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Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microscopic organisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells). [1]

170 relations: -logy, Adaptive mutation, Agar, Agricultural microbiology, Al-Razi, Alcohol, Algae, Alginic acid, American Society for Microbiology, Amino acid, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Anthrax, Antibiotics, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Applied science, Archaea, Athanasius Kircher, Avicenna, Bacillus, Bacteria, Bacterial cell structure, Bacteriology, Bacteriophage, Basic research, Beggiatoa, Biochemistry, Biodegradation, Biological agent, Biopolymer, Bioremediation, Biosafety, Biotechnology, Brewing, Cancer, Cell biology, Cellular microbiology, Cellulose, Cloning, Clostridium, Colony (biology), Contamination, Critical Reviews in Microbiology, Cyanophycin, Dairy product, Disease, Ecosystem, Enrichment culture, Enzyme, Epidemic, ..., Epidemiology, Eukaryote, Exaptation, Extremophile, Félix d'Herelle, Ferdinand Cohn, Food microbiology, Fungus, Gene, Genetics, Geomicrobiology, Germ theory of disease, Girolamo Fracastoro, Groundwater, Growth medium, Human microbiota, Hyaluronic acid, Ibn Zuhr, Immunology, Industrial fermentation, Industrial microbiology, International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, Jain Agamas, Jainism, Journal of Bacteriology, Koch's postulates, Levan polysaccharide, Life, List of microorganisms tested in outer space, Lithotroph, Louis Pasteur, Mahavira, Marcus Terentius Varro, Martinus Beijerinck, Medical microbiology, Medical technologist, Medicine, Medicine in the medieval Islamic world, Metabolism, Microbial biodegradation, Microbial cytology, Microbial ecology, Microbial genetics, Microbial phylogenetics, Microbiological culture, Microorganism, Microscope, Microscopic scale, Mold, Molecular biology, Molecular microbiology, Multicellular organism, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycology, Mysophobia, Nature Reviews Microbiology, Nematology, Nigoda, Nitrifying bacteria, Nitrogen fixation, Non-cellular life, Nucleic acid, Nutrient cycle, Ocean, Oligosaccharide, Oral microbiology, Organelle, Organism, Parasitism, Parasitology, Pasteurization, Pathogen, Pathogenesis, Pathology, Petri dish, Pharmaceutical microbiology, Phototroph, Phycology, Phyllosphere, Plant pathology, Pollution, Polyamide, Polyester, Polysaccharide, Prebiotic (nutrition), Prion, Probiotic, Prokaryote, Protist, Protozoology, Rabies, Replica plating, Reporter gene, Rhizosphere, Robert Hooke, Robert Koch, Scabies, Scientist, Sergei Winogradsky, Society for General Microbiology, Soil, Soil microbiology, Spontaneous generation, Systems biology, Taq polymerase, Taxonomy (biology), The Canon of Medicine, Tissue engineering, Tobacco mosaic virus, Toxic waste, Tuberculosis, Tumor microenvironment, Two-hybrid screening, Unicellular organism, Veterinary medicine, Vinegar, Virology, Virus, Wastewater treatment, Xanthan gum. Expand index (120 more) »


-logy is a suffix in the English language, used with words originally adapted from Ancient Greek ending in -λογία (-logia).

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Adaptive mutation

Adaptive mutation is a controversial evolutionary theory.

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Agar (pronounced,, "") or agar-agar ("") is a jelly-like substance, obtained from algae.

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Agricultural microbiology

is a branch of microbiology dealing with plant-associated microbes and plant and animal diseases.

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Razi or Al-Razi is the title of several Iranian scholars who were born in the town of Rey,due u t Iran.

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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom.

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Algae (or; singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of eukaryotes that are not necessarily closely related and are thus polyphyletic.

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Alginic acid

Alginic acid, also called algin or alginate, is an anionic polysaccharide distributed widely in the cell walls of brown algae, where through binding with water it forms a viscous gum.

