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Index Microcode

Microcode is a computer hardware technique that imposes an interpreter between the CPU hardware and the programmer-visible instruction set architecture of the computer. [1]

150 relations: Ad hoc, Address generation unit, Allen Newell, AMD Am2900, AMD K5, Analytical Engine, Arithmetic logic unit, Assembly language, Backward compatibility, Bit, Bit slicing, Burroughs B1700, Burroughs Corporation, Bus (computing), C't, Cam, Central processing unit, Channel I/O, Charles Babbage, COBOL, Combinational logic, Complex instruction set computer, Computer data storage, Conditional (computer programming), Control store, Control unit, CPU cache, CPUID, Cyrix 6x86, Data General, Data General Eclipse, Data General Eclipse MV/8000, DEC Alpha, Denormal number, Digital data, Digital Equipment Corporation, Digital signal processor, Diode matrix, Disk controller, EE Times, Electronic circuit, Electronic hardware, Electronics, EMIDEC 1100, Emulator, Execution unit, Factor 5, Finite-state machine, Firmware, Flash memory, ..., Floating-point unit, Fortran, FreeBSD, Full motion video, Gamasutra, Gordon Bell, Graphics processing unit, Hard disk drive, Heinz Heise, HP 2100, IBM, IBM 1410, IBM Future Systems project, IBM Journal of Research and Development, IBM System/360, IBM System/360 Model 25, IBM System/360 Model 30, IBM System/360 Model 40, IBM System/360 Model 50, IBM System/360 Model 85, IBM System/370, IBM System/390, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine, Instruction pipelining, Instruction register, Instruction set architecture, Intel 80486, Intel 8086, Interrupt latency, John Bentley Stringer, Machine code, Magnetic-core memory, Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, Maurice Wilkes, McGraw-Hill Education, Memory address register, Memory buffer register, Micro-operation, Microarchitecture, Microassembler, Microcontroller, Microdata Corporation, Microprocessor, Microsequencer, MikroSim, Millicode, Minicomputer, MOS Technology 6502, Motorola 68040, Multiprocessing, NCR 315, Network interface controller, Network processor, New York City, Nintendo 64, Operand, PALcode, PARC (company), PDP-10, PDP-11, Pentium Pro, Pick operating system, Pipeline (computing), PL/I, Player piano, PlayStation 2, Processor design, Processor register, Program counter, Programmable logic array, Programmable logic device, Read-only memory, Read-write memory, Reality Coprocessor, Reduced instruction set computer, Register file, Resident Evil 2, Sequential logic, Simulation, Software bug, Sony, Star Wars Episode I: Battle for Naboo, Star Wars: Rogue Squadron, Static random-access memory, Superscalar processor, Symbolics, The Soul of a New Machine, Transcendental function, Two's complement, UBM plc, Varian Data Machines, VAX, Very long instruction word, Whirlwind I, Word (computer architecture), X86, Xeon, Z/Architecture, Zilog Z80. Expand index (100 more) »

Ad hoc

Ad hoc is a Latin phrase meaning literally "for this".

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Address generation unit

Address generation unit (AGU), sometimes also called address computation unit (ACU), is an execution unit inside central processing units (CPUs) that calculates addresses used by the CPU to access main memory.

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Allen Newell

Allen Newell (March 19, 1927 – July 19, 1992) was a researcher in computer science and cognitive psychology at the RAND Corporation and at Carnegie Mellon University’s School of Computer Science, Tepper School of Business, and Department of Psychology.

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AMD Am2900

Am2900 is a family of integrated circuits (ICs) created in 1975 by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD).

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The K5 is AMD's first x86 processor to be developed entirely in-house.

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Analytical Engine

The Analytical Engine was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician and computer pioneer Charles Babbage.

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Arithmetic logic unit

An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a combinational digital electronic circuit that performs arithmetic and bitwise operations on integer binary numbers.

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Assembly language

An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.

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Backward compatibility

Backward compatibility is a property of a system, product, or technology that allows for interoperability with an older legacy system, or with input designed for such a system, especially in telecommunications and computing.

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The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.

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Bit slicing

Bit slicing is a technique for constructing a processor from modules of processors of smaller bit width, for the purpose of increasing the word length; in theory to make an arbitrary n-bit CPU.

