340 relations: Abiogenesis, Absolute zero, Acetic acid, Acetic acid bacteria, Acetobacter aceti, Acidophile, African trypanosomiasis, Akshamsaddin, Alcohol, Algae, Algae fuel, Alkali, Alkaliphile, Amber, Ammonia, Anaerobic digestion, Ancient Rome, Animal, Animalcule, Anthrax, Antimicrobial resistance, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Archaea, Aspergillus niger, Atmosphere, Atmosphere (unit), Atmosphere of Earth, Aum Shinrikyo, Australia, Autoclave, Avicenna, Ayran, Azorhizobium, Bacillus anthracis, Bacteria, Bacterial conjugation, Bacteriophage, Baking, Beer, Biochemistry, Biogas, Biogeochemical cycle, Biological agent, Biological life cycle, Biological warfare, Biology, Biomass (ecology), Biotechnology, Bioterrorism, Biotin, ..., Bradyrhizobium, Bread, Brewing, Bubonic plague, Budding, Butyric acid, Caister Academic Press, Candida albicans, Candidiasis, Carbohydrate, Carl Woese, Catalogue of Life, Cell (biology), Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Cell wall, Cellulosic ethanol, Charales, Charophyta, Cheese, Chlorococcales, Chloroplast, Cholera, Chromosome, Ciclosporin, Circular bacterial chromosome, Citric acid, Citric acid cycle, Classical compound, Clostridium butyricum, Coenocyte, Colony (biology), Crenarchaeota, Crust (geology), Curd, Cyanobacteria, Decomposition, Deep sea, Deinococcus radiodurans, Dermatophytosis, Desert, Diazotroph, Dietary supplement, Disease, DNA, Dysentery, Earth, Embryophyte, Endospore, Endosymbiont, Enrichment culture, Enzyme, Epidemic, Equator, Ernst Haeckel, Escherichia coli, Ester, Ethanol fermentation, Ether lipid, Euglena, Eukaryote, Evolution, Extraterrestrial life, Extreme environment, Extremophile, Félix d'Herelle, Fermentation in food processing, Fermented milk products, Fertilisation, Fission (biology), Flagellate, Flagellum, Folate, Food, Food preservation, Food spoilage, Fuel cell, Fungus, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene regulatory network, Genetics, Genome, Genomics, Geographical pole, Geologic time scale, Germ theory of disease, Geyser, Girolamo Fracastoro, Golgi apparatus, Gray (unit), Green algae, Growth medium, Gut flora, Habitat, Haloarchaea, Halobacterium salinarum, Halophile, Health, High pressure, Histoplasmosis, HIV/AIDS, Horizontal gene transfer, Hormone, Host (biology), Hot spring, Human, Human body, Human microbiota, Hydrosphere, Hygiene, Hyperthermophile, Hypha, Hyphen, Immune system, Impedance microbiology, Infection, Infection and Immunity, Influenza, Ionizing radiation, Jain literature, Jainism, John Hogg (biologist), Kefir, Koch's postulates, Lactic acid, Lactobacillales, Lactobacillus, Leavening agent, Legume, Lichen, Life, Light, Lipid bilayer, List of people considered father or mother of a scientific field, Lithotroph, Louis Pasteur, Mahavira, Malaria, Marcus Terentius Varro, Marine microorganism, Martinus Beijerinck, Meiosis, Mesorhizobium, Metabolism, Methane, Methanogen, Micro-animal, Microbes in human culture, Microbial biogeography, Microbial intelligence, Microbial symbiosis and immunity, Microbiological culture, Microbiology, Microbiota, Microbivory, Micrographia, Microorganism, Microscope, Microscopic scale, Microscopy, Middle Ages, Mitochondrion, Mitosis, Model organism, Mold, Molecular biology, Monascus purpureus, Morphology (biology), Motility, Multicellular organism, Multiple drug resistance, Mutation, Mutualism (biology), Myxobacteria, Nanobacterium, Nanobe, National Science Foundation, Natural selection, Nature (journal), Nigoda, Nitrifying bacteria, Nitrogen cycle, Nitrogen fixation, Non-cellular life, Nutrient, Nylon-eating bacteria, Organelle, Organism, Osiris (journal), Outer space, Oxalic acid, Oxidative phosphorylation, Parakaryon myojinensis, Parasitism, Pathogen, Pathogenic bacteria, Periodontal disease, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Petri dish, PH, Phenotypic switching, Phospholipid, Photosynthesis, Phylogenetic tree, Phytochemistry, Pickling, Picrophilus, Piezophile, Plant, Plant cell, Plasmid, Ploidy, Precambrian, Probiotic, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Prokaryote, Proteomics, Protist, Protozoa, Psychrophile, Radioresistance, Regulation of gene expression, Rhizobium, Ribosomal RNA, Robert Hooke, Robert Koch, Rock (geology), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Salinicola salarius, Salinity, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Sergei Winogradsky, Sewage treatment, Sexual reproduction, Siberian Traps, Siege, Siege engine, Sinorhizobium, Slime mold, Slow sand filter, Soil, Soil biology, Soil microbiology, Species, Spontaneous generation, Spore, Staining, Statin, Strain 121, Streptococcus, Streptokinase, Stressor, Sugar, Swarm behaviour, Symbiosis, Temperature, The Canon of Medicine, Thermophile, Thiomargarita namibiensis, Three-domain system, Tobacco mosaic virus, Tolypocladium inflatum, Toxoplasmosis, Transduction (genetics), Transformation (genetics), Triassic, Tuberculosis, Two-empire system, Types of volcanic eruptions, Ultraviolet, Unicellular organism, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Vacuum, Viral disease, Viridiplantae, Virology, Virus, Vitamin, Vitamin C, Water, Wine, Winemaking, World Ocean, Year, Yeast, Yellow fever, Yogurt, Zygote, 1673 in science, 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack. Expand index (290 more) » « Shrink index
Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.
Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reach their minimum value, taken as 0.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of Gram-negative bacteria which oxidize sugars or ethanol and produce acetic acid during fermentation.
Acetobacter aceti is a Gram-negative bacterium that moves using its peritrichous flagella.
Acidophiles or acidophilic organisms are those that thrive under highly acidic conditions (usually at pH 2.0 or below).
African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is an insect-borne parasitic disease of humans and other animals.
Akshamsaddin (Muhammad Shams al-Din bin Hamzah, Ak Şemsettin) (b. 1389, Damascus - d. 16 February 1459, Göynük, Bolu), was an influential Ottoman religious scholar, poet, and mystic saint.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Algae fuel, algal biofuel, or algal oil is an alternative to liquid fossil fuels that uses algae as its source of energy-rich oils.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5–11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.
Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Anaerobic digestion is a collection of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Animalcule ("little animal", from Latin animal + the diminutive suffix -culum) is an older term for a microscopic animal or protozoan.
Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek FRS (24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch businessman and scientist in the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Aspergillus niger is a fungus and one of the most common species of the genus Aspergillus.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
, formerly, is a Japanese doomsday cult founded by Shoko Asahara in 1984.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
An autoclave is a pressure chamber used to carry out industrial processes requiring elevated temperature and pressure different from ambient air pressure.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Ayran (from ayran, ayran, دوغ "doogh", dew) is a cold savory yogurt-based beverage that is mixed with salt.
Azorhizobium is a genus of Gram-negative soil bacteria.
Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax—a common disease of livestock and, occasionally, of humans—and the only obligate pathogen within the genus Bacillus.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells.
A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.
Baking is a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones.
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen.
In geography and Earth science, a biogeochemical cycle or substance turnover or cycling of substances is a pathway by which a chemical substance moves through biotic (biosphere) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) compartments of Earth.
A biological agent—also called bio-agent, biological threat agent, biological warfare agent, biological weapon, or bioweapon—is a bacterium, virus, protozoan, parasite, or fungus that can be used purposefully as a weapon in bioterrorism or biological warfare (BW).
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biomass is the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
Bioterrorism is terrorism involving the intentional release or dissemination of biological agents.
Biotin is a water-soluble B vitamin, also called vitamin B7 and formerly known as vitamin H or coenzyme R. Biotin is composed of a ureido ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring.
Bradyrhizobium is a genus of Gram-negative soil bacteria, many of which fix nitrogen.
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.
Brewing is the production of beer by steeping a starch source (commonly cereal grains, the most popular of which is barley) in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast.
Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Budding is a type of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site.