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American Society for Microbiology

The American Society for Microbiology (ASM), originally the Society of American Bacteriologists, is a professional organization for scientists who study viruses, bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa as well as other aspects of microbiology.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups, usually along with a side-chain specific to each amino acid.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).

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Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.

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Anthrax is an acute disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.

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Antibiotics or antibacterials are a type of antimicrobial used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infection.

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Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek (October 24, 1632 – August 26, 1723) was a Dutch tradesman and scientist.

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Applied science

Applied science is a discipline of science that applies existing scientific knowledge to develop more practical applications, like technology or inventions.

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The Archaea (or or; singular archaeon) constitute a domain or kingdom of single-celled microorganisms.

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Athanasius Kircher

Athanasius Kircher, S.J. (sometimes erroneously spelled Kirchner; 1602–1680) was a 17th-century German Jesuit scholar and polymath who published around 40 major works, most notably in the fields of comparative religion, geology, and medicine.

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Avicenna (Latinate form of Ibn-Sīnā (پور سینا / ابن سینا; ابن سینا), full name Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Sīnā (Arabic: أبو علي الحسين ابن عبد الله ابن سينا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath and jurist who is regarded as one of the most significant thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age. Of the 450 works he is known to have written, around 240 have survived, including 150 on philosophy and 40 on medicine. His most famous works are The Book of Healing – a philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, and The Canon of Medicine – a medical encyclopedia. which became a standard medical text at many medieval universities and remained in use as late as 1650. In 1973, Avicenna's Canon Of Medicine was reprinted in New York. Besides philosophy and medicine, Avicenna's corpus includes writings on astronomy, alchemy, geography and geology, psychology, Islamic theology, logic, mathematics, physics and poetry.

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Bacillus is a genus of Gram-positive, rod-shaped (bacillus) bacteria and a member of the phylum Firmicutes.

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Bacteria (singular: bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms.

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Bacterial cell structure

Bacteria, despite their simplicity, contain a well-developed cell structure which is responsible for many of their unique biological structures.

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Bacteriology is the study of bacteria.

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A bacteriophage (informally, phage) is a virus that infects and replicates within a bacterium.

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Basic research

Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, is scientific research aimed to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.

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Beggiatoa is a genus of bacteria in the order Thiotrichales.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Biodegradation is the chemical dissolution of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.

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Biological agent

A biological agent—also called bio-agent, biological threat agent, biological warfare agent, biological weapon, or bioweapon—is a bacterium, virus, protozoan, parasite, or fungus that can be used purposefully as a weapon in bioterrorism or biological warfare (BW).

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Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules.

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Bioremediation is a waste management technique that involves the use of organisms to remove or neutralize pollutants from a contaminated site.

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Biosafety is the prevention of large-scale loss of biological integrity, focusing both on ecology and human health.

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Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).

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Brewing is the production of beer by steeping a starch source (commonly cereal grains) in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast.

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Cancer, also known as a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm, is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Cell biology

Cell biology (formerly cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "contain") is a branch of biology that studies cells – their physiological properties, their structure, the organelles they contain, interactions with their environment, their life cycle, division, death and cell function.

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Cellular microbiology

Cellular microbiology is a discipline that bridges microbiology and cell biology.

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Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.

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In biology, cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually.

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Clostridium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes.

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Colony (biology)

In biology, a colony refers to individual organisms of the same species living closely together, usually for mutual benefit, such as stronger defense or the ability to attack bigger prey.

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Contamination is the presence of an unwanted constituent, contaminant or impurity in a material, physical body, natural environment, workplace, etc.

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Critical Reviews in Microbiology

Critical Reviews in Microbiology is an international, peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes comprehensive review articles covering all areas of medical microbiology.

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Cyanophycin, or multi-L-arginyl-poly (L-aspartic acid), is a non-protein, non-ribosomally produced amino acid polymer composed of an aspartic acid backbone and arginine side groups.

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Dairy product

A dairy product or milk product is food produced from the milk of mammals.