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Burroughs B1700

The Burroughs B1000 Series was a series of mainframe computers, built by the Burroughs Corporation, and originally introduced in the 1970s with continued software development until 1987.

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Burroughs Corporation

The Burroughs Corporation was a major American manufacturer of business equipment.

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Bus (computing)

In computer architecture, a bus (a contraction of the Latin omnibus) is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers.

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c't – Magazin für Computertechnik (magazine for computer technology) is a German computer magazine, published by the Heinz Heise publishing house.

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A cam is a rotating or sliding piece in a mechanical linkage used especially in transforming rotary motion into linear motion.

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Central processing unit

A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

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Channel I/O

In computing, channel I/O is a high-performance input/output (I/O) architecture that is implemented in various forms on a number of computer architectures, especially on mainframe computers.

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Charles Babbage

Charles Babbage (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English polymath.

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COBOL (an acronym for "common business-oriented language") is a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use.

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Combinational logic

In digital circuit theory, combinational logic (sometimes also referred to as time-independent logic) is a type of digital logic which is implemented by Boolean circuits, where the output is a pure function of the present input only.

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Complex instruction set computer

A complex instruction set computer (CISC) is a computer in which single instructions can execute several low-level operations (such as a load from memory, an arithmetic operation, and a memory store) or are capable of multi-step operations or addressing modes within single instructions.

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Computer data storage

Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.

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Conditional (computer programming)

In computer science, conditional statements, conditional expressions and conditional constructs are features of a programming language, which perform different computations or actions depending on whether a programmer-specified boolean condition evaluates to true or false.

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Control store

A control store is the part of a CPU's control unit that stores the CPU's microprogram.

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Control unit

The control unit (CU) is a component of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) that directs the operation of the processor.

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CPU cache

A CPU cache is a hardware cache used by the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer to reduce the average cost (time or energy) to access data from the main memory.

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The CPUID opcode is a processor supplementary instruction (its name derived from CPU IDentification) for the x86 architecture allowing software to discover details of the processor.

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Cyrix 6x86

The Cyrix 6x86 (codename M1) is a sixth-generation, 32-bit x86 microprocessor designed by Cyrix and manufactured by IBM and SGS-Thomson.

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Data General

Data General was one of the first minicomputer firms from the late 1960s.

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Data General Eclipse

The Data General Eclipse line of computers by Data General were 16-bit minicomputers released in early 1974 and sold until 1988.

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Data General Eclipse MV/8000

The Eclipse MV/8000 was the first in a family of 32-bit minicomputers produced by Data General during the 1980s.

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DEC Alpha

Alpha, originally known as Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), designed to replace their 32-bit VAX complex instruction set computer (CISC) ISA.

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Denormal number

In computer science, denormal numbers or denormalized numbers (now often called subnormal numbers) fill the underflow gap around zero in floating-point arithmetic.

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Digital data

Digital data, in information theory and information systems, is the discrete, discontinuous representation of information or works.

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Digital Equipment Corporation

Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.

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Digital signal processor

A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor (or a SIP block), with its architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing.

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Diode matrix

A diode matrix is a two-dimensional grid of wires: each "intersection" wherein one row crosses over another has either a diode connecting them, or the wires are isolated from each other.

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Disk controller

The disk controller is the controller circuit which enables the CPU to communicate with a hard disk, floppy disk or other kind of disk drive.

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EE Times

EE Times (Electronic Engineering Times) is an online electronics industry magazine published in the United States by AspenCore Media an Arrow Electronics company.

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Electronic circuit

An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow.

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Electronic hardware

Electronic hardware consists of interconnected electronic components which perform analog or logic operations on received and locally stored information to produce as output or store resulting new information or to provide control for output actuator mechanisms.

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Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.

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The EMIDEC 1100 computer (became the ICT 1101 in 1962) was produced by the Computing Services Division of EMI Laboratories in the UK under the leadership of Professor Sir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield in 1959 after one year's development.

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In computing, an emulator is hardware or software that enables one computer system (called the host) to behave like another computer system (called the guest).

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Execution unit

In computer engineering, an execution unit (also called a functional unit) is a part of the central processing unit (CPU) that performs the operations and calculations as instructed by the computer program.

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Factor 5

Factor 5 GmbH is an independent software and video game developer.