Butyric acid (from βούτῡρον, meaning "butter"), also known under the systematic name butanoic acid, abbreviated BTA, is a carboxylic acid with the structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH.
Caister Academic Press is an independent academic publishing company that produces books and ebooks on microbiology, and molecular biology.
Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast that is a common member of the human gut flora.
Candidiasis is a fungal infection due to any type of Candida (a type of yeast).
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carl Richard Woese (July 15, 1928 – December 30, 2012) was an American microbiologist and biophysicist.
The Catalogue of Life is an online database that provides the world’s most comprehensive and authoritative index of known species of animals, plants, fungi and micro-organisms.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.
Cellulosic ethanol is ethanol (ethyl alcohol) produced from cellulose (the stringy fiber of a plant) rather than from the plant's seeds or fruit.
Charales is an order of freshwater green algae in the division Charophyta, class Charophyceae, commonly known as stoneworts.
Charophyta is a division of freshwater green algae.
Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein.
Chlorococcales is an order of green algae in the class Chlorophyceae.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Ciclosporin, also spelled cyclosporine and cyclosporin, is an immunosuppressant medication and natural product.
A circular bacterial chromosome is a bacterial chromosome in the form of a molecule of circular DNA.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Classical compounds and neoclassical compounds are compound words composed from combining forms (which act as affixes or stems) derived from classical Latin or ancient Greek roots.
Clostridium butyricum is a strictly anaerobic endospore-forming Gram-positive butyric acid producing bacillus subsisting by means of fermentation using an intracellularly accumulated amylopectin-like α-polyglucan (granulose) as a substrate.
A coenocyte (from Greek: κοινός (koinós).
In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another.
The Crenarchaeota (Greek for "spring old quality" as specimens were originally isolated from geothermally heated sulfuric springs in Italy) (also known as Crenarchaea or eocytes) are archaea that have been classified as a phylum of the Archaea domain.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
Curds are a dairy product obtained by coagulating milk in a process called curdling.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken down into simpler organic matter.
The deep sea or deep layer is the lowest layer in the ocean, existing below the thermocline and above the seabed, at a depth of 1000 fathoms (1800 m) or more.
Deinococcus radiodurans is an extremophilic bacterium, one of the most radiation-resistant organisms known.
Dermatophytosis, also known as ringworm, is a fungal infection of the skin.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
Diazotrophs are bacteria and archaea that fix atmospheric nitrogen gas into a more usable form such as ammonia.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
The Embryophyta are the most familiar group of green plants that form vegetation on earth.
An endospore is a dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by certain bacteria from the Firmicute phylum.
An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship with the host body or cell, often but not always to mutual benefit.
Enrichment culture is the use of certain growth media to favor the growth of a particular microorganism over others, enriching a sample for the microorganism of interest.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Ethanol fermentation, also called alcoholic fermentation, is a biological process which converts sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose into cellular energy, producing ethanol and carbon dioxide as by-products.
In an organic chemistry general sense, an ether lipid implies an ether bridge between an alkyl group (a lipid) and an unspecified alkyl or aryl group, not necessarily glycerol.
Euglena is a genus of single-celled flagellate eukaryotes.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Extraterrestrial life,Where "extraterrestrial" is derived from the Latin extra ("beyond", "not of") and terrestris ("of Earth", "belonging to Earth").
An 'extreme environment' contains conditions that are hard to survive for most known life forms.
An extremophile (from Latin extremus meaning "extreme" and Greek philiā (φιλία) meaning "love") is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth.
Félix d'Hérelle (April 25, 1873 – February 22, 1949) was a French-Canadian microbiologist.
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
Fermented milk products, also known as cultured dairy foods, cultured dairy products, or cultured milk products, are dairy foods that have been fermented with lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc.
Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.
Fission, in biology, is the division of a single entity into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts into separate entities resembling the original.
A flagellate is a cell or organism with one or more whip-like appendages called flagella.
A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
Food preservation prevents the growth of microorganisms (such as yeasts), or other microorganisms (although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria or fungi to the food), as well as slowing the oxidation of fats that cause rancidity.
Spoilage is the process in which food deteriorates to the point in which it is not edible to humans or its quality of edibility becomes reduced.
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
A gene (or genetic) regulatory network (GRN) is a collection of molecular regulators that interact with each other and with other substances in the cell to govern the gene expression levels of mRNA and proteins.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.
