128 relations: -logy, Adaptive mutation, Agar, Alcohol, Algae, Alginic acid, American Society for Microbiology, Amino acid, Aminoglycoside, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Anthrax, Antibiotic, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Archaea, Athanasius Kircher, Avicenna, Bacillus, Bacteria, Bacteriology, Bacteriophage, Beggiatoa, Biodegradation, Biopolymer, Bioremediation, Biosafety, Branches of microbiology, Cancer, Cellulose, Clostridium, Colony (biology), Contamination, Critical Reviews in Microbiology, Cyanophycin, Dairy product, Delft, Disease, Endospore, Enrichment culture, Enzyme, Epidemic, Eukaryote, Exaptation, Félix d'Herelle, Federation of European Microbiological Societies, Ferdinand Cohn, Fungus, Germ theory of disease, Girolamo Fracastoro, Growth medium, ..., Hyaluronic acid, Ibn Zuhr, Industrial fermentation, International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, Jain literature, Jainism, Joseph Lister, Journal of Bacteriology, Koch's postulates, Levan polysaccharide, Life, List of people considered father or mother of a scientific field, Lithotroph, Louis Pasteur, Mahavira, Marcus Terentius Varro, Martinus Beijerinck, Medical microbiology, Microbes and Man, Microbial biodegradation, Microbiological culture, Microbiology Society, Microorganism, Microscope, Mold, Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Multicellular organism, Mutualism (biology), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycology, Mysophobia, Nature Reviews Microbiology, Nigoda, Nitrifying bacteria, Nitrogen fixation, Non-cellular life, Oligosaccharide, Organelle, Parasitology, Pasteurization, Petri dish, Phenol, Phototroph, Phycology, Pollution, Polyamide, Polyester, Polysaccharide, Prebiotic (nutrition), Prion, Probiotic, Prokaryote, Protist, Protozoology, Rabies, Replica plating, Reporter gene, Robert Hooke, Robert Koch, Scabies, Scientist, Sergei Winogradsky, Smallpox, Spontaneous generation, Streptomyces, Taq polymerase, Taxonomy (biology), The Canon of Medicine, Tissue engineering, Tobacco mosaic virus, Toxic waste, Tuberculosis, Two-hybrid screening, Unicellular organism, Vinegar, Virology, Virus, Xanthan gum. Expand index (78 more) » « Shrink index
-logy is a suffix in the English language, used with words originally adapted from Ancient Greek ending in -λογία (-logia).
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Adaptive mutation is a controversial evolutionary theory.
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Agar (pronounced, sometimes) or agar-agar is a jelly-like substance, obtained from algae.
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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
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Alginic acid, also called algin or alginate, is a polysaccharide distributed widely in the cell walls of brown algae, where through binding with water it forms a viscous gum.
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The American Society for Microbiology (ASM), originally the Society of American Bacteriologists, is a professional organization for scientists who study viruses, bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa as well as other aspects of microbiology.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
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Aminoglycoside is a medicinal and bacteriologic category of traditional Gram-negative antibacterial therapeutic agents that inhibit protein synthesis and contain as a portion of the molecule an amino-modified glycoside (sugar); the term can also refer more generally to any organic molecule that contains aminosugar substructures.
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Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
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In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
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Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.
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An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
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Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek FRS (24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch businessman and scientist in the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
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Athanasius Kircher, S.J. (sometimes erroneously spelled Kirchner; Athanasius Kircherus, 2 May 1602 – 28 November 1680) was a German Jesuit scholar and polymath who published around 40 major works, most notably in the fields of comparative religion, geology, and medicine.
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Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
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Bacillus is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria and a member of the phylum Firmicutes.
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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
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Bacteriology is the branch and specialty of biology that studies the morphology, ecology, genetics and biochemistry of bacteria as well as many other aspects related to them.
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A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.
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Beggiatoa is a genus of bacteria in the order Thiotrichales.
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Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.
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Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules.
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Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants.
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Biosafety is the prevention of large-scale loss of biological integrity, focusing both on ecology and human health.
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The branches of microbiology can be classified into pure and applied sciences.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
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Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
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Clostridium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, which includes several significant human pathogens, including the causative agent of botulism and an important cause of diarrhea, Clostridium difficile.
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In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another.