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A disease is a particular abnormal condition, a disorder of a structure or function, that affects part or all of an organism.

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An ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system.

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Enrichment culture

An enrichment culture is a medium with specific and known qualities that favors the growth of a particular microorganism.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.

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Epidemiology is the study of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations.

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A eukaryote (or or) is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes.

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Exaptation (a replacement for the teleologically-loaded term "pre-adaptation") and the related term co-option describe a shift in the function of a trait during evolution.

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An extremophile (from Latin extremus meaning "extreme" and Greek philiā (φιλία) meaning "love") is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth.

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Félix d'Herelle

Félix d'Herelle (April 25, 1873 – February 22, 1949) was a French-Canadian microbiologist, the co-discoverer of bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) and experimented with the possibility of phage therapy.

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Ferdinand Cohn

Ferdinand Julius Cohn (24 January 1828 – 25 June 1898) was a German biologist.

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Food microbiology

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that inhabit, create, or contaminate food, including the study of microorganisms causing food spoilage.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes unicellular microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as multicellular fungi that produce familiar fruiting forms known as mushrooms.

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A gene is a locus (or region) of DNA that encodes a functional RNA or protein product, and is the molecular unit of heredity.

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Genetics is the study of genes, heredity, and genetic variation in living organisms.

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Geomicrobiology is the result of the combination of geology and microbiology.

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Germ theory of disease

The germ theory of disease states that some diseases are caused by microorganisms.

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Girolamo Fracastoro

Girolamo Fracastoro (Hieronymus Fracastorius; c. 1476–14786 August 1553) was an Italian physician, poet, and scholar in mathematics, geography and astronomy.

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Groundwater (or ground water) is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.

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Growth medium

A growth medium or culture medium is a liquid or gel designed to support the growth of microorganisms or cells, or small plants like the moss Physcomitrella patens.

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Human microbiota

The human microbiota is the aggregate of microorganisms, a microbiome that resides on the surface and in deep layers of skin (including in mammary glands), in the saliva and oral mucosa, in the conjunctiva, and in the gastrointestinal tracts.

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Hyaluronic acid

Hyaluronic acid (HA) (also called hyaluronan, hyaluronate or) is an anionic, nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues.

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Ibn Zuhr

Ibn Zuhr (ابن زهر; 1094–1162), traditionally known by his Latinized name of Avenzoar, was a Muslim Arab physician and surgeon.

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Immunology is a branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms.

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Industrial fermentation

Industrial fermentation is the intentional use of fermentation by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi to make products useful to humans.

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Industrial microbiology

Industrial microbiology is an area of applied microbiology which deals with screening, improvement, management,and exploitation of microorganisms for the production of various useful end products on a large scale.

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International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology

The International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in the field of microbial systematics that was established in 1951.

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Jain Agamas

Agamas are original texts of Jainism based on Mahavira’s teachings.

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Jainism, traditionally known as the Jina śāsana or Jain dharma, is one of the oldest Indian religions and belongs to the śramaṇa tradition.

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Journal of Bacteriology

The Journal of Bacteriology is a peer-reviewed medical journal established in 1916.

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Koch's postulates

Koch's postulates are four criteria designed to establish a causative relationship between a microbe and a disease.

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Levan polysaccharide

Levans are a group of fructans; polymers of fructose forming a non-structural carbohydrate, which in the case of levans can themselves link together to form super-molecules comprising even hundreds of thousands.

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Life is a characteristic distinguishing physical entities having biological processes (such as signaling and self-sustaining processes) from those that do not,The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th edition, published by Houghton Mifflin Company, via.

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List of microorganisms tested in outer space

The survival of some microorganisms exposed to outer space has been studied using both simulated facilities and low Earth orbit exposures.

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Lithotrophs are a diverse group of organisms using inorganic substrate (usually of mineral origin) to obtain reducing equivalents for use in biosynthesis (e.g., carbon dioxide fixation) or energy conservation (i.e., ATP production) via aerobic or anaerobic respiration.