A geographical pole is either of the two points on a rotating body (planet, dwarf planet, natural satellite, sphere...etc) where its axis of rotation intersects its surface.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
The germ theory of disease is the currently accepted scientific theory of disease.
A geyser is a spring characterized by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by steam.
Girolamo Fracastoro (Hieronymus Fracastorius; c. 1476/86 August 1553) was an Italian physician, poet, and scholar in mathematics, geography and astronomy.
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
The gray (symbol: Gy) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI).
The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.
A growth medium or culture medium is a solid, liquid or semi-solid designed to support the growth of microorganisms or cells, or small plants like the moss Physcomitrella patens.
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
Haloarchaea (halophilic archaea, halophilic archaebacteria, halobacteria) are a class of the Euryarchaeota, found in water saturated or nearly saturated with salt.
Halobacterium salinarum is an extremely halophilic marine Gram-negative obligate aerobic archaeon.
Halophiles are organisms that thrive in high salt concentrations.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
In science and engineering the study of high pressure examines its effects on materials and the design and construction of devices, such as a diamond anvil cell, which can create high pressure.
Histoplasmosis (also known as "Cave disease", "Darling's disease", "Ohio valley disease", "reticuloendotheliosis", "spelunker's lung" and "caver's disease") is a disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.
A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
The human microbiota is the aggregate of microorganisms that resides on or within any of a number of human tissues and biofluids, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, biliary and gastrointestinal tracts.
The hydrosphere (from Greek ὕδωρ hydōr, "water" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "sphere") is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite.
Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.
A hyperthermophile is an organism that thrives in extremely hot environments—from 60 °C (140 °F) upwards.
A hypha (plural hyphae, from Greek ὑφή, huphḗ, "web") is a long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus, oomycete, or actinobacterium.
The hyphen (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Impedance microbiology is a rapid microbiological technique used to measure the microbial number density (mainly bacteria but also yeasts) of a sample by monitoring the electrical parameters of the growth medium.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Infection and Immunity is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the American Society for Microbiology.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Jain literature comprises Jain Agamas and subsequent commentaries on them by various Jain asectics.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
John Hogg (1800–1869) was a British naturalist who wrote about amphibians, birds, plants, reptiles, and protists.
Kefir or kephir, alternatively milk kefir or búlgaros, is a fermented milk drink that originated in the Caucasus Mountains made with kefir "grains", a yeast/bacterial fermentation starter.
Koch's postulates are four criteria designed to establish a causative relationship between a microbe and a disease.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Lactobacillales or lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are an order of Gram-positive, low-GC, acid-tolerant, generally nonsporulating, nonrespiring, either rod- or coccus-shaped bacteria that share common metabolic and physiological characteristics. These bacteria, usually found in decomposing plants and milk products, produce lactic acid as the major metabolic end product of carbohydrate fermentation. This trait has, throughout history, linked LAB with food fermentations, as acidification inhibits the growth of spoilage agents. Proteinaceous bacteriocins are produced by several LAB strains and provide an additional hurdle for spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, lactic acid and other metabolic products contribute to the organoleptic and textural profile of a food item. The industrial importance of the LAB is further evidenced by their generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status, due to their ubiquitous appearance in food and their contribution to the healthy microflora of human mucosal surfaces. The genera that comprise the LAB are at its core Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus, as well as the more peripheral Aerococcus, Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Oenococcus, Sporolactobacillus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus, and Weissella; these belong to the order Lactobacillales.
Lactobacillus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic or microaerophilic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria.
A leaven, often called a leavening agent (and also known as a raising agent), is any one of a number of substances used in doughs and batters that cause a foaming action (gas bubbles) that lightens and softens the mixture.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.
The following is a list of people who are considered a "father" or "mother" (or "founding father" or "founding mother") of a scientific field.
Lithotrophs are a diverse group of organisms using inorganic substrate (usually of mineral origin) to obtain reducing equivalents for use in biosynthesis (e.g., carbon dioxide fixation) or energy conservation (i.e., ATP production) via aerobic or anaerobic respiration.
Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
Mahavira (IAST), also known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth Tirthankara (ford-maker) of Jainism which was revived and re-established by him.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Marcus Terentius Varro (116 BC – 27 BC) was an ancient Roman scholar and writer.
