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Index Microkernel

In computer science, a microkernel (also known as μ-kernel) is the near-minimum amount of software that can provide the mechanisms needed to implement an operating system (OS). [1]

97 relations: Adaptive Domain Environment for Operating Systems, Address space, Application checkpointing, Arch Linux, Assembly language, Berkeley Software Distribution, Booting, Buffer overflow, Capability-based security, ChorusOS, CiteSeerX, Common Criteria, Computer science, Context switch, CPU cache, CPU modes, Crash-only software, Cycles per instruction, Daemon (computing), Database, Database transaction, Debian, Denial-of-service attack, Device driver, Direct memory access, Display server, Electronic Design (magazine), EROS (microkernel), Evaluation Assurance Level, Exokernel, File system, Formal methods, Gernot Heiser, GNU GRUB, GNU Hurd, Hardware abstraction, History of the Berkeley Software Distribution, Hybrid kernel, Hypervisor, Input–output memory management unit, Integrity (operating system), Inter-process communication, Internet protocol suite, IOS, Jochen Liedtke, Kernel (operating system), KeyKOS, L4 microkernel family, Lions' Commentary on UNIX 6th Edition, with Source Code, Loadable kernel module, ..., Local area network, LynxOS, Mach (kernel), MacOS, Message passing, Michigan Terminal System, MINIX, MINIX 3, Monolithic kernel, Nanosecond, Nuremberg, Operating system, Order of magnitude, Per Brinch Hansen, Portland Pattern Repository, Principle of least privilege, Protection ring, Protocol stack, Puławy, QNX, RC 4000 multiprogramming system, Real-time computing, Real-time operating system, Redox (operating system), Regnecentralen, Remote procedure call, Replication (computing), Scheduler activations, Separation of mechanism and policy, Shared memory, Signal (IPC), Software, Source code, Tanenbaum–Torvalds debate, Thread (computing), Timeout (computing), Tru64 UNIX, Trusted computing base, TvOS, Ultrix, Unikernel, Unix, User space, Virtual machine, VM (operating system), WatchOS, XNU. Expand index (47 more) »

Adaptive Domain Environment for Operating Systems

Adeos (Adaptive Domain Environment for Operating Systems) is a nanokernel hardware abstraction layer (HAL) or a hypervisor that operates between computer hardware and the operating system that runs on it.

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Address space

In computing, an address space defines a range of discrete addresses, each of which may correspond to a network host, peripheral device, disk sector, a memory cell or other logical or physical entity.

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Application checkpointing

Checkpointing is a technique to add fault tolerance into computing systems.

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Arch Linux

Arch Linux (or Arch) is a Linux distribution for computers based on x86-64 architectures.

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Assembly language

An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.

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Berkeley Software Distribution

Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) was a Unix operating system derivative developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1977 to 1995.

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In computing, booting is starting up a computer or computer appliance until it can be used.

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Buffer overflow

In information security and programming, a buffer overflow, or buffer overrun, is an anomaly where a program, while writing data to a buffer, overruns the buffer's boundary and overwrites adjacent memory locations.

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Capability-based security

Capability-based security is a concept in the design of secure computing systems, one of the existing security models.

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ChorusOS is a microkernel real-time operating system designed as a message-based computational model.

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x or CiteSeerX but DISPLAYTITLE only allows changing an initial letter to lower case --> CiteSeerx (originally called CiteSeer) is a public search engine and digital library for scientific and academic papers, primarily in the fields of computer and information science.

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Common Criteria

The Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation (abbreviated as Common Criteria or CC) is an international standard (ISO/IEC 15408) for computer security certification.

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Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

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Context switch

In computing, a context switch is the process of storing the state of a process or of a thread, so that it can be restored and execution resumed from the same point later.

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CPU cache

A CPU cache is a hardware cache used by the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer to reduce the average cost (time or energy) to access data from the main memory.

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CPU modes

CPU modes (also called processor modes, CPU states, CPU privilege levels and other names) are operating modes for the central processing unit of some computer architectures that place restrictions on the type and scope of operations that can be performed by certain processes being run by the CPU.

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Crash-only software

Crash-only software refers to computer programs that handle failures by simply restarting, without attempting any sophisticated recovery.

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Cycles per instruction

In computer architecture, cycles per instruction (aka clock cycles per instruction, clocks per instruction, or CPI) is one aspect of a processor's performance: the average number of clock cycles per instruction for a program or program fragment.

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Daemon (computing)

In multitasking computer operating systems, a daemon is a computer program that runs as a background process, rather than being under the direct control of an interactive user.

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A database is an organized collection of data, stored and accessed electronically.

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Database transaction

A transaction symbolizes a unit of work performed within a database management system (or similar system) against a database, and treated in a coherent and reliable way independent of other transactions.

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Debian is a Unix-like computer operating system that is composed entirely of free software, and packaged by a group of individuals participating in the Debian Project.

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Denial-of-service attack

In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is a cyber-attack in which the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet.