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Finite-state machine

A finite-state machine (FSM) or finite-state automaton (FSA, plural: automata), finite automaton, or simply a state machine, is a mathematical model of computation.

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In electronic systems and computing, firmware is a specific class of computer software that provides the low-level control for the device's specific hardware.

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Flash memory

Flash memory is an electronic (solid-state) non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.

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Floating-point unit

A floating-point unit (FPU, colloquially a math coprocessor) is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers.

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Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.

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FreeBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like operating system descended from Research Unix via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD).

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Full motion video

A full motion video (FMV) is a video game narration technique that relies upon pre-recorded video files (rather than sprites, vectors, or 3D models) to display action in the game.

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Gamasutra is a website founded in 1997 that focuses on all aspects of video game development.

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Gordon Bell


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Graphics processing unit

A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display device.

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Hard disk drive

A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.

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Heinz Heise

Heinz Heise is a publishing house based in Hanover, Germany.

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HP 2100

The HP 2100 was a series of minicomputers produced by Hewlett-Packard (HP) from the mid-1960s to early 1990s.

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The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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IBM 1410

The IBM 1410, a member of the IBM 1400 series, was a variable wordlength decimal computer that was announced by IBM on September 12, 1960 and marketed as a midrange "Business Computer".

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IBM Future Systems project

The Future Systems project (FS) was a research and development project undertaken in IBM in the early 1970s, aiming to develop a revolutionary line of computer products, including new software models which would simplify software development by exploiting modern powerful hardware.

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IBM Journal of Research and Development

IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed bimonthly scientific journal covering research on information systems.

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IBM System/360

The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.

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IBM System/360 Model 25

The IBM System/360 Model 25 was announced on January 3, 1968, 3 years before the IBM System/360 Model 22, as a "bridge between its old and new" members of the System/360 family of computers.

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IBM System/360 Model 30

The IBM System/360 Model 30 was a low-end member of the IBM System/360 family.

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IBM System/360 Model 40

The IBM System/360 Model 40 was a mid-range member of the IBM System/360 family.

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IBM System/360 Model 50

The IBM System/360 Model 50 is a member of the IBM System/360 family of computers.

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IBM System/360 Model 85

The IBM System/360 Model 85 is a high-end member of the System/360 family of computers, with many advanced features, and was introduced in January, 1968.

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IBM System/370

The IBM System/370 (S/370) was a model range of IBM mainframe computers announced on June 30, 1970 as the successors to the System/360 family.

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IBM System/390

The IBM System/390 was the third major generation of the System/360 line of computers.

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IEEE Annals of the History of Computing

The IEEE Annals of the History of Computing is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the IEEE Computer Society.

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Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine

Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine is a multi-platform action-adventure video game by LucasArts released in 1999.

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Instruction pipelining

Instruction pipelining is a technique for implementing instruction-level parallelism within a single processor.

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Instruction register

In computing, an instruction register (IR) is the part of a CPU's control unit that holds the instruction currently being executed or decoded.

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Instruction set architecture

An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.

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Intel 80486

The Intel 80486, also known as the i486 or 486, is a higher performance follow-up to the Intel 80386 microprocessor.

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Intel 8086

The 8086 (also called iAPX 86) is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel between early 1976 and mid-1978, when it was released.

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Interrupt latency

In computing, interrupt latency is the time that elapses from when an interrupt is generated to when the source of the interrupt is serviced.

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John Bentley Stringer

John Bentley Stringer (17 February 1928 – 4 May 1979) was a British computer pioneer.

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Machine code

Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).

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Magnetic-core memory

Magnetic-core memory was the predominant form of random-access computer memory for 20 years between about 1955 and 1975.

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Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society

Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society is a mathematical journal published by Cambridge University Press for the Cambridge Philosophical Society.

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Maurice Wilkes

Sir Maurice Vincent Wilkes (26 June 1913 – 29 November 2010) was a British computer scientist who designed and helped build the electronic delay storage automatic calculator (EDSAC), one of the earliest stored program computers and invented microprogramming, a method for using stored-program logic to operate the control unit of a central processing unit's circuits.

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McGraw-Hill Education

McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.

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Memory address register

In a computer, the Memory Address Register (MAR) is the CPU register that either stores the memory address from which data will be fetched from the CPU, or the address to which data will be sent and stored.