Marine microorganisms are defined by their habitat as the microorganisms living in a marine environment, that is, in the saltwater of a sea or ocean or the brackish water of a coastal estuary.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Mesorhizobium is a genus of Gram-negative soil bacteria.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions.
Micro-animals are animals so small that they can only be visually observed under a microscope.
Microbes (microorganisms) play many roles in the practical aspects of human culture, and sometimes appear in literature, music, film, and art.
Microbial biogeography is a subset of biogeography, a field that concerns the distribution of organisms across space and time.
Microbial intelligence (popularly known as bacterial intelligence) is the intelligence shown by microorganisms.
There are close and often long-term relationships between symbiotic microbes and their host's immune system.
A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions.
Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).
A microbiota is an "ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms" found in and on all multicellular organisms studied to date from plants to animals.
Microbivory (adj. microbivorous, microbivore) is a feeding behavior consisting of eating microbes, especially bacteria, and practiced by animals of the mesofauna, microfauna and meiofauna.
Micrographia: or Some Phyſiological Deſcriptions of Minute Bodies Made by Magnifying Glasses.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
The microscopic scale (from, mikrós, "small" and σκοπέω, skopéō "look") is the scale of objects and events smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye, requiring a lens or microscope to see them clearly.
Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
A mold or mould (is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Monascus purpureus (syn. M. albidus, M. anka, M. araneosus, M. major, M. rubiginosus, and M. vini;, lit. "red yeast") is a species of mold that is purplish-red in color.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Motility is the ability of an organism to move independently, using metabolic energy.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
Multiple drug resistance (MDR), multidrug resistance or multiresistance is antimicrobial resistance shown by a species of microorganism to multiple antimicrobial drugs.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Mutualism or interspecific cooperation is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.
The myxobacteria ("slime bacteria") are a group of bacteria that predominantly live in the soil and feed on insoluble organic substances.
Nanobacterium (pl. nanobacteria) is the unit or member name of a proposed class of living organisms, specifically cell-walled microorganisms with a size much smaller than the generally accepted lower limit for life (about 200 nm for bacteria, like mycoplasma).
A nanobe is a tiny filamental structure first found in some rocks and sediments.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
In Jainism cosmology, the Nigoda is a realm existing in which the lowest forms of life reside in endless numbers, and without any hope of release by self-effort.
Nitrifying bacteria are chemolithotrophic organisms that include species of the genera Nitrosomonas, Nitrosococcus, Nitrobacter and Nitrococcus.
The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among the atmosphere, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
Non-cellular life is life that exists without a cellular structure for at least part of its life cycle.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
Nylon-eating bacteria are a strain of Flavobacterium that are capable of digesting certain by-products of nylon 6 manufacture.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Osiris is an annual peer-reviewed academic journal covering research in the history of science.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Oxalic acid is an organic compound with the formula C2H2O4.
Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Parakaryon myojinensis is a single-celled organism known from a single specimen, described in 2012.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause disease.
Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is a set of inflammatory conditions affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth.
The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.
A Petri dish (sometimes spelled "Petrie Dish" and alternatively known as a Petri plate or cell-culture dish), named after the German bacteriologist Julius Richard Petri, is a shallow cylindrical glass or plastic lidded dish that biologists use to culture cellssuch as bacteriaor small mosses.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phenotypic switching is switching between multiple cellular morphologies.
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
Phytochemistry is the study of phytochemicals, which are chemicals derived from plants.
Pickling is the process of preserving or expanding the lifespan of food by either anaerobic fermentation in brine or immersion in vinegar.
In taxonomy, Picrophilus is an archaean genus of the family Picrophilaceae.
A piezophile, also sometimes called a barophile, is an organism which thrives at high pressures, such as deep sea bacteria or archaea.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that differ in several key aspects from the cells of other eukaryotic organisms.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.
Probiotics are microorganisms that are claimed to provide health benefits when consumed.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
Psychrophiles or cryophiles (adj. psychrophilic or cryophilic) are extremophilic organisms that are capable of growth and reproduction in low temperatures, ranging from −20 °C to +10 °C.
Radioresistance is the level of ionizing radiation that organisms are able to withstand.
Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation.
Rhizobium is a genus of Gram-negative soil bacteria that fix nitrogen.
Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.
Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.
Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch (11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a German physician and microbiologist.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.
Salinicola salarius is a Gram-negative, moderately halophilic, piezophilic proteobacterium that requires pressures of 102 MPa to grow.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also called "fission yeast", is a species of yeast used in traditional brewing and as a model organism in molecular and cell biology.
Sergei Nikolaievich Winogradsky (or Vinogradskiy; Сергій Миколайович Виноградський; 1 September 1856 – 25 February 1953) was a Russian microbiologist, ecologist and soil scientist who pioneered the cycle-of-life concept.
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
The Siberian Traps (Сибирские траппы, Sibirskiye trappy) is a large region of volcanic rock, known as a large igneous province, in Siberia, Russia.
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.
A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent heavy castle doors, thick city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare.
Sinorhizobium/Ensifer is a genus of nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia), three of which (Sinorhizobium meliloti, Sinorhizobium medicae and Sinorhizobium fredii) have been sequenced.
Slime mold or slime mould is an informal name given to several kinds of unrelated eukaryotic organisms that can live freely as single cells, but can aggregate together to form multicellular reproductive structures.
Slow sand filters are used in water purification for treating raw water to produce a potable product.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Soil biology is the study of microbial and faunal activity and ecology in soil.
Soil microbiology is the study of organisms in soil, their functions, and how they affect soil properties.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Spontaneous generation refers to an obsolete body of thought on the ordinary formation of living organisms without descent from similar organisms.
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.
Staining is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image.
Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.
Strain 121 (Geogemma barossii) is a single-celled microbe of the domain Archaea.
Streptococcus (term coined by Viennese surgeon Albert Theodor Billroth (1829-1894) from strepto- "twisted" + Modern Latin coccus "spherical bacterium," from Greek kokkos meaning "berry") is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria).
Streptokinase (SK) is a thrombolytic medication and enzyme.
A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Swarm behaviour, or swarming, is a collective behaviour exhibited by entities, particularly animals, of similar size which aggregate together, perhaps milling about the same spot or perhaps moving en masse or migrating in some direction.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
The Canon of Medicine (القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025.
A thermophile is an organism—a type of extremophile—that thrives at relatively high temperatures, between.
Thiomargarita namibiensis is a gram-negative coccoid Proteobacterium, found in the ocean sediments of the continental shelf of Namibia.
The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese et al. in 1977 that divides cellular life forms into archaea, bacteria, and eukaryote domains.
Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a positive-sense single stranded RNA virus, genus tobamovirus that infects a wide range of plants, especially tobacco and other members of the family Solanaceae.
Tolypocladium inflatum is an ascomycete fungus originally isolated from a Norwegian soil sample that, under certain conditions, produces the immunosuppressant drug ciclosporin.
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii.
Transduction is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector.
In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).
The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
The two-empire system (two-superkingdom system) was the top-level biological classification system in general use before the establishment of the three-domain system.
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.
The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infectious virus particles (virions) attach to and enter susceptible cells.
Viridiplantae (literally "green plants") are a clade of eukaryotic organisms made up of the green algae, which are primarily aquatic, and the land plants (embryophytes), which emerged within them.
Virology is the study of viruses – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine, starting with the selection of the fruit, its fermentation into alcohol, and the bottling of the finished liquid.
The World Ocean or Global Ocean (colloquially the sea or the ocean) is the interconnected system of Earth's oceanic waters, and comprises the bulk of the hydrosphere, covering (70.8%) of Earth's surface, with a total volume of.
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.
Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (or; from yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.
A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.
The year 1673 in science and technology involved some significant events.
The 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack was the food poisoning of 751 individuals in The Dalles, Oregon, through the deliberate contamination of salad bars at ten local restaurants with Salmonella.
Micro organism, Micro organisms, Micro-organism, Micro-organisms, Microbe, Microbes, Microbial, Microbial life, Microoerganism, Microoerganisms, Microorganisms, Microrganism, Microscopic discovery of microorganisms, Microscopic life, Microscopic organism, Microscopic organisms, Microörganism, Microörganisms, One-celled, Plant microbiology, Productive Microbes, Simple life organisms, Single celled, Single-celled Organisms, Single-celled animal, Singlecelled, Soil microbe, Soil microbes, 🦠.