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Device driver

In computing, a device driver is a computer program that operates or controls a particular type of device that is attached to a computer.

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Direct memory access

Direct memory access (DMA) is a feature of computer systems that allows certain hardware subsystems to access main system memory (Random-access memory), independent of the central processing unit (CPU).

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Display server

A display server or window server is a program whose primary task is to coordinate the input and output of its clients to and from the rest of the operating system, the hardware, and each other.

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Electronic Design (magazine)

Electronic Design, founded in 1952, is the largest published print magazine (circulation 141,000) for the electronic design industry published in the USA by Penton Media.

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EROS (microkernel)

EROS (The Extremely Reliable Operating System) is an operating system developed beginning in 1991 by The EROS Group, LLC., the Johns Hopkins University, and the University of Pennsylvania.

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Evaluation Assurance Level

The Evaluation Assurance Level (EAL1 through EAL7) of an IT product or system is a numerical grade assigned following the completion of a Common Criteria security evaluation, an international standard in effect since 1999.

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Exokernel is an operating system kernel developed by the MIT Parallel and Distributed Operating Systems group, and also a class of similar operating systems.

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File system

In computing, a file system or filesystem controls how data is stored and retrieved.

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Formal methods

In computer science, specifically software engineering and hardware engineering, formal methods are a particular kind of mathematically based techniques for the specification, development and verification of software and hardware systems.

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Gernot Heiser

Gernot Heiser (born 1957) is a Scientia Professor and the John Lions Chair for operating systems at the University of New South Wales (UNSW).

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GNU GRUB (short for GNU GRand Unified Bootloader) is a boot loader package from the GNU Project.

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GNU Hurd

GNU Hurd is the multiserver microkernel written as part of GNU.

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Hardware abstraction

Hardware abstractions are sets of routines in software that emulate some platform-specific details, giving programs direct access to the hardware resources.

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History of the Berkeley Software Distribution

The History of the Berkeley Software Distribution begins in the 1970s.

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Hybrid kernel

A hybrid kernel is an operating system kernel architecture that attempts to combine aspects and benefits of microkernel and monolithic kernel architectures used in computer operating systems.

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A hypervisor or virtual machine monitor (VMM) is computer software, firmware or hardware that creates and runs virtual machines.

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Input–output memory management unit

In computing, an input–output memory management unit (IOMMU) is a memory management unit (MMU) that connects a direct-memory-access–capable (DMA-capable) I/O bus to the main memory.

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Integrity (operating system)

INTEGRITY and INTEGRITY-178B are real-time operating systems (RTOSes) produced and marketed by Green Hills Software.

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Inter-process communication

In computer science, inter-process communication or interprocess communication (IPC) refers specifically to the mechanisms an operating system provides to allow the processes to manage shared data.

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Internet protocol suite

The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks.

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iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware.

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Jochen Liedtke

Jochen Liedtke (26 May 1953 – 10 June 2001) was a German computer scientist, noted for his work on microkernels, especially the creation of the L4 microkernel family.

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Kernel (operating system)

The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's operating system, with complete control over everything in the system.

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KeyKOS is a persistent, pure capability-based operating system for the IBM S/370 mainframe computers.

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L4 microkernel family

L4 is a family of second-generation microkernels, generally used to implement Unix-like operating systems, but also used in a variety of other systems.

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Lions' Commentary on UNIX 6th Edition, with Source Code

Lions' Commentary on UNIX 6th Edition, with Source Code by John Lions (1976) contains source code of the 6th Edition Unix kernel plus a commentary.

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Loadable kernel module

In computing, a loadable kernel module (LKM) is an object file that contains code to extend the running kernel, or so-called base kernel, of an operating system.

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Local area network

A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office building.

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The LynxOS RTOS is a Unix-like real-time operating system from Lynx Software Technologies (formerly "LynuxWorks").

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Mach (kernel)

Mach is a kernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University to support operating system research, primarily distributed and parallel computing.

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macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.

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Message passing

In computer science, message passing is a technique for invoking behavior (i.e., running a program) on a computer.

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Michigan Terminal System

The Michigan Terminal System (MTS) is one of the first time-sharing computer operating systems.

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MINIX (from "mini-Unix") is a POSIX-compliant (since version 2.0), Unix-like operating system based on a microkernel architecture.

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MINIX 3 is a project to create a small, high availability, high functioning Unix-like operating system.

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Monolithic kernel

A monolithic kernel is an operating system architecture where the entire operating system is working in kernel space and is alone in supervisor mode.

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A nanosecond (ns) is an SI unit of time equal to one thousand-millionth of a second (or one billionth of a second), that is, 1/1,000,000,000 of a second, or 10 seconds.

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Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.

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Operating system

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

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Order of magnitude

An order of magnitude is an approximate measure of the number of digits that a number has in the commonly-used base-ten number system.