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Memory buffer register

A memory buffer register (MBR) or memory data register (MDR) is the register in a computer's processor, or central processing unit, CPU, that stores the data being transferred to and from the immediate access storage.

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In computer central processing units, micro-operations (also known as a micro-ops or μops) are detailed low-level instructions used in some designs to implement complex machine instructions (sometimes termed macro-instructions in this context).

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In computer engineering, microarchitecture, also called computer organization and sometimes abbreviated as µarch or uarch, is the way a given instruction set architecture (ISA), is implemented in a particular processor.

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A microassembler is a computer program that helps prepare a microprogram, called firmware, to control the low level operation of a computer in much the same way an assembler helps prepare higher level code for a processor.

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A microcontroller (MCU for microcontroller unit, or UC for μ-controller) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit.

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Microdata Corporation

Microdata Corporation was an Irvine, California-based computer company that.

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A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.

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In computer architecture and engineering, a sequencer or microsequencer generates the addresses used to step through the microprogram of a control store.

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MikroSim is an educational software computer program for hardware-non-specific explanation of the general functioning and behaviour of a virtual processor, running on the Microsoft Windows operating system.

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In computer architecture, millicode is a higher level of microcode used to implement the instruction set of a computer.

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A minicomputer, or colloquially mini, is a class of smaller computers that was developed in the mid-1960s and sold for much less than mainframe and mid-size computers from IBM and its direct competitors.

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MOS Technology 6502

The MOS Technology 6502 (typically "sixty-five-oh-two" or "six-five-oh-two") William Mensch and the moderator both pronounce the 6502 microprocessor as "sixty-five-oh-two".

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Motorola 68040

The Motorola 68040 ("sixty-eight-oh-forty") is a 32-bit microprocessor from Motorola, released in 1990.

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Multiprocessing is the use of two or more central processing units (CPUs) within a single computer system.

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NCR 315

The NCR 315 Data Processing System, released in January 1962 by NCR, is an obsolete second-generation computer.

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Network interface controller

A network interface controller (NIC, also known as a network interface card, network adapter, LAN adapter or physical network interface, and by similar terms) is a computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network.

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Network processor

A network processor is an integrated circuit which has a feature set specifically targeted at the networking application domain.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Nintendo 64

The, stylized as NINTENDO64 and abbreviated to N64, is Nintendo's third home video game console for the international market.

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In mathematics an operand is the object of a mathematical operation, i.e. it is the quantity that is operated on.

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In computing, in the Alpha instruction set architecture, PALcode (Privileged Architecture Library code) is the name used by DEC for a set of functions in the SRM or AlphaBIOS firmware, providing a hardware abstraction layer for system software, covering features such as cache management, translation lookaside buffer (TLB) miss handling, interrupt handling and exception handling.

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PARC (company)

PARC (Palo Alto Research Center; formerly Xerox PARC) is a research and development company in Palo Alto, California, with a distinguished reputation for its contributions to information technology and hardware systems.

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The PDP-10 is a mainframe computer family manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1966 into the 1980s.

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The PDP-11 is a series of 16-bit minicomputers sold by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1970 into the 1990s, one of a succession of products in the PDP series.

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Pentium Pro

The Pentium Pro is a sixth-generation x86 microprocessor developed and manufactured by Intel introduced in November 1, 1995.

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Pick operating system

The Pick operating system (often called just "the Pick system" or simply "Pick") is a demand-paged, multiuser, virtual memory, time-sharing computer operating system based around a unique MultiValue database.

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Pipeline (computing)

In computing, a pipeline, also known as a data pipeline, is a set of data processing elements connected in series, where the output of one element is the input of the next one.

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PL/I (Programming Language One, pronounced) is a procedural, imperative computer programming language designed for scientific, engineering, business and system programming uses.

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Player piano

A player piano (also known as pianola) is a self-playing piano, containing a pneumatic or electro-mechanical mechanism that operates the piano action via pre-programmed music recorded on perforated paper, or in rare instances, metallic rolls, with more modern implementations using MIDI.

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PlayStation 2

The PlayStation 2 (PS2) is a home video game console that was developed by Sony Computer Entertainment.

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Processor design

Processor design is the design engineering task of creating a processor, a component of computer hardware.

