VIII or University of Vincennes in Saint-Denis (French: Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis or Université de Vincennes à Saint-Denis) is a public university in Paris.
In rhetoric, parrhesia is a figure of speech described as: "to speak candidly or to ask forgiveness for so speaking".
Paul Rabinow (born June 21, 1944) is Professor of Anthropology at the University of California (Berkeley), Director of the Anthropology of the Contemporary Research Collaboratory (ARC), and former Director of Human Practices for the Synthetic Biology Engineering Research Center (SynBERC).
Paul Veyne (born 13 June 1930 in Aix-en-Provence) is a French archaeologist and historian, and a specialist on Ancient Rome.
Philosophy and literature involves the literary treatment of philosophers and philosophical themes (the literature of philosophy), and the philosophical treatment of issues raised by literature (the philosophy of literature).
The philosophy of technology is a sub-field of philosophy that studies the nature of technology and its social effects.
Pierre Felix Bourdieu (1 August 1930 – 23 January 2002) was a French sociologist, anthropologist, philosopher, and public intellectual.
Pierre Nora (born 17 November 1931 in Paris) is a French historian elected to the Académie française on 7 June 2001.
Pierre Emmanuel Vidal-Naquet (23 July 1930 – 29 July 2006) was a French historian who began teaching at the École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS) in 1969.
The Hôpital universitaire Pitié-Salpêtrière is a celebrated teaching hospital in the 13th arrondissement of Paris.
Plön is the district seat of the Plön district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, and has about 8,700 inhabitants.
Poitiers is a city on the Clain river in west-central France.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Polish October, also known as October 1956, Polish thaw, or Gomułka's thaw, marked a change in the politics of Poland in the second half of 1956.
The Polish United Workers' Party (PUWP; Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, PZPR) was the Communist party which governed the Polish People's Republic from 1948 to 1989.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
A polo neck, roll-neck, (UK), turtleneck (US, Canada), or skivvy (Australia, New Zealand) is a garment—usually a sweater—with a close-fitting, round, and high part similar to a collar that folds over and covers the neck.
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
Post-structuralism is associated with the works of a series of mid-20th-century French, continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to be known internationally in the 1960s and 1970s.
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.
Postsexualism is understood to mean the French philosopher Michel Foucault's sexual political views influenced by consciously artificial life identities, which is characterized by the escape of the "confessional" structure of sexuality.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
Power-knowledge (le savoir-pouvoir) is a concept coined by the French philosopher Michel Foucault.
Presses universitaires de France (PUF, English: University Press of France), founded in 1921 by Paul Angoulvent (1899–1976), is the largest French university publishing house.
Psychopathology is the scientific study of mental disorders, including efforts to understand their genetic, biological, psychological, and social causes; effective classification schemes (nosology); course across all stages of development; manifestations; and treatment.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
Raymond Roussel (January 20, 1877 – July 14, 1933) was a French poet, novelist, playwright, musician, and chess enthusiast.
A red-light district or pleasure district is a part of an urban area where a concentration of prostitution and sex-oriented businesses, such as sex shops, strip clubs, and adult theaters are found.
The Reeperbahn is a street and entertainment district in Hamburg's St. Pauli district, one of the two centres of Hamburg's nightlife (the other being Sternschanze) and also the city's major red-light district.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Renata Salecl (born 1962) is a Slovene philosopher, sociologist and legal theorist.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
René François Ghislain Magritte (21 November 1898 – 15 August 1967) was a Belgian surrealist artist.
Richard McKay Rorty (October 4, 1931 – June 8, 2007) was an American philosopher.
Richard Wolin (born 1952) is an American intellectual historian.
Roger Garaudy, later Ragaa Garaudy (17 July 1913 – 13 June 2012) was a French philosopher, French resistance fighter and a prominent communist author.
Roland Gérard Barthes (12 November 1915 – 26 March 1980) was a French literary theorist, philosopher, linguist, critic, and semiotician.
The Rorschach test is a psychological test in which subjects' perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex algorithms, or both.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روحالله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
The Sainte-Anne Hospital Center (French: centre hospitalier Sainte-Anne) is a hospital located in the 14th arrondissement of Paris, specializing in psychiatry, neurology, neurosurgery, neuroimaging and addiction.
Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, poet, and literary translator who lived in Paris for most of his adult life.
Self-harm, also known as self-injury, is defined as the intentional, direct injuring of body tissue, done without suicidal intentions.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
In music, serialism is a method of composition using series of pitches, rhythms, dynamics, timbres or other musical elements.
Seuil is a commune in the Ardennes department in northern France.
Sexual Morality and the Law is the transcription of a 1978 radio conversation in Paris between philosopher Michel Foucault, playwright/actor/lawyer Jean Danet, and novelist/gay activist Guy Hocquenghem, debating the idea of abolishing age of consent laws in France.
Sidi Bou Said (سيدي بو سعيد) a town in northern Tunisia located about 20 km from the capital, Tunis.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir (or;; 9 January 1908 – 14 April 1986) was a French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist and social theorist.
Simone Signoret (25 March 192130 September 1985) was a French cinema actress often hailed as one of France's greatest film stars.
Social conservatism is the belief that society is built upon a fragile network of relationships which need to be upheld through duty, traditional values and established institutions.
Social constructionism or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.
Social control is a concept within the disciplines of the social sciences.
Social theories are analytical frameworks, or paradigms, that are used to study and interpret social phenomena.
The Socialist Party (Parti socialiste, PS) is a social-democratic political party in France, and the largest party of the French centre-left.
A socialist state, socialist republic or socialist country (sometimes workers' state or workers' republic) is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Solidarity (Solidarność, pronounced; full name: Independent Self-governing Labour Union "Solidarity"—Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy „Solidarność”) is a Polish labour union that was founded on 17 September 1980 at the Lenin Shipyard under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa.
