273 relations: Acorn Archimedes, Acorn Computers, Ada (programming language), Advanced Micro Devices, Altos Computer Systems, AMD Am29000, Amiga, Apollo Guidance Computer, Apple IIc, Apple IIe, Apple IIGS, Apple Lisa, Arc-fault circuit interrupter, Arithmetic logic unit, ARM architecture, Arm Holdings, Artificial cardiac pacemaker, AT&T Corporation, AT&T Hobbit, Atari ST, Athlon 64 X2, Automation, Bell Labs, Bellmac 32, Berkeley Software Distribution, Binary code, Binary number, Binary-coded decimal, Bit slicing, Breakup of the Bell System, Bus (computing), Busicom, Calculator, California Polytechnic State University, Capability-based security, Central Air Data Computer, Central processing unit, Clock rate, Clock signal, CMOS, Combinational logic, Commodore 128, Commodore 64, Comparison of instruction set architectures, Compiler, Compute kernel, Computer architecture, Computer engineering, Computer memory, Computer terminal, ..., Cosmic ray, CPU cache, Cromemco, Cyrix, Datapoint, Datapoint 2200, DEC Alpha, Defibrillation, Desktop computer, Digital Equipment Corporation, Digital signal controller, Digital signal processor, Dual in-line package, DVD player, DVD-Video, Dynamic logic (digital electronics), Electrical wiring, Electromechanics, Electronic News, Electrostatic discharge, Elliott Brothers (computer company), Embedded software, Embedded system, Fairchild Semiconductor, Federico Faggin, Floating-point unit, Four-Phase Systems, Galileo (spacecraft), Garrett AiResearch, General Instrument, General-purpose computing on graphics processing units, Glenrothes, Graphics processing unit, Grumman F-14 Tomcat, High-definition television, History of computing hardware, Home appliance, Home computer, HP FOCUS, IBM, IBM 801, IBM PC compatible, IBM Personal Computer, IBM POWER instruction set architecture, IMP-16, Input/output, Instruction set architecture, Integrated circuit, Intel, Intel 4004, Intel 8008, Intel 80186, Intel 80188, Intel 80286, Intel 80386, Intel 8080, Intel 8086, Intel 8087, Intel 8088, Intel i860, Intel i960, Intel iAPX 432, Intellectual property, Internet, Intersil 6100, Ivy Bridge (microarchitecture), Kilobyte, Laptop, Laser printing, Leslie L. Vadász, LGA 1366, LGA 1567, LGA 2011, LGA 775, Linux, List of ARM microarchitectures, List of instruction sets, List of microprocessors, Logic gate, Low-power electronics, Macintosh, MacOS, Mainframe computer, Manycore processor, Marcian Hoff, Mark-8, Masatoshi Shima, Megabyte, Memory management unit, Memory refresh, Memory segmentation, Microarchitecture, Microchip Technology, Microcode, Microcomputer, Microcontroller, Microprocessor chronology, Minicomputer, MIPS architecture, MIPS Technologies, Mixed-signal integrated circuit, Mobile device, Mobile phone, Modernity, Moon, Moore's law, MOS Technology 6502, MOS Technology 6510, MOSFET, Motorola, Motorola 6800, Motorola 68000, Motorola 68010, Motorola 68020, Motorola 68030, Motorola 68040, Motorola 68060, Motorola 6809, Motorola 88000, Multi-chip module, Multi-core processor, Multimedia, Multiprocessing, NASA, National Semiconductor, National Semiconductor PACE, NEC V20, Nintendo 64, NMOS logic, NOR gate, NS320xx, NXP ColdFire, Object (computer science), Opcode, Operating system, Opteron, PA-RISC, Parallel computing, PC-based IBM-compatible mainframes, PDP-11, PDP-8, Pentium D, Personal computer, PIC microcontroller, Pipeline (computing), PMOS logic, Power Architecture, POWER4, PowerPC, Printed circuit board, Printer (computing), Process control, Processor design, Processor register, R2000 (microprocessor), R3000, R4000, Radio-Electronics, Random logic, Random-access memory, Ray Holt, RCA, RCA 1802, Read-only memory, Reduced instruction set computer, Rice University, Self-aligned gate, Sequent Computer Systems, Sequential logic, Shader, Signetics 2650, Silicon Graphics, Silicon on sapphire, Smithsonian Institution, Socket C32, Socket G34, Source-code compatibility, SPARC, Stanley Mazor, Stream processing, Sun Microsystems, Super Nintendo Entertainment System, Supercomputer, Symmetric multiprocessing, System on a chip, Texas Instruments, Texas Instruments TI-99/4A, Texas Instruments TMS9900, Thread (computing), TI-990, Transistor, UltraSPARC T1, UltraSPARC T2, United States Military Standard, United States Navy, Unix, UNIX System V, UNOS (operating system), Video game console, Video processing, Virtual memory, Vision processing unit, WDC 65816/65802, WDC 65C02, Western Design Center, Western Electric, Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, Word (computer architecture), Workstation, X86, X86-64, X87, Zilog Z80, Zilog Z80000, ZX81, 12-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, 4-bit, 64-bit computing, 8-bit. Expand index (223 more) » « Shrink index