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Contamination is the presence of an unwanted constituent, contaminant or impurity in a material, physical body, natural environment, workplace, etc.
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Critical Reviews in Microbiology is an international, peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes comprehensive review articles covering all areas of medical microbiology.
Cyanophycin, or multi-L-arginyl-poly (L-aspartic acid), is a non-protein, non-ribosomally produced amino acid polymer composed of an aspartic acid backbone and arginine side groups.
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Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans.
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Delft is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.
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A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
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An endospore is a dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by certain bacteria from the Firmicute phylum.
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Enrichment culture is the use of certain growth media to favor the growth of a particular microorganism over others, enriching a sample for the microorganism of interest.
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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
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An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
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Exaptation (Stephen Jay Gould and Elisabeth Vrba's proposed replacement for what he considered the teleologically-loaded term "pre-adaptation") and the related term co-option describe a shift in the function of a trait during evolution.
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Félix d'Hérelle (April 25, 1873 – February 22, 1949) was a French-Canadian microbiologist.
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Federation of European Microbiological Societies (FEMS) is an international European scientific organization, formed by the union of a number of national organizations; there are now 52 members from 37 European countries, regular and provisional.
Ferdinand Julius Cohn (24 January 1828 – 25 June 1898) was a German biologist.
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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
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The germ theory of disease is the currently accepted scientific theory of disease.
Girolamo Fracastoro (Hieronymus Fracastorius; c. 1476/86 August 1553) was an Italian physician, poet, and scholar in mathematics, geography and astronomy.
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A growth medium or culture medium is a solid, liquid or semi-solid designed to support the growth of microorganisms or cells, or small plants like the moss Physcomitrella patens.
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Hyaluronic acid (HA; conjugate base hyaluronate), also called hyaluronan, is an anionic, nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues.
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Ibn Zuhr (ابن زهر; 1094–1162), traditionally known by his Latinized name of Avenzoar, was an Arab physician, surgeon, and poet.
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Industrial fermentation is the intentional use of fermentation by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi as well as eukaryotic cells like CHO cells and insect cells, to make products useful to humans.
The International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in the field of microbial systematics that was established in 1951.
Jain literature comprises Jain Agamas and subsequent commentaries on them by various Jain asectics.
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Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
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Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, (5 April 182710 February 1912), known between 1883 and 1897 as Sir Joseph Lister, Bt., was a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery.
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The Journal of Bacteriology is a peer-reviewed medical journal established in 1916.
Koch's postulates are four criteria designed to establish a causative relationship between a microbe and a disease.
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Levans are a group of fructans; polymers of fructose forming a non-structural carbohydrate, which in the case of levans can themselves link to form super-molecules comprising even hundreds of thousands.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
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The following is a list of people who are considered a "father" or "mother" (or "founding father" or "founding mother") of a scientific field.
Lithotrophs are a diverse group of organisms using inorganic substrate (usually of mineral origin) to obtain reducing equivalents for use in biosynthesis (e.g., carbon dioxide fixation) or energy conservation (i.e., ATP production) via aerobic or anaerobic respiration.
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Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
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Mahavira (IAST), also known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth Tirthankara (ford-maker) of Jainism which was revived and re-established by him.
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Marcus Terentius Varro (116 BC – 27 BC) was an ancient Roman scholar and writer.
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Medical microbiology, the large subset of microbiology that is applied to medicine, is a branch of medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.
Microbes and Man is a popularising book by John Postgate on the role of microorganisms in human society, first published in 1969, and still in print in 2017.
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Microbial biodegradation is the use of bioremediation and biotransformation methods to harness the naturally occurring ability of microbial xenobiotic metabolism to degrade, transform or accumulate environmental pollutants, including hydrocarbons (e.g. oil), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds (such as pyridine or quinoline), pharmaceutical substances, radionuclides and metals.
A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions.
The Microbiology Society (previously the Society for General Microbiology) is a learned society based in the United Kingdom with a worldwide membership based in universities, industry, hospitals, research institutes and schools.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
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A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
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A mold or mould (is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.
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Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes or Rasis) (854–925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher, and important figure in the history of medicine.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
Mutualism or interspecific cooperation is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a species of pathogenic bacteria in the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of tuberculosis.
Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicine, food, and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as toxicity or infection.
