108 relations: Altair 8800, Altos Computer Systems, Apple I, Apple II series, Apple Inc., Assembly language, Auxiliary memory, BASIC, BBC Micro, BIOS, Booting, Byte, Calculator, Cassette deck, Central processing unit, Christopher Evans (computer scientist), Clean room design, Commodore 64, Compact Cassette, Computer, Computer keyboard, Computer monitor, CP/M, Cromemco, Datapoint, Datapoint 2200, Desktop computer, Digital Equipment Corporation, DOS, Electronic kit, Embedded system, EPROM, Floppy disk, Framebuffer, François Gernelle, George Morrow (computers), Goto, Hard disk drive, Hewlett-Packard, Hewlett-Packard 9100A, History of computing hardware (1960s–present), Home computer, Human interface device, IBM PC compatible, IBM Personal Computer, IBM Z, IMS Associates, Inc., Input/output, Instruction set architecture, Integrated circuit, ..., Intel 8008, Intel 8080, Isaac Asimov, Kenbak-1, Kernel (operating system), Laptop, Lists of microcomputers, Logic gate, Mainframe computer, Micral, Microcontroller, Microprocessor, Microsoft, Microsoft Windows, Minicomputer, Mobile device, Mobile phone, MP/M, National Semiconductor, North Star Computers, Ohio Scientific, Personal computer, Power supply, Printed circuit board, Printer (computing), Processor Technology, Proof of concept, Random-access memory, Read-only memory, Reverse engineering, S-100 bus, Science (journal), Semiconductor memory, Sord Computer Corporation, Spreadsheet, Stored-program computer, Supercomputer, SWTPC, System bus, Tablet computer, Teleprinter, Television, Texas Instruments, The Dying Night, Time-sharing, Toshiba, Transistor–transistor logic, TRS-80, Turnkey, TV Typewriter, User interface, Video display controller, Video game console, VisiCalc, Zilog Z80, 19-inch rack, 7400 series, 8-bit. Expand index (58 more) » « Shrink index
The Altair 8800 is a microcomputer designed in 1974 by MITS and based on the Intel 8080 CPU.
Altos Computer Systems was founded in 1977 by David G. Jackson and Roger William Vass Sr.
Apple Computer 1, also known later as the Apple I, or Apple-1, is a desktop computer released by the Apple Computer Company (now Apple Inc.) in 1976.
The Apple II series (trademarked with square brackets as "Apple.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.
Auxiliary memory, also known as auxiliary storage, secondary storage, secondary memory or external memory, is a non-volatile memory (does not lose stored data when the device is powered down) that is not directly accessible by the CPU, because it is not accessed via the input/output channels (it is an external device).
BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.
The British Broadcasting Corporation Microcomputer System, or BBC Micro, is a series of microcomputers and associated peripherals designed and built by the Acorn Computer company for the BBC Computer Literacy Project, operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation.
BIOS (an acronym for Basic Input/Output System and also known as the System BIOS, ROM BIOS or PC BIOS) is non-volatile firmware used to perform hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup), and to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs.
In computing, booting is starting up a computer or computer appliance until it can be used.
The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits, representing a binary number.
An electronic calculator is typically a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics.
A cassette deck is a type of tape machine for playing and recording audio compact cassettes.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
Christopher Riche Evans (29 May 1931 – 10 October 1979) was a British psychologist, computer scientist, and author.
Clean-room design (also known as the Chinese wall technique) is the method of copying a design by reverse engineering and then recreating it without infringing any of the copyrights associated with the original design.
The Commodore 64, also known as the C64 or the CBM 64, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International (first shown at the Consumer Electronics Show, in Las Vegas, January 7–10, 1982).
The Compact Audio Cassette (CAC) or Musicassette (MC), also commonly called the cassette tape or simply tape or cassette, is an analog magnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.
A computer monitor is an output device which displays information in pictorial form.
CP/M, originally standing for Control Program/Monitor and later Control Program for Microcomputers, is a mass-market operating system created for Intel 8080/85-based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc.
Cromemco was a Mountain View, California microcomputer company known for its high-end Z80-based S-100 bus computers and peripherals in the early days of the personal computer revolution.
Datapoint Corporation, originally known as Computer Terminal Corporation (CTC), was a computer company based in San Antonio, Texas, United States.
The Datapoint 2200 was a mass-produced programmable terminal, designed by Computer Terminal Corporation (CTC) founders Phil Ray and Gus RocheLamont Wood,, Computerworld, 8 August 2008 and announced by CTC in June 1970 (with units shipping in 1971).
A desktop computer is a personal computer designed for regular use at a single location on or near a desk or table due to its size and power requirements.
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
DOS is a family of disk operating systems.
An electronic kit is a package of electrical components used to build an electronic device.
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
An EPROM (rarely EROM), or erasable programmable read-only memory, is a type of memory chip that retains its data when its power supply is switched off.
A floppy disk, also called a floppy, diskette, or just disk, is a type of disk storage composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic enclosure lined with fabric that removes dust particles.
A framebuffer (frame buffer, or sometimes framestore) is a portion of RAM containing a bitmap that drives a video display.
François Gernelle (born December 20, 1944) is a French engineer, computer scientist and entrepreneur famous for inventing the first micro-computer using a micro-processor, the Micral N.
George Morrow (January 30, 1934 – May 7, 2003) was part of the early microcomputer industry in the United States.
GoTo (goto, GOTO, GO TO or other case combinations, depending on the programming language) is a statement found in many computer programming languages.
A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.
The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.
The Hewlett-Packard 9100A (hp 9100A) is an early computer (or programmable calculator), first appearing in 1968.