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Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.

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Mahavira also known as Vardhamana, was the twenty-fourth and last tirthankara of Jainism of present Avasarpani era (ascending half of the time cycle as per Jain cosmology).

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Marcus Terentius Varro

Marcus Terentius Varro (116 BC – 27 BC) was an ancient Roman scholar and writer.

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Martinus Beijerinck

No description.

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Medical microbiology

Medical microbiology is a branch of medicine concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.

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Medical technologist

A medical technologist (also known as a 'med tech', medical laboratory scientist, clinical laboratory scientist, lab technologist or any variation thereof) is an allied health professional that analyzes and tests body fluids and tissues.

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Medicine (British English; American English) is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Medicine in the medieval Islamic world

In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine, Arabic medicine, Greco-Arabic and Greco-Islamic refer to medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms.

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Microbial biodegradation

Interest in the microbial biodegradation of pollutants has intensified in recent years as humanity strives to find sustainable ways to clean up contaminated environments.

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Microbial cytology

Microbial cytology, is the study of microscopic and submicroscopic details of microorganisms.

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Microbial ecology

Microbial ecology (or environmental microbiology) is the ecology of microorganisms: their relationship with one another and with their environment.

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Microbial genetics

Microbial genetics is a subject area within microbiology and genetic engineering.

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Microbial phylogenetics

Microbial phylogenetics is the study of the manner in which various groups of microorganisms are genetically related.

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Microbiological culture

A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture media under controlled laboratory conditions.

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A microorganism (from the μικρός, mikros, "small" and ὀργανισμός, organismós, "organism") is a microscopic living organism, which may be single celled or multicellular.

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A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small for the naked eye.

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Microscopic scale

The microscopic scale (from, mikrós, "small" and σκοπέω, skopéō "look") is the scale of objects and events smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye, requiring a lens or microscope to see them clearly.

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A mold or mould is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between the different types of DNA, RNA and proteins and their biosynthesis, and studies how these interactions are regulated.

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Molecular microbiology

Molecular microbiology is the branch of microbiology devoted to the study of the molecular basis of the physiological processes that occur in microorganisms.

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Multicellular organism

Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a pathogenic bacterial species in the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of most cases of tuberculosis.

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Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicine, wine, cheese, (edible mushrooms), and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as poisoning or infection. A biologist specializing in mycology is called a mycologist. From mycology arose the field of phytopathology, the study of plant diseases, and the two disciplines remain closely related because the vast majority of "plant" pathogens are fungi. Historically, mycology was a branch of botany because, although fungi are evolutionarily more closely related to animals than to plants, this was not recognized until a few decades ago. Pioneer mycologists included Elias Magnus Fries, Christian Hendrik Persoon, Anton de Bary, and Lewis David von Schweinitz. Many fungi produce toxins, antibiotics, and other secondary metabolites. For example, the cosmopolitan (worldwide) genus Fusarium and their toxins associated with fatal outbreaks of alimentary toxic aleukia in humans were extensively studied by Abraham Joffe. Fungi are fundamental for life on earth in their roles as symbionts, e.g. in the form of mycorrhizae, insect symbionts, and lichens. Many fungi are able to break down complex organic biomolecules such as lignin, the more durable component of wood, and pollutants such as xenobiotics, petroleum, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. By decomposing these molecules, fungi play a critical role in the global carbon cycle. Fungi and other organisms traditionally recognized as fungi, such as oomycetes and myxomycetes (slime molds), often are economically and socially important, as some cause diseases of animals (such as histoplasmosis) as well as plants (such as Dutch elm disease and Rice blast). Field meetings to find interesting species of fungi are known as 'forays', after the first such meeting organized by the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club in 1868 and entitled "A foray among the funguses". Some fungi can cause disease in humans or other organisms. The study of pathogenic fungi is referred to as medical mycology.