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Processor register

In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU).

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Program counter

The program counter (PC), commonly called the instruction pointer (IP) in Intel x86 and Itanium microprocessors, and sometimes called the instruction address register (IAR), the instruction counter, or just part of the instruction sequencer, is a processor register that indicates where a computer is in its program sequence.

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Programmable logic array

A programmable logic array (PLA) is a kind of programmable logic device used to implement combinational logic circuits.

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Programmable logic device

A programmable logic device (PLD) is an electronic component used to build reconfigurable digital circuits.

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Read-only memory

Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices.

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Read-write memory

Read-write memory is a type of computer memory that may be relatively easily written to as well as read from, that is, using electrical signalling normally associated with running software, and without other physical processes (unlike ROM or "read-only memory" and distinct from EEPROM).

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Reality Coprocessor

Reality Coprocessor (RCP) is one of the Nintendo 64's two main chips, alongside the NEC VR4300, a derivative of the MIPS R4200.

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Reduced instruction set computer

A reduced instruction set computer, or RISC (pronounced 'risk'), is one whose instruction set architecture (ISA) allows it to have fewer cycles per instruction (CPI) than a complex instruction set computer (CISC).

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Register file

A register file is an array of processor registers in a central processing unit (CPU).

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Resident Evil 2

Resident Evil 2, known in Japan as Biohazard 2, is a survival horror game developed and published by Capcom and released for the PlayStation in 1998.

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Sequential logic

In digital circuit theory, sequential logic is a type of logic circuit whose output depends not only on the present value of its input signals but on the sequence of past inputs, the input history.

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Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system.

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Software bug

A software bug is an error, flaw, failure or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave in unintended ways.

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is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo.

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Star Wars Episode I: Battle for Naboo

Star Wars Episode I: Battle for Naboo (known as Star Wars: Battle for Naboo on the PC) is an arcade-style action game co-developed by Factor 5 and LucasArts.

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Star Wars: Rogue Squadron

Star Wars: Rogue Squadron (known as Star Wars: Rogue Squadron 3D on the PC) is an arcade-style action game co-developed by Factor 5 and LucasArts.

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Static random-access memory

Static random-access memory (static RAM or SRAM) is a type of semiconductor memory that uses bistable latching circuitry (flip-flop) to store each bit.

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Superscalar processor

A superscalar processor is a CPU that implements a form of parallelism called instruction-level parallelism within a single processor.

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Symbolics refers to two companies: now-defunct computer manufacturer Symbolics, Inc., and a privately held company that acquired the assets of the former company and continues to sell and maintain the Open Genera Lisp system and the Macsyma computer algebra system.

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The Soul of a New Machine

The Soul of a New Machine is a non-fiction book written by Tracy Kidder and published in 1981.

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Transcendental function

A transcendental function is an analytic function that does not satisfy a polynomial equation, in contrast to an algebraic function.

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Two's complement

Two's complement is a mathematical operation on binary numbers, best known for its role in computing as a method of signed number representation.

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UBM plc

UBM plc is a global business-to-business (B2B) events organiser headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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Varian Data Machines

Varian Data Machines was a division of Varian Associates which sold minicomputers.

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VAX is a discontinued instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the mid-1970s.

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Very long instruction word

Very long instruction word (VLIW) refers to instruction set architectures designed to exploit instruction level parallelism (ILP).

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Whirlwind I

Whirlwind I was a Cold War-era vacuum tube computer developed by the MIT Servomechanisms Laboratory for the U.S. Navy.

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Word (computer architecture)

In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design.

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x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.

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Xeon is a brand of x86 microprocessors designed, manufactured, and marketed by Intel, targeted at the non-consumer workstation, server, and embedded system markets.

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z/Architecture, initially and briefly called ESA Modal Extensions (ESAME), is IBM's 64-bit instruction set architecture implemented by its mainframe computers.

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Zilog Z80

The Z80 CPU is an 8-bit based microprocessor.

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Horizontal microcode, IMPL, Initial-Microprogram Load, Micro-code, Micro-instructions, Micro-program, Microcoded, Microcoding, Microinstruction, Microinstructions, Microprogram, Microprogram., Microprogramming, Nanocode, Picocode, Sequential micro-program, Vertical microcode.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microcode

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