The Acorn Archimedes is a family of personal computers designed by Acorn Computers Ltd in Cambridge (England) and sold in the late-1980s to mid-1990s, Acorn's first general-purpose home computer based on its own ARM architecture (initially the CPU and architecture was known as Acorn RISC Machine, or ARM; it later became one of the most widely used CPU architectures in the world, used in most smartphones among many other uses).
Acorn Computers Ltd. was a British computer company established in Cambridge, England, in 1978.
Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages.
Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) is an American multinational semiconductor company based in Santa Clara, California, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets.
Altos Computer Systems was founded in 1977 by David G. Jackson and Roger William Vass Sr.
The AMD Am29000 (commonly shortened to 29k) is a family of 32-bit RISC microprocessors and microcontrollers developed and fabricated by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD).
The Amiga is a family of personal computers introduced by Commodore in 1985.
The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) was a digital computer produced for the Apollo program that was installed on board each Apollo Command Module (CM) and Lunar Module (LM).
The Apple IIc, the fourth model in the Apple II series of personal computers, is Apple Computer’s first endeavor to produce a portable computer.
The Apple IIe (styled as Apple //e) is the third model in the Apple II series of personal computers produced by Apple Computer.
The Apple IIGS (styled as II), the fifth and most powerful model of the Apple II family, is a 16-bit personal computer produced by Apple Computer, Inc.
The Apple Lisa is a desktop computer developed by Apple, released on January 19, 1983.
An arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) also known as an arc-fault detection device (AFDD) is a circuit breaker that breaks the circuit when it detects an electric arc in the circuit it protects to prevent electrical fires.
An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a combinational digital electronic circuit that performs arithmetic and bitwise operations on integer binary numbers.
ARM, previously Advanced RISC Machine, originally Acorn RISC Machine, is a family of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments.
Arm Holdings (Arm) is a multinational semiconductor and software design company, owned by SoftBank Group and its Vision Fund.
A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the heart's natural pacemaker) is a medical device that generates electrical impulses delivered by electrodes to contract the heart muscles and regulate the electrical conduction system of the heart.
AT&T Corp., originally the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, is the subsidiary of AT&T that provides voice, video, data, and Internet telecommunications and professional services to businesses, consumers, and government agencies.
The AT&T Hobbit is a microprocessor design that AT&T Corporation developed in the early 1990s.
The Atari ST is a line of home computers from Atari Corporation and the successor to the Atari 8-bit family.
The Athlon 64 X2 is the first native dual-core desktop CPU designed by AMD.
Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is performed without human assistance.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
The Bellmac 32 was a microprocessor developed by Bell Labs's processor division in 1980, implemented using CMOS technology and was the first microprocessor that could move 32 bits in one clock cycle.
Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) was a Unix operating system derivative developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1977 to 1995.
A binary code represents text, computer processor instructions, or any other data using a two-symbol system.
In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).
In computing and electronic systems, binary-coded decimal (BCD) is a class of binary encodings of decimal numbers where each decimal digit is represented by a fixed number of bits, usually four or eight.
Bit slicing is a technique for constructing a processor from modules of processors of smaller bit width, for the purpose of increasing the word length; in theory to make an arbitrary n-bit CPU.