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Mysophobia, also known as verminophobia, germophobia, germaphobia, bacillophobia and bacteriophobia, is a pathological fear of contamination and germs.

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Nature Reviews Microbiology

Nature Reviews Microbiology is a peer-reviewed review journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.

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Nematology is the scientific discipline concerned with the study of nematodes, or roundworms.

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In Jainism cosmology, the Nigoda is a realm existing in which the lowest forms of life reside in endless numbers, and without any hope of release by self-effort.

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Nitrifying bacteria

Nitrifying bacteria are chemoautotrophic or chemolithotrophs depending on the genera (Nitrosomonas, Nitrosococcus, Nitrobacter, Nitrococcus) bacteria that grow by consuming inorganic nitrogen compounds.

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Nitrogen fixation

Nitrogen fixation is a process in which nitrogen (N2) in the atmosphere is converted into ammonium (NH4+) or nitrogen dioxide, for example.

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Non-cellular life

Non-cellular life is life that exists without a cellular structure.

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Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or large biomolecules, essential for all known forms of life.

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Nutrient cycle

A nutrient cycle (or ecological recycling) is the movement and exchange of organic and inorganic matter back into the production of living matter.

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An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.

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An oligosaccharide (from the Greek ολίγος oligos, a few, and σάκχαρ sacchar, sugar) is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to nine) of simple sugars (monosaccharides).

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Oral microbiology

Oral microbiology is the study of the microorganisms (microbiota) of the oral cavity and their interactions between oral microorganisms or with the host.

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In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function.

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In biology, an organism is any contiguous living system, such as an animal, plant or bacterium.

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In biology/ecology, parasitism is a non-mutual symbiotic relationship between species, where one species, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host.

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Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them.

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Pasteurization (American English) or pasteurisation (British English) is a process invented by French scientist Louis Pasteur during the nineteenth century.

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In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos “suffering, passion” and -γενής -genēs “producer of”) in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease, a term which came into use in the 1880s.

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The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that lead to the diseased state.

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Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering", and -logia (-λογία), "an account of") is a significant component of the causal study of disease and a major field in modern medicine and diagnosis.

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Petri dish

A Petri dish (sometimes spelled "Petrie dish" and alternatively known as a Petri plate or cell-culture dish), named after the German bacteriologist Julius Richard Petri, is a shallow cylindrical glass or plastic lidded dish that biologists use to culture cellssuch as bacteriaor small mosses.

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Pharmaceutical microbiology

Pharmaceutical Microbiology is an applied branch of Microbiology.

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Phototrophs (Gr: φῶς, φωτός.

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Phycology (from Greek φῦκος, phykos, "seaweed"; and -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of algae.

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The phyllosphere is a term used in microbiology to refer to the total above-ground portions of plants as habitat for microorganisms.

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Plant pathology

Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors).

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Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.

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A polyamide is a macromolecule with repeating units linked by amide bonds.

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Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain.

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Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecule composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.

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Prebiotic (nutrition)

Prebiotics is a general term to refer to chemicals that induce the growth or activity of microorganisms (e.g., bacteria and fungi) that contribute to the well-being of their host.

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A prion is a protein that can fold in multiple, structurally distinct ways, at least one of which is transmissible to other prion proteins.

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Probiotics are microorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed.

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A prokaryote is a single-celled organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus (karyon), mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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In all biological taxonomy schemes, protists were a large group of diverse eukaryotic microorganisms, mainly unicellular animals and plants, that do not form tissues.

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Protozoology is the study of protozoa, the "animal-like" (i.e., motile and heterotrophic) protists.

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Rabies is a viral disease that causes acute inflammation of the brain in humans and other warm-blooded animals.

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Replica plating

Replica plating is a microbiological technique in which one or more secondary Petri plates containing different solid (agar-based) selective growth media (lacking nutrients or containing chemical growth inhibitors such as antibiotics) are inoculated with the same colonies of microorganisms from a primary plate (or master dish), reproducing the original spatial pattern of colonies.