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Mysophobia, also known as verminophobia, germophobia, germaphobia, bacillophobia and bacteriophobia, is a pathological fear of contamination and germs.
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Nature Reviews Microbiology is a peer-reviewed review journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.
In Jainism cosmology, the Nigoda is a realm existing in which the lowest forms of life reside in endless numbers, and without any hope of release by self-effort.
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Nitrifying bacteria are chemolithotrophic organisms that include species of the genera Nitrosomonas, Nitrosococcus, Nitrobacter and Nitrococcus.
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Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
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Non-cellular life is life that exists without a cellular structure for at least part of its life cycle.
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An oligosaccharide (from the Greek ὀλίγος olígos, "a few", and σάκχαρ sácchar, "sugar") is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to ten) of monosaccharides (simple sugars).
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In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
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Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them.
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Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat (Today, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety. This process was named after the French scientist Louis Pasteur, whose research in the 1880s demonstrated that thermal processing would inactivate unwanted microorganisms in wine. Spoilage enzymes are also inactivated during pasteurization. Most liquid products are heat treated in a continuous system where heat can be applied using plate heat exchanger and/or direct or indirect use of steam and hot water. Due to the mild heat there are minor changes to the nutritional quality of foods as well as the sensory characteristics. Pascalization or high pressure processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) are non-thermal processes that are also used to pasteurize foods.
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A Petri dish (sometimes spelled "Petrie Dish" and alternatively known as a Petri plate or cell-culture dish), named after the German bacteriologist Julius Richard Petri, is a shallow cylindrical glass or plastic lidded dish that biologists use to culture cellssuch as bacteriaor small mosses.
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Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
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Phototrophs (Gr: φῶς, φωτός.
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Phycology (from Greek φῦκος, phykos, "seaweed"; and -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of algae.
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Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
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A polyamide is a macromolecule with repeating units linked by amide bonds.
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Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain.
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Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
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Prebiotics are food ingredients that induce the growth or activity of beneficial microorganisms (e.g., bacteria and fungi).
Prions are misfolded proteins that are associated with several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans.
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Probiotics are microorganisms that are claimed to provide health benefits when consumed.
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A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
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A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
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Protozoology is the study of protozoa, the "animal-like" (i.e., motile and heterotrophic) protists.
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Rabies is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the brain in humans and other mammals.
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Replica plating is a microbiological technique in which one or more secondary Petri plates containing different solid (agar-based) selective growth media (lacking nutrients or containing chemical growth inhibitors such as antibiotics) are inoculated with the same colonies of microorganisms from a primary plate (or master dish), reproducing the original spatial pattern of colonies.
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In molecular biology, a reporter gene (often simply reporter) is a gene that researchers attach to a regulatory sequence of another gene of interest in bacteria, cell culture, animals or plants.
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Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.
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Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch (11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a German physician and microbiologist.
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Scabies, also known as the seven-year itch, is a contagious skin infestation by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei.
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A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world.
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Sergei Nikolaievich Winogradsky (or Vinogradskiy; Сергій Миколайович Виноградський; 1 September 1856 – 25 February 1953) was a Russian microbiologist, ecologist and soil scientist who pioneered the cycle-of-life concept.
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Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
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Spontaneous generation refers to an obsolete body of thought on the ordinary formation of living organisms without descent from similar organisms.
Streptomyces is the largest genus of Actinobacteria and the type genus of the family Streptomycetaceae.
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Taq polymerase is a thermostable DNA polymerase named after the thermophilic bacterium Thermus aquaticus from which it was originally isolated by Chien et al.
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Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
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The Canon of Medicine (القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025.
Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological tissues.
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Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a positive-sense single stranded RNA virus, genus tobamovirus that infects a wide range of plants, especially tobacco and other members of the family Solanaceae.
Toxic waste is any unwanted material in all forms that can cause harm (e.g. by being inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through the skin).
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Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
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Two-hybrid screening (originally known as yeast two-hybrid system or Y2H) is a molecular biology technique used to discover protein–protein interactions (PPIs) and protein–DNA interactions by testing for physical interactions (such as binding) between two proteins or a single protein and a DNA molecule, respectively.
A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.
Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.
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Virology is the study of viruses – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents.
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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
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Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide with many industrial uses, including as a common food additive.
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