The history of computing hardware starting at 1960 is marked by the conversion from vacuum tube to solid-state devices such as the transistor and later the integrated circuit.
Home computers were a class of microcomputers entering the market in 1977, and becoming common during the 1980s.
A human interface device or HID is a type of computer device usually used by humans that takes input from humans and gives output to humans.
IBM PC compatible computers are computers similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT, able to use the same software and expansion cards.
The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform.
IBM Z is a family name used by IBM for all of its mainframe computers from the Z900 on.
IMS Associates, Inc., or IMSAI, was a microcomputer company, responsible for one of the earliest successes in personal computing, the IMSAI 8080.
In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.
An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
The Intel 8008 ("eight-thousand-eight" or "eighty-oh-eight") is an early byte-oriented microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and introduced in April 1972.
The Intel 8080 ("eighty-eighty") was the second 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and was released in April 1974.
Isaac Asimov (January 2, 1920 – April 6, 1992) was an American writer and professor of biochemistry at Boston University.
The Kenbak-1 is considered by the Computer History Museum and the American Computer Museum to be the world's first "personal computer", invented by John V. Blankenbaker (1930-) of Kenbak Corporation in 1970, and first sold in early 1971.
The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's operating system, with complete control over everything in the system.
A laptop, also called a notebook computer or just notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.
For an overview of microcomputers of different kinds, see the following lists of microcomputers.
In electronics, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output.
Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.
Micral is a series of microcomputers produced by the French company Réalisation d'Études Électroniques (R2E), beginning with the Micral N in early 1973.
A microcontroller (MCU for microcontroller unit, or UC for μ-controller) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit.
A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
A minicomputer, or colloquially mini, is a class of smaller computers that was developed in the mid-1960s and sold for much less than mainframe and mid-size computers from IBM and its direct competitors.
A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computing device small enough to hold and operate in the hand.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
MP/M (Multi-Programming Monitor Control Program) is a discontinued multi-user version of the CP/M operating system, created by Digital Research developer Tom Rolander in 1979.
National Semiconductor was an American semiconductor manufacturer which specialized in analog devices and subsystems, formerly with headquarters in Santa Clara, California, United States.
North Star Computers Inc. (later styled as NorthStar™) was an American computer company based in Berkeley, California existing between June 1976 (when according to popular rumor it was formed as "Kentucky Fried Computers") and 1984.
Ohio Scientific Inc. (also known as Ohio Scientific Instruments) was an Ohio-based computer company that built and marketed microcomputers from 1975 to 1981.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
A power supply is an electrical device that supplies electric power to an electrical load.
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.
In computing, a printer is a peripheral device which makes a persistent human-readable representation of graphics or text on paper.
Processor Technology Corporation was a personal computer company founded in April 1975 by Gary Ingram and Bob Marsh in Berkeley, California.
Proof of concept (PoC) is a realization of a certain method or idea in order to demonstrate its feasibility, or a demonstration in principle with the aim of verifying that some concept or theory has practical potential.
Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.
Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices.
Reverse engineering, also called back engineering, is the process by which a man-made object is deconstructed to reveal its designs, architecture, or to extract knowledge from the object; similar to scientific research, the only difference being that scientific research is about a natural phenomenon.
The S-100 bus or Altair bus, IEEE696-1983 (withdrawn), was an early computer bus designed in 1974 as a part of the Altair 8800.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Semiconductor memory is a digital electronic data storage device, often used as computer memory, implemented with semiconductor electronic devices on an integrated circuit (IC).
Sord Computer Corporation was a Japanese electronics company, founded in 1970 by the entrepreneur Takayoshi Shiina.
A spreadsheet is an interactive computer application for organization, analysis and storage of data in tabular form.
A stored-program computer is a computer that stores program instructions in electronic memory.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
The U.S. company SWTPC started in 1964 as DEMCO (Daniel E. Meyer Company).
A system bus is a single computer bus that connects the major components of a computer system, combining the functions of a data bus to carry information, an address bus to determine where it should be sent, and a control bus to determine its operation.
A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a portable personal computer, typically with a mobile operating system and LCD touchscreen display processing circuitry, and a rechargeable battery in a single thin, flat package.
A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.
"The Dying Night" is a science fiction short story by American writer Isaac Asimov.
In computing, time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time.
, commonly known as Toshiba, is a Japanese multinational conglomerate headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
Transistor–transistor logic (TTL) is a logic family built from bipolar junction transistors.
The TRS-80 Micro Computer System (TRS-80, later renamed the Model I to distinguish it from successors) is a desktop microcomputer launched in 1977 and sold by Tandy Corporation through their Radio Shack stores.
A turnkey or a turnkey project (also spelled turn-key) is a type of project that is constructed so that it can be sold to any buyer as a completed product.
The TV Typewriter was a video terminal that could display two pages of 16 lines of 32 upper case characters on a standard television set.
The user interface (UI), in the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur.
A video display controller or VDC (also regularly called display engine, display interface) is an integrated circuit which is the main component in a video signal generator, a device responsible for the production of a TV video signal in a computing or game system.
A video game console is an electronic, digital or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.
VisiCalc (for "visible calculator") was the first spreadsheet computer program for personal computers, originally released for the Apple II by VisiCorp.
The Z80 CPU is an 8-bit based microprocessor.
A 19-inch rack is a standardized frame or enclosure for mounting multiple electronic equipment modules.
The 7400 series of transistor–transistor logic (TTL) integrated circuits are the most popular family of TTL integrated circuit logic.
8-bit is also a generation of microcomputers in which 8-bit microprocessors were the norm.