In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D, or A-to-D) is a system that converts an analog signal, such as a sound picked up by a microphone or light entering a digital camera, into a digital signal.
ARM, previously Advanced RISC Machine, originally Acorn RISC Machine, is a family of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments.
The ARM Cortex-M is a group of 32-bit RISC ARM processor cores licensed by Arm Holdings.
An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.
AT91CAP (AT91CAP Customizable Atmel Microcontrollers) is a family of Atmel microcontrollers based on the 32-bit RISC microprocessors from ARM.
Atmel Corporation is an American-based designer and manufacturer of semiconductors, founded in 1984.
Atmel ARM-based processors are microcontrollers and microprocessors integrated circuits, by Atmel (a subsidiary of Microchip Technology), that are based on various 32-bit ARM processor cores, with Atmel-designed peripherals and tool support.
AVR is a family of microcontrollers developed by Atmel beginning in 1996.
The AVR32 is a 32-bit RISC microcontroller architecture produced by Atmel.
BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.
The BASIC Stamp is a microcontroller with a small, specialized BASIC interpreter (PBASIC) built into ROM.
Bit manipulation is the act of algorithmically manipulating bits or other pieces of data shorter than a word.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
The C166 family is a 16-bit microcontroller architecture from Infineon (formerly the semiconductor division of Siemens) in cooperation with STMicroelectronics.
A Controller Area Network (CAN bus) is a robust vehicle bus standard designed to allow microcontrollers and devices to communicate with each other in applications without a host computer.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
CircuitPython is an open source derivative of the MicroPython programming language targeted towards the student and beginner.
A clock generator is a circuit that produces a timing signal (known as a clock signal and behaves as such) for use in synchronizing a circuit's operation.
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, abbreviated as CMOS, is a technology for constructing integrated circuits.
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".
A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.
Consumer Electronics Control (CEC) is a feature of HDMI designed to allow users to command and control devices connected through HDMI by using only one remote control.
In computing, a context switch is the process of storing the state of a process or of a thread, so that it can be restored and execution resumed from the same point later.
In computer science, control flow (or flow of control) is the order in which individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated.
CPython is the reference implementation of the Python programming language.
In concurrent programming, concurrent accesses to shared resources can lead to unexpected or erroneous behavior, so parts of the program where the shared resource is accessed are protected.
Cypress Semiconductor Corporation is an American semiconductor design and manufacturing company.
A debugger or debugging tool is a computer program that is used to test and debug other programs (the "target" program).
Debugging is the process of finding and resolving defects or problems within a computer program that prevent correct operation of computer software or a system.
A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor (or a SIP block), with its architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing.
In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC, D/A, D2A, or D-to-A) is a system that converts a digital signal into an analog signal.
EEPROM (also E2PROM) stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory and is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers, integrated in microcontrollers for smart cards and remote keyless system, and other electronic devices to store relatively small amounts of data but allowing individual bytes to be erased and reprogrammed.
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
An EPROM (rarely EROM), or erasable programmable read-only memory, is a type of memory chip that retains its data when its power supply is switched off.
Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN).
Ferroelectric RAM (FeRAM, F-RAM or FRAM) is a random-access memory similar in construction to DRAM but using a ferroelectric layer instead of a dielectric layer to achieve non-volatility.
In electronic systems and computing, firmware is a specific class of computer software that provides the low-level control for the device's specific hardware.
Flash memory is an electronic (solid-state) non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.
In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.
A floating-point unit (FPU, colloquially a math coprocessor) is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers.
Forth is an imperative stack-based computer programming language and environment originally designed by Charles "Chuck" Moore.
The 68HC11 (6811 or HC11 for short) is an 8-bit microcontroller (µC) family introduced by Motorola in 1985.
The 9S08 (68HCS08 or S08 for short) is a 8-bit microcontroller (µC) family originally produced by Motorola, later by Freescale Semiconductor,, and currently by NXP, descended from the Motorola 6800 microprocessor.
H8 is the name of a large family of 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit microcontrollers made by Renesas Technology, originating in the early 1990s within Hitachi Semiconductor and still evolving as of 2006.
The Harvard architecture is a computer architecture with physically separate storage and signal pathways for instructions and data.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.
I²C (Inter-Integrated Circuit), pronounced I-squared-C, is a synchronous, multi-master, multi-slave, packet switched, single-ended, serial computer bus invented in 1982 by Philips Semiconductor (now NXP Semiconductors).
In-circuit emulation (ICE) is the use of a hardware device or in-circuit emulator used to debug the software of an embedded system.
In-system programming (ISP), also called in-circuit serial programming (ICSP), is the ability of some programmable logic devices, microcontrollers, and other embedded devices to be programmed while installed in a complete system, rather than requiring the chip to be programmed prior to installing it into the system.
AURIX (Automotive Realtime Integrated NeXt Generation Architecture) is a 32-bit Infineon microcontroller family, targeting the automotive industry in terms of performance and safety.