The breakup of the Bell System was mandated on January 8, 1982, by an agreed consent decree providing that AT&T Corporation would, as had been initially proposed by AT&T, relinquish control of the Bell Operating Companies that had provided local telephone service in the United States and Canada up until that point.
In computer architecture, a bus (a contraction of the Latin omnibus) is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers.
Busicom was a Japanese company that owned the rights to Intel's first microprocessor, the Intel 4004, which they created in partnership with Intel in 1970.
An electronic calculator is typically a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics.
California Polytechnic State University (also known as California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo, or Cal Poly) is a public university located in San Luis Obispo, California. It is one of two polytechnics in the California State University system. The university is organized into six colleges offering 64 bachelor's and 32 master's degrees. Cal Poly San Luis Obispo primarily focuses on undergraduate education with 20,425 undergraduate and 881 graduate students.. The university is located in San Luis Obispo, California often noted as one of the happiest cities in the United States, with many alumni in Silicon Valley. Cal Poly San Luis Obispo is known for its "learn by doing" philosophy that encourages students to combine theory with practice to solve real-world problems. The university participates in the Big West Conference in athletics.
Capability-based security is a concept in the design of secure computing systems, one of the existing security models.
A Central Air Data Computer computes altitude, vertical speed, air speed, and mach number from sensor inputs such as pitot and static pressure and temperature.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
The clock rate typically refers to the frequency at which a chip like a central processing unit (CPU), one core of a multi-core processor, is running and is used as an indicator of the processor's speed.
In electronics and especially synchronous digital circuits, a clock signal is a particular type of signal that oscillates between a high and a low state and is used like a metronome to coordinate actions of digital circuits.
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, abbreviated as CMOS, is a technology for constructing integrated circuits.
In digital circuit theory, combinational logic (sometimes also referred to as time-independent logic) is a type of digital logic which is implemented by Boolean circuits, where the output is a pure function of the present input only.
The Commodore 128, also known as the C128, C-128, C.
The Commodore 64, also known as the C64 or the CBM 64, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International (first shown at the Consumer Electronics Show, in Las Vegas, January 7–10, 1982).
Computer architectures are often described as n-bit architectures.
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
In computing, a compute kernel is a routine compiled for high throughput accelerators (such as GPUs, DSPs or FPGAs), separate from (but used by) a main program.
In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems.
Computer engineering is a discipline that integrates several fields of computer science and electronics engineering required to develop computer hardware and software.
In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".
A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying or printing data from, a computer or a computing system.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
A CPU cache is a hardware cache used by the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer to reduce the average cost (time or energy) to access data from the main memory.
Cromemco was a Mountain View, California microcomputer company known for its high-end Z80-based S-100 bus computers and peripherals in the early days of the personal computer revolution.
Cyrix Corporation was a microprocessor developer that was founded in 1988 in Richardson, Texas, as a specialist supplier of math coprocessors for 286 and 386 microprocessors.
Datapoint Corporation, originally known as Computer Terminal Corporation (CTC), was a computer company based in San Antonio, Texas, United States.
The Datapoint 2200 was a mass-produced programmable terminal, designed by Computer Terminal Corporation (CTC) founders Phil Ray and Gus RocheLamont Wood,, Computerworld, 8 August 2008 and announced by CTC in June 1970 (with units shipping in 1971).
Alpha, originally known as Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), designed to replace their 32-bit VAX complex instruction set computer (CISC) ISA.
Defibrillation is a treatment for life-threatening cardiac dysrhythmias, specifically ventricular fibrillation (VF) and non-perfusing ventricular tachycardia (VT).
A desktop computer is a personal computer designed for regular use at a single location on or near a desk or table due to its size and power requirements.
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
A digital signal controller (DSC) is a hybrid of microcontrollers and digital signal processors (DSPs).
A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor (or a SIP block), with its architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing.
In microelectronics, a dual in-line package (DIP or DIL), or dual in-line pin package (DIPP) is an electronic component package with a rectangular housing and two parallel rows of electrical connecting pins.
A DVD player is a device that plays DVD discs produced under both the DVD-Video and DVD-Audio technical standards, two different and incompatible standards.
DVD-Video is a consumer video format used to store digital video on DVD discs, and is the dominant consumer video format in Asia, North America, Europe, and Australia.