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Per Brinch Hansen

Per Brinch Hansen (November 13, 1938 – July 31, 2007) was a Danish-American computer scientist known for his work in operating systems, concurrent programming and parallel and distributed computing.

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Portland Pattern Repository

The Portland Pattern Repository (PPR) is a repository for computer programming design patterns.

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Principle of least privilege

In information security, computer science, and other fields, the principle of least privilege (PoLP, also known as the principle of minimal privilege or the principle of least authority) requires that in a particular abstraction layer of a computing environment, every module (such as a process, a user, or a program, depending on the subject) must be able to access only the information and resources that are necessary for its legitimate purpose.

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Protection ring

In computer science, hierarchical protection domains, often called protection rings, are mechanisms to protect data and functionality from faults (by improving fault tolerance) and malicious behaviour (by providing computer security).

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Protocol stack

The protocol stack or network stack is an implementation of a computer networking protocol suite or protocol family.

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Puławy is a city in eastern Poland, in Lublin Province of northern Lesser Poland, located at the confluence of the Wisła and Kurówka rivers.

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QNX is a commercial Unix-like real-time operating system, aimed primarily at the embedded systems market.

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RC 4000 multiprogramming system

The RC 4000 Multiprogramming System is a discontinued operating system developed for the RC 4000 minicomputer in 1969.

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Real-time computing

In computer science, real-time computing (RTC), or reactive computing describes hardware and software systems subject to a "real-time constraint", for example from event to system response.

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Real-time operating system

A real-time operating system (RTOS) is an operating system (OS) intended to serve real-time applications that process data as it comes in, typically without buffer delays.

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Redox (operating system)

Redox is a Unix-like microkernel operating system written in the programming language Rust, a language with focus on safety and high performance.

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Regnecentralen, or RC for short, was the first Danish computer company, founded on October 12, 1955.

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Remote procedure call

In distributed computing, a remote procedure call (RPC) is when a computer program causes a procedure (subroutine) to execute in a different address space (commonly on another computer on a shared network), which is coded as if it were a normal (local) procedure call, without the programmer explicitly coding the details for the remote interaction.

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Replication (computing)

Replication in computing involves sharing information so as to ensure consistency between redundant resources, such as software or hardware components, to improve reliability, fault-tolerance, or accessibility.

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Scheduler activations

Scheduler activations are a threading mechanism that, when implemented in an operating system's process scheduler, provide kernel-level thread functionality with user-level thread flexibility and performance.

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Separation of mechanism and policy

The separation of mechanism and policy is a design principle in computer science.

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Shared memory

In computer science, shared memory is memory that may be simultaneously accessed by multiple programs with an intent to provide communication among them or avoid redundant copies.

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Signal (IPC)

Signals are a limited form of inter-process communication (IPC), typically used in Unix, Unix-like, and other POSIX-compliant operating systems.

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Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.

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Source code

In computing, source code is any collection of code, possibly with comments, written using a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text.

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Tanenbaum–Torvalds debate

The Tanenbaum–Torvalds debate was a debate between Andrew S. Tanenbaum and Linus Torvalds, regarding the Linux kernel and kernel architecture in general.

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Thread (computing)

In computer science, a thread of execution is the smallest sequence of programmed instructions that can be managed independently by a scheduler, which is typically a part of the operating system.

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Timeout (computing)

In telecommunications and related engineering (including computer networking and programming), the term timeout or time-out has several meanings, including.

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Tru64 UNIX

Tru64 UNIX is a discontinued 64-bit UNIX operating system for the Alpha instruction set architecture (ISA), currently owned by Hewlett-Packard (HP).

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Trusted computing base

The trusted computing base (TCB) of a computer system is the set of all hardware, firmware, and/or software components that are critical to its security, in the sense that bugs or vulnerabilities occurring inside the TCB might jeopardize the security properties of the entire system.

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tvOS is an operating system developed by Apple Inc. for the fourth-generation and later Apple TV digital media player.

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Ultrix (officially all-caps ULTRIX) is the brand name of Digital Equipment Corporation's (DEC) discontinued native Unix operating systems for the PDP-11, VAX and DECstations.

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A unikernel is a specialised, single address space machine image constructed by using library operating systems.

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Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.

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User space

A modern computer operating system usually segregates virtual memory into kernel space and user space.

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Virtual machine

In computing, a virtual machine (VM) is an emulation of a computer system.

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VM (operating system)

VM (often: VM/CMS) is a family of IBM virtual machine operating systems used on IBM mainframes System/370, System/390, zSeries, System z and compatible systems, including the Hercules emulator for personal computers.

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watchOS is the mobile operating system of the Apple Watch, developed by Apple Inc. It is based on the iOS operating system and has many similar features.

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XNU is the computer operating system kernel developed at Apple Inc. since December 1996 for use in the macOS operating system and released as free and open-source software as part of the Darwin operating system.

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Redirects here:

Micro kernel, Mkernel, Nanokernel, Picokernel, Μkernel.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microkernel

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