TriCore is a 32-bit microcontroller architecture from Infineon.
XMC is a family of microcontroller ICs by Infineon.
In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.
The Intel 4004 is a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971.
The Intel 8008 ("eight-thousand-eight" or "eighty-oh-eight") is an early byte-oriented microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and introduced in April 1972.
The MCS-48 microcontroller (µC) series, Intel's first microcontroller, was originally released in 1976.
The Intel MCS-51 (commonly termed 8051) is an internally Harvard architecture, complex instruction set computer (CISC) instruction set, single chip microcontroller (µC) series developed by Intel in 1980 for use in embedded systems.
Interactive programming is the procedure of writing parts of a program while it is already active.
In computing, an interface is a shared boundary across which two or more separate components of a computer system exchange information.
In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without requiring them previously to have been compiled into a machine language program.
In system programming, an interrupt is a signal to the processor emitted by hardware or software indicating an event that needs immediate attention.
In computer systems programming, an interrupt handler, also known as an interrupt service routine or ISR, is a special block of code associated with a specific interrupt condition.
In computing, interrupt latency is the time that elapses from when an interrupt is generated to when the source of the interrupt is serviced.
JTAG (named after the Joint Test Action Group which codified it) is an industry standard for verifying designs and testing printed circuit boards after manufacture.
The kilobyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.
A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals.
This is a list of common microcontrollers listed by brand.
The following is a partial list of Freescale Semiconductor products, including products formerly manufactured by Motorola until 2004.
This is a list of open-source hardware projects, including computer systems and components, cameras, radio, telephony, science education, machines and tools, robotics, renewable energy, home automation, medical and biotech, automotive, prototyping, test equipment, and musical instruments.
Wi-Fi microcontrollers enable Wi-Fi connectivity for devices so that they can send & receive data and accept commands.
In computer science, load-link and store-conditional (LL/SC) are a pair of instructions used in multithreading to achieve synchronization.
Logic simulation is the use of simulation software to predict the behavior of digital circuits and hardware description languages.
Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
Magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) is a non-volatile random-access memory technology available today that began its development in mid-1980s.
Mask ROM (MROM) is a type of read-only memory (ROM) whose contents are programmed by the integrated circuit manufacturer (rather than by the user).
Maxim Integrated is an American, publicly traded company that designs, manufactures, and sells analog and mixed-signal integrated circuits.
Microbotics (or microrobotics) is the field of miniature robotics, in particular mobile robots with characteristic dimensions less than 1 mm.
Microchip Technology is an American manufacturer of microcontroller, memory and analog semiconductors.
A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.
MicroPython is a software implementation of the Python 3 programming language, written in C, that is optimized to run on a microcontroller.
MIPS (an acronym for Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages) is a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA)Price, Charles (September 1995).
A mixed-signal integrated circuit is any integrated circuit that has both analog circuits and digital circuits on a single semiconductor die.
A motor controller is a device or group of devices that serves to govern in some predetermined manner the performance of an electric motor.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
A network interface controller (NIC, also known as a network interface card, network adapter, LAN adapter or physical network interface, and by similar terms) is a computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network.
The NXP ColdFire is a microprocessor that derives from the Motorola 68000 family architecture, manufactured for embedded systems development by NXP Semiconductors.
NXP Semiconductors N.V. is a Dutch global semiconductor manufacturer headquartered in Eindhoven, Netherlands.
The Parallax P8X32A Propeller is a multi-core processor parallel computer architecture microcontroller chip with eight 32-bit reduced instruction set computer (RISC) central processing unit (CPU) cores.
A peripheral device is "an ancillary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer." Three categories of peripheral devices exist based on their relationship with the computer.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
PIC (usually pronounced as "pick") is a family of microcontrollers made by Microchip Technology, derived from the PIC1650"PICmicro Family Tree", PIC16F Seminar Presentation originally developed by General Instrument's Microelectronics Division.
The PIC16C84, PIC16F84 and PIC16F84A are 14-bit microcontrollers of which the PIC16C84 was the first introduced in 1993 and hailed as the first PIC microcontroller to feature a serial programming algorithm and EEPROM memory.
PowerPC (with the backronym Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC – Performance Computing, sometimes abbreviated as PPC) is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM.
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.
In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
In computing and in embedded systems, a programmable interval timer (PIT) is a counter that generates an output signal when it reaches a programmed count.
A programmable logic controller (PLC), or programmable controller is an industrial digital computer which has been ruggedized and adapted for the control of manufacturing processes, such as assembly lines, or robotic devices, or any activity that requires high reliability control and ease of programming and process fault diagnosis.
A programmable read-only memory (PROM) or field programmable read-only memory (FPROM) or one-time programmable non-volatile memory (OTP NVM) is a form of digital memory where the setting of each bit is locked by a fuse or antifuse.
PSoC (Programmable System-on-Chip) is a family of microcontroller integrated circuits by Cypress Semiconductor.