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Reporter gene

In molecular biology, a reporter gene (often simply reporter) is a gene that researchers attach to a regulatory sequence of another gene of interest in bacteria, cell culture, animals or plants.

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The rhizosphere is the narrow region of soil that is directly influenced by root secretions and associated soil microorganisms.

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Robert Hooke

Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.

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Robert Koch

Robert Heinrich Herman Koch (11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a celebrated German physician and pioneering microbiologist.

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Scabies, known as the seven-year itch, is a contagious skin infestation by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei.

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A scientist, in a broad sense, is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge.

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Sergei Winogradsky

Sergei Nikolaievich Winogradsky (or Vinogradskyi; Сергій Миколайович Виноградський, Серге́й Николаевич Виноградский; 1 September 1856 – 25 February 1953) was a Ukrainian-Russian microbiologist, ecologist and soil scientist who pioneered the cycle of life concept. Winogradsky discovered the first known form of lithotrophy during his research with Beggiatoa in 1887. He reported that Beggiatoa oxidized hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as an energy source and formed intracellular sulfur droplets. This research provided the first example of lithotrophy, but not autotrophy. His research on nitrifying bacteria would report the first known form of chemoautotrophy, showing how a lithotroph fixes carbon dioxide (CO2) to make organic compounds.

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Society for General Microbiology

The Microbiology Society (previously the Society for General Microbiology) is a learned society based in the United Kingdom with a worldwide membership based in universities, industry, hospitals, research institutes and schools.

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Soil is the mixture of minerals, organic matter, gases, liquids, and the countless organisms that together support life on earth.

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Soil microbiology

Soil microbiology is the study of organisms in soil, their functions, and how they affect soil properties.

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Spontaneous generation

Spontaneous generation or anomalous generation is an obsolete body of thought on the ordinary formation of living organisms without descent from similar organisms.

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Systems biology

Systems biology is the computational and mathematical modeling of complex biological systems.

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Taq polymerase

Taq polymerase is a thermostable DNA polymerase named after the thermophilic bacterium Thermus aquaticus from which it was originally isolated by Chien et al.

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Taxonomy (biology)

Taxonomy (from τάξις taxis, "arrangement," and -νομία -nomia, "method") is the science of defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics and giving names to those groups.

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The Canon of Medicine

The Canon of Medicine (القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian philosopher Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) and completed in 1025.

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Tissue engineering

Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological functions.

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Tobacco mosaic virus

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a positive-sense single stranded RNA virus that infects a wide range of plants, especially tobacco and other members of the family Solanaceae.

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Toxic waste

Toxic waste is waste material that can cause death, injury or birth defects to living creatures.

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Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB (short for tubercle bacillus), in the past also called phthisis, phthisis pulmonalis, or consumption, is a widespread, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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Tumor microenvironment

The tumor microenvironment (TME) is the cellular environment in which the tumor exists, including surrounding blood vessels, immune cells, fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells, lymphocytes, signaling molecules and the extracellular matrix (ECM).

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Two-hybrid screening

Two-hybrid screening (also known as yeast two-hybrid system or Y2H) is a molecular biology technique used to discover protein–protein interactions (PPIs) and protein–DNA interactions by testing for physical interactions (such as binding) between two proteins or a single protein and a DNA molecule, respectively.

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Unicellular organism

A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.

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Veterinary medicine

Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in animals.

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Vinegar is a liquid consisting mainly of acetic acid (CH3COOH) and water.

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Virology is the study of viruses – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents.

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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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Wastewater treatment

Wastewater treatment is a process to convert wastewater - which is water no longer needed or suitable for its most recent use - into an effluent that can be either returned to the water cycle with minimal environmental issues or reused.

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Xanthan gum

Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide secreted by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris, used as a food additive and rheology modifier, commonly used as a food thickening agent (in salad dressings, for example) and a stabilizer (in cosmetic products, for example, to prevent ingredients from separating).

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microbiology

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