The Sorbonne is an edifice of the Latin Quarter, in Paris, France, which was the historical house of the former University of Paris.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Sten Hjalmar Lindroth (28 December 1914 in Lund – 1 September 1980) was a Swedish historian of learning and science.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.
A subject is a being who has a unique consciousness and/or unique personal experiences, or an entity that has a relationship with another entity that exists outside itself (called an "object").
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Talal Asad (born April 1932) is an anthropologist at the CUNY Graduate Center.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Tel Quel (translated into English as, variously: "as is," "as such," or "unchanged") was a French avant-garde literary magazine published between 1960 and 1982.
The Advocate is an American LGBT-interest magazine, printed bi-monthly and available by subscription.
The Archaeology of Knowledge (L'archéologie du savoir) is a 1969 methodological and historiographical treatise by the French philosopher Michel Foucault, in which he promotes "archaeology" or the "archaeological method", an analytical method he implicitly used in his previous works Madness and Civilization (1961), The Birth of the Clinic (1963), and The Order of Things (1966).
The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception (Naissance de la clinique: une archéologie du regard médical) is a 1963 book by the French philosopher Michel Foucault.
The Death of Virgil (Der Tod des Vergil) is a 1945 novel by the Austrian author Hermann Broch.
The History of Sexuality (L'Histoire de la sexualité) is a four-volume study of sexuality in the western world by the French historian and philosopher Michel Foucault, in which the author examines the emergence of "sexuality" as a discursive object and separate sphere of life and argues that the notion that every individual has a sexuality is a relatively recent development in Western societies.
The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences (Les mots et les choses: Une archéologie des sciences humaines) is a 1966 book by the French philosopher Michel Foucault.
The Phenomenology of Spirit (Phänomenologie des Geistes) (1807) is Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's most widely discussed philosophical work.
"The Raven" is a narrative poem by American writer Edgar Allan Poe.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Transvestism is the practice of dressing and acting in a style or manner traditionally associated with the opposite sex.
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.
Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.
Tunis University (جامعة تونس, Université de Tunis) is a university in Tunis, Tunisia.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
is a city located in eastern Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan.
The State University of New York at Buffalo is a public research university with campuses in Buffalo and Amherst, New York, United States.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.
The University of Lille Nord de France (Université Lille Nord de France) is a French Groups of Universities and Institutions (COMUE) spread over multiple campuses and centered in Lille.
The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.
The University of Poitiers (Université de Poitiers) is a university in Poitiers, France.
The University of Reading is a public university located in Reading, Berkshire, England.
The University of Vermont (UVM), officially The University of Vermont and State Agricultural College, is a public research university and, since 1862, the sole land-grant university in the U.S. state of Vermont.
The University of Warsaw (Uniwersytet Warszawski, Universitas Varsoviensis), established in 1816, is the largest university in Poland.
Untimely Meditations (Unzeitgemässe Betrachtungen), also translated as Unfashionable Observations and Thoughts Out Of Season) consists of four works by the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, started in 1873 and completed in 1876. The work comprises a collection of four (out of a projected 13) essays concerning the contemporary condition of European, especially German, culture. A fifth essay, published posthumously, had the title "We Philologists", and gave as a "Task for philology: disappearance". Glenn W. Most,, HyperNietzsche, 2003-11-09 Nietzsche here began to discuss the limitations of empirical knowledge, and presented what would appear compressed in later aphorisms. It combines the naivete of The Birth of Tragedy with the beginnings of his more mature polemical style. It was Nietzsche's most humorous work, especially for "David Strauss: the confessor and the writer.".
In sociology, the upper middle class is the social group constituted by higher status members of the middle class.
Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is the capital of Uppsala County and the fourth largest city of Sweden, after Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö.
Uppsala University (Uppsala universitet) is a research university in Uppsala, Sweden, and is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries still in operation, founded in 1477.
Vendeuvre is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.
Vendeuvre-du-Poitou is a former commune in the Vienne department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in western France.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
Vincennes is a commune in the Val-de-Marne department in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France.
Visibilités (French, "visibilities") is used by Michel Foucault to designate all that carries meaning other than textually (schema, painting, sculpture, architecture, etc.).
Waiting for Godot is a play by Samuel Beckett, in which two characters, Vladimir (Didi) and Estragon (Gogo), wait for the arrival of someone named Godot who never arrives, and while waiting they engage in a variety of discussions and encounter three other characters.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
Web of Science (previously known as Web of Knowledge) is an online subscription-based scientific citation indexing service originally produced by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now maintained by Clarivate Analytics (previously the Intellectual Property and Science business of Thomson Reuters), that provides a comprehensive citation search.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zen (p; translit) is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China during the Tang dynasty as Chan Buddhism.
1982 demonstrations in Poland refers to anti-government street demonstrations organized by underground Solidarity to commemorate the second anniversary of the Gdańsk Agreement.
20th-century philosophy saw the development of a number of new philosophical schools—including logical positivism, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, existentialism, and poststructuralism.
Childhood and the notion of consent, Credibility of children in court, Dits et Écrits, Establishment of a new medical power, Fabrication of a crime, Foucaldian, Foucauldian, Foucault, Michael, Foucaultian, Fouceault, Genealogy of power/knowledge, Government racism, M. Foucault, Mental Illness and Psychology, Michael Foucault, Michel Focault, Michel Foucalt, Michel Paul Foucault, Michel foucault, Paul-Michel Foucault, Sexual morality and the law, Society of dangers, State racism, Technologies of the self, The Danger of Child Sexuality, Transsubjectivation.