Pulse-width modulation (PWM), or pulse-duration modulation (PDM), is a modulation technique used to encode a message into a pulsing signal.
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.
A QFP or Quad Flat Package is a surface mount integrated circuit package with "gull wing" leads extending from each of the four sides.
The Renesas is a 16-bit microcontroller that was developed as a smaller and cheaper version of the Renesas M16C.
The Rabbit 2000 is a high-performance 8-bit microcontroller designed by Rabbit Semiconductor for embedded system applications.
Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.
A resistor–capacitor circuit (RC circuit), or RC filter or RC network, is an electric circuit composed of resistors and capacitors driven by a voltage or current source.
Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices.
In computer science, real-time computing (RTC), or reactive computing describes hardware and software systems subject to a "real-time constraint", for example from event to system response.
A reduced instruction set computer, or RISC (pronounced 'risk'), is one whose instruction set architecture (ISA) allows it to have fewer cycles per instruction (CPI) than a complex instruction set computer (CISC).
A register file is an array of processor registers in a central processing unit (CPU).
A relay is an electrically operated switch.
is a Japanese semiconductor manufacturer headquartered in Tokyo.
RL78 Family is a 16- and 8-bit CPU core for embedded microcontrollers of Renesas Electronics introduced in 2010.
RX is the family name for a range of 32-bit microcontrollers manufactured by Renesas Electronics.
In telecommunication and data transmission, serial communication is the process of sending data one bit at a time, sequentially, over a communication channel or computer bus.
The Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) is a synchronous serial communication interface specification used for short distance communication, primarily in embedded systems.
In computing, a serial port is a serial communication interface through which information transfers in or out one bit at a time (in contrast to a parallel port).
Silicon Laboratories, Inc.
Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system.
A single-board microcontroller is a microcontroller built onto a single printed circuit board.
The Small Device C Compiler (SDCC) is a free-software, partially retargetable C compiler for microcontrollers.
Software development is the process of conceiving, specifying, designing, programming, documenting, testing, and bug fixing involved in creating and maintaining applications, frameworks, or other software components.
A solenoid (/ˈsolə.nɔɪd/) (from the French solénoïde, derived in turn from the Greek solen ("pipe, channel") and eidos ("form, shape")) is a coil wound into a tightly packed helix.
STM32 is a family of 32-bit microcontroller integrated circuits by STMicroelectronics.
The STM8 is an 8-bit microcontroller family by STMicroelectronics an extended variant of the ST7 microcontroller architecture.
STMicroelectronics is a French-Italian multinational electronics and semiconductor manufacturer headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
SuperH (or SH) is a 32-bit reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Hitachi and currently produced by Renesas.
A switched-mode power supply (switching-mode power supply, switch-mode power supply, switched power supply, SMPS, or switcher) is an electronic power supply that incorporates a switching regulator to convert electrical power efficiently.
A system on a chip or system on chip (SoC) is an integrated circuit (also known as an "IC" or "chip") that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic systems.
In computer science, a tail call is a subroutine call performed as the final action of a procedure.
Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.
The TMS1000 is a family of microcontroller integrated circuits, introduced by Texas Instruments in 1974.
Texas Instruments TMS320 is a blanket name for a series of digital signal processors (DSPs) from Texas Instruments.
The MSP430 is a mixed-signal microcontroller family from Texas Instruments.
A timer is a specialized type of clock used for measuring specific time intervals.
The Toshiba TLCS series is a family of CISC and RISC microcontrollers from Toshiba.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
A universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter (UART) is a computer hardware device for asynchronous serial communication in which the data format and transmission speeds are configurable.
USB (abbreviation of Universal Serial Bus), is an industry standard that was developed to define cables, connectors and protocols for connection, communication, and power supply between personal computers and their peripheral devices.
V850 is the trademark name for a 32-bit RISC CPU architecture of Renesas Electronics for embedded microcontrollers, introduced in early 90's by NEC and still being developed as of 2018.
A watchdog timer (sometimes called a computer operating properly or COP timer, or simply a watchdog) is an electronic timer that is used to detect and recover from computer malfunctions.
In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design.
The Infineon XC800 family is an 8-bit microcontroller family, first introduced in 2005, with a dual cycle optimized 8051 "E-Warp" core.
The Infineon XE166 family is a 16-bit microcontroller family, first introduced in 2007.
The Zilog Z8 is a microcontroller architecture, originally introduced in 1979, which today also includes the Z8 Encore!, eZ8 Encore!, eZ8 Encore! XP, and eZ8 Encore! MC families.
32-bit microcomputers are computers in which 32-bit microprocessors are the norm.
A group of four bits is also called a nibble and has 24.
In computer architecture, 64-bit computing is the use of processors that have datapath widths, integer size, and memory address widths of 64 bits (eight octets).
8-bit is also a generation of microcomputers in which 8-bit microprocessors were the norm.
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