In integrated circuit design, dynamic logic (or sometimes clocked logic) is a design methodology in combinatory logic circuits, particularly those implemented in MOS technology.
Electrical wiring is an electrical installation of cabling and associated devices such as switches, distribution boards, sockets and light fittings in a structure.
In engineering, electromechanics combines processes and procedures drawn from electrical engineering and mechanical engineering.
Electronic News was a publication that covered the electronics industry, from semiconductor equipment and materials to military/aerospace electronics to supercomputers.
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the sudden flow of electricity between two electrically charged objects caused by contact, an electrical short, or dielectric breakdown.
Elliott Brothers (London) Ltd was an early computer company of the 1950s–60s in the United Kingdom.
Embedded software is computer software, written to control machines or devices that are not typically thought of as computers.
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. was an American semiconductor company based in San Jose, California.
Federico Faggin (born 1 December 1941), is an Italian physicist, inventor and entrepreneur, widely known for designing the first commercial microprocessor.
A floating-point unit (FPU, colloquially a math coprocessor) is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers.
Four-Phase Systems was a computer company, founded by Lee Boysel and others, which built one of the earliest computers using semiconductor main memory and LSI MOS logic.
Galileo was an American unmanned spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies.
Garrett AiResearch was a manufacturer of turboprop engines and turbochargers, and a pioneer in numerous aerospace technologies.
General Instrument (GI) was an American electronics manufacturer based in Horsham, Pennsylvania, specializing in semiconductors and cable television equipment.
General-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU, rarely GPGP) is the use of a graphics processing unit (GPU), which typically handles computation only for computer graphics, to perform computation in applications traditionally handled by the central processing unit (CPU).
Glenrothes (Gleann Rathais) is a town situated in the heart of Fife, in east-central Scotland.
A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display device.
The Grumman F-14 Tomcat is an American supersonic, twin-engine, two-seat, twin-tail, variable-sweep wing fighter aircraft.
High-definition television (HDTV) is a television system providing an image resolution that is of substantially higher resolution than that of standard-definition television, either analog or digital.
The history of computing hardware covers the developments from early simple devices to aid calculation to modern day computers.
Home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions, such as cooking, cleaning, or food preservation.
Home computers were a class of microcomputers entering the market in 1977, and becoming common during the 1980s.
The Hewlett-Packard FOCUS microprocessor, launched in 1982, was the first commercial, single chip, fully 32-bit microprocessor available on the market.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
The 801 was an experimental minicomputer designed by IBM.
IBM PC compatible computers are computers similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT, able to use the same software and expansion cards.
The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform.
The IBM POWER ISA is a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by IBM.
The IMP-16, by National Semiconductor, was the first multi-chip 16-bit microprocessor in 1973.
In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.
An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.
The Intel 4004 is a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971.
The Intel 8008 ("eight-thousand-eight" or "eighty-oh-eight") is an early byte-oriented microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and introduced in April 1972.
The Intel 80186, also known as the iAPX 186, or just 186, is a microprocessor and microcontroller introduced in 1982.
The Intel 80188 microprocessor was a variant of the Intel 80186.
The Intel 80286 (also marketed as the iAPX 286 and often called Intel 286) is a 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced on 1 February 1982.
The Intel 80386, also known as i386 or just 386, is a 32-bit microprocessor introduced in 1985.
The Intel 8080 ("eighty-eighty") was the second 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and was released in April 1974.
The 8086 (also called iAPX 86) is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel between early 1976 and mid-1978, when it was released.
The Intel 8087, announced in 1980, was the first x87 floating-point coprocessor for the 8086 line of microprocessors.
The Intel 8088 ("eighty-eighty-eight", also called iAPX 88) microprocessor is a variant of the Intel 8086.
The Intel i860 (also known as 80860) was a RISC microprocessor design introduced by Intel in 1989.
Intel's i960 (or 80960) was a RISC-based microprocessor design that became popular during the early 1990s as an embedded microcontroller.
The iAPX 432 (Intel Advanced Performance ArchitectureSometimes intel Advanced Processor architecture) was a computer architecture introduced in 1981.
Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
The Intersil 6100 family consists of a 12-bit microprocessor (the 6100) and a range of peripheral support and memory ICs developed by Intersil in the mid-1970s.
Ivy Bridge is the codename for the "third generation" of the Intel Core processors (Core i7, i5, i3).
The kilobyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
A laptop, also called a notebook computer or just notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.
Laser printing is an electrostatic digital printing process.
Leslie L. Vadász (born 1936 in Budapest, Hungary) is a Hungarian-American engineer and manager, one of the founding members of Intel Corporation.
LGA 1366, also known as Socket B, is an Intel CPU socket.
LGA 1567 or Socket LS, is a CPU socket used for the high-end server segment.
LGA 2011, also called Socket R, is a CPU socket by Intel.
LGA 775, also known as Socket T, is an Intel desktop CPU socket.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
This is a list of microarchitectures based on the ARM family of instruction sets designed by ARM Holdings and 3rd parties, sorted by version of the ARM instruction set, release and name.
A list of computer central processor instruction sets: (By alphabetical order by its manufacturer.).
This is a list of microprocessors.
In electronics, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output.
Low-power electronics are electronics, such as notebook processors, that have been designed to use less electric power.
The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.
Manycore processors are specialist multi-core processors designed for a high degree of parallel processing, containing a large number of simpler, independent processor cores (e.g. 10s, 100s, or 1,000s).
Marcian Edward "Ted" Hoff Jr. (born October 28, 1937 in Rochester, New York) is one of the inventors of the microprocessor.
The Mark-8 is a microcomputer design from 1974, based on the Intel 8008 CPU (which was the world's first 8-bit microprocessor).
is a Japanese electronics engineer, who was one of the designers of the world's first microprocessor, the Intel 4004, along with Federico Faggin, Ted Hoff, and Stanley Mazor.
The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
A memory management unit (MMU), sometimes called paged memory management unit (PMMU), is a computer hardware unit having all memory references passed through itself, primarily performing the translation of virtual memory addresses to physical addresses.
Memory refresh is the process of periodically reading information from an area of computer memory and immediately rewriting the read information to the same area without modification, for the purpose of preserving the information.
Memory segmentation is the division of a computer's primary memory into segments or sections.
In computer engineering, microarchitecture, also called computer organization and sometimes abbreviated as µarch or uarch, is the way a given instruction set architecture (ISA), is implemented in a particular processor.
Microchip Technology is an American manufacturer of microcontroller, memory and analog semiconductors.
Microcode is a computer hardware technique that imposes an interpreter between the CPU hardware and the programmer-visible instruction set architecture of the computer.
A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU).
A microcontroller (MCU for microcontroller unit, or UC for μ-controller) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit.
The first microprocessors were manufactured in the 1970s.
A minicomputer, or colloquially mini, is a class of smaller computers that was developed in the mid-1960s and sold for much less than mainframe and mid-size computers from IBM and its direct competitors.
MIPS (an acronym for Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages) is a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA)Price, Charles (September 1995).
MIPS Technologies, Inc., formerly MIPS Computer Systems, Inc., is an American fabless semiconductor design company that is most widely known for developing the MIPS architecture and a series of RISC CPU chips based on it.
A mixed-signal integrated circuit is any integrated circuit that has both analog circuits and digital circuits on a single semiconductor die.
A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computing device small enough to hold and operate in the hand.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of Renaissance, in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
Moore's law is the observation that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles about every two years.
The MOS Technology 6502 (typically "sixty-five-oh-two" or "six-five-oh-two") William Mensch and the moderator both pronounce the 6502 microprocessor as "sixty-five-oh-two".
6581 SID. The production week/year (WWYY) of each chip is given below its name. The MOS Technology 6510 is an 8-bit microprocessor designed by MOS Technology.
MOSFET showing gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (white). surface-mount packages. Operating as switches, each of these components can sustain a blocking voltage of 120nbspvolts in the ''off'' state, and can conduct a continuous current of 30 amperes in the ''on'' state, dissipating up to about 100 watts and controlling a load of over 2000 watts. A matchstick is pictured for scale. A cross-section through an nMOSFET when the gate voltage ''V''GS is below the threshold for making a conductive channel; there is little or no conduction between the terminals drain and source; the switch is off. When the gate is more positive, it attracts electrons, inducing an ''n''-type conductive channel in the substrate below the oxide, which allows electrons to flow between the ''n''-doped terminals; the switch is on. Simulation result for formation of inversion channel (electron density) and attainment of threshold voltage (IV) in a nanowire MOSFET. Note that the threshold voltage for this device lies around 0.45 V The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a type of field-effect transistor (FET), most commonly fabricated by the controlled oxidation of silicon.
Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois.
The 6800 ("sixty-eight hundred") is an 8-bit microprocessor designed and first manufactured by Motorola in 1974.
The Motorola 68000 ("'sixty-eight-thousand'"; also called the m68k or Motorola 68k, "sixty-eight-kay") is a 16/32-bit CISC microprocessor, which implements a 32-bit instruction set, with 32-bit registers and 32-bit internal data bus, but with a 16-bit data ALU and two 16-bit arithmetic ALUs and a 16-bit external data bus, designed and marketed by Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector.
The Motorola MC68010 processor is a 16/32-bit microprocessor from Motorola, released in 1982 as the successor to the Motorola 68000.
The Motorola 68020 ("sixty-eight-oh-twenty", "sixty-eight-oh-two-oh" or "six-eight-oh-two-oh") is a 32-bit microprocessor from Motorola, released in 1984.
The Motorola 68030 ("sixty-eight-oh-thirty") is a 32-bit microprocessor in the Motorola 68000 family.
The Motorola 68040 ("sixty-eight-oh-forty") is a 32-bit microprocessor from Motorola, released in 1990.
The Motorola 68060 ("sixty-eight-oh-sixty") is a 32-bit microprocessor from Motorola released in 1994.
The Motorola 6809 ("sixty-eight-oh-nine") is an 8-bit microprocessor CPU with some 16-bit features from Motorola.
The 88000 (m88k for short) is a RISC instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Motorola.
A multi-chip module (MCM) is generically an electronic assembly (such as a package with a number of conductor terminals or "pins") where multiple integrated circuits (ICs or "chips"), semiconductor dies and/or other discrete components are integrated, usually onto a unifying substrate, so that in use it is treated as if it were a single component (as though a larger IC).
A multi-core processor is a single computing component with two or more independent processing units called cores, which read and execute program instructions.
Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content.
Multiprocessing is the use of two or more central processing units (CPUs) within a single computer system.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
National Semiconductor was an American semiconductor manufacturer which specialized in analog devices and subsystems, formerly with headquarters in Santa Clara, California, United States.
National Semiconductor's IPC-16A/520 PACE, short for "Processing and Control Element", was the first commercial single-chip 16-bit microprocessor.
The NEC V20 (μPD70108) was a processor made by NEC that was a reverse-engineered, pin-compatible version of the Intel 8088 with an instruction set compatible with the Intel 80186.
The, stylized as NINTENDO64 and abbreviated to N64, is Nintendo's third home video game console for the international market.
N-type metal-oxide-semiconductor logic uses n-type field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits.
The NOR gate is a digital logic gate that implements logical NOR - it behaves according to the truth table to the right.
The 320xx or NS32000 was a series of microprocessors from National Semiconductor.
The NXP ColdFire is a microprocessor that derives from the Motorola 68000 family architecture, manufactured for embedded systems development by NXP Semiconductors.
In computer science, an object can be a variable, a data structure, a function, or a method, and as such, is a value in memory referenced by an identifier.
In computing, an opcode (abbreviated from operation code, also known as instruction syllable, instruction parcel or opstring) is the portion of a machine language instruction that specifies the operation to be performed.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Opteron is AMD's x86 former server and workstation processor line, and was the first processor which supported the AMD64 instruction set architecture (known generically as x86-64).
PA-RISC is an instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Hewlett-Packard.
Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out concurrently.
Since the rise of the personal computer in the 1980s, IBM and other vendors have created PC-based IBM-compatible mainframes which are compatible with the larger IBM mainframe computers.
The PDP-11 is a series of 16-bit minicomputers sold by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1970 into the 1990s, one of a succession of products in the PDP series.
The PDP-8 was a 12-bit minicomputer produced by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC).
The Pentium D brand refers to two series of desktop dual-core 64-bit x86-64 microprocessors with the NetBurst microarchitecture, which is the dual-core variant of Pentium 4 "Prescott" manufactured by Intel.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
PIC (usually pronounced as "pick") is a family of microcontrollers made by Microchip Technology, derived from the PIC1650"PICmicro Family Tree", PIC16F Seminar Presentation originally developed by General Instrument's Microelectronics Division.
In computing, a pipeline, also known as a data pipeline, is a set of data processing elements connected in series, where the output of one element is the input of the next one.
P-type metal-oxide-semiconductor logic uses p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits.
Power Architecture is a registered trademark for similar reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction sets for microprocessors developed and manufactured by such companies as IBM, Freescale/NXP, AppliedMicro, LSI, Teledyne e2v and Synopsys.
The POWER4 is a microprocessor developed by International Business Machines (IBM) that implemented the 64-bit PowerPC and PowerPC AS instruction set architectures.
PowerPC (with the backronym Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC – Performance Computing, sometimes abbreviated as PPC) is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM.
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.
In computing, a printer is a peripheral device which makes a persistent human-readable representation of graphics or text on paper.
Automatic process control in continuous production processes is a combination of control engineering and chemical engineering disciplines that uses industrial control systems to achieve a production level of consistency, economy and safety which could not be achieved purely by human manual control.
Processor design is the design engineering task of creating a processor, a component of computer hardware.
In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
The R2000 is a 32 bit microprocessor chip set developed by MIPS Computer Systems that implemented the MIPS I instruction set architecture (ISA).
The R3000 is a full 32 bit RISC microprocessor chipset developed by MIPS Computer Systems that implemented the MIPS I instruction set architecture (ISA).
The R4000 is a microprocessor developed by MIPS Computer Systems that implements the MIPS III instruction set architecture (ISA).
Radio-Electronics was an American electronics magazine that was published under various titles from 1929 to 2003.
Random logic is a semiconductor circuit design technique that translates high-level logic descriptions directly into hardware features such as AND and OR gates.
Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.
Raymond M. Holt was a pioneering computer designer and businessman in Silicon Valley.
The RCA Corporation was a major American electronics company, which was founded as the Radio Corporation of America in 1919.
The RCA CDP1802, a 40-pin LSI integrated circuit chip (IC), implemented using COSMAC (Complementary Symmetry Monolithic Array Computer) architecture, is an 8-bit CMOS microprocessor (µP) introduced by RCA in early 1976, the company's first single-chip microprocessor.
Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices.
A reduced instruction set computer, or RISC (pronounced 'risk'), is one whose instruction set architecture (ISA) allows it to have fewer cycles per instruction (CPI) than a complex instruction set computer (CISC).
William Marsh Rice University, commonly known as Rice University, is a private research university located on a 300-acre (121 ha) campus in Houston, Texas, United States.
In electronics, a self-aligned gate is a transistor manufacturing feature whereby a refractory gate electrode region of a MOSFET transistor is used as a mask for the doping of the source and drain regions.
Sequent Computer Systems was a computer company that designed and manufactured multiprocessing computer systems.
In digital circuit theory, sequential logic is a type of logic circuit whose output depends not only on the present value of its input signals but on the sequence of past inputs, the input history.
In computer graphics, a shader is a type of computer program that was originally used for shading (the production of appropriate levels of light, darkness, and color within an image) but which now performs a variety of specialized functions in various fields of computer graphics special effects or does video post-processing unrelated to shading, or even functions unrelated to graphics at all.
The Signetics 2650 was an 8-bit microprocessor introduced in mid-1975.
Silicon Graphics, Inc. (later rebranded SGI, historically known as Silicon Graphics Computer Systems or SGCS) was an American high-performance computing manufacturer, producing computer hardware and software.
Silicon on sapphire (SOS) is a hetero-epitaxial process for integrated circuit manufacturing that consists of a thin layer (typically thinner than 0.6 µm) of silicon grown on a sapphire (Al2O3) wafer.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
The AMD Socket C32 is the server processor socket for AMD's current single-CPU and dual-CPU Opteron 4000 series CPUs.
Socket G34 is a land grid array CPU socket designed by AMD to support AMD's multi-chip module Opteron 6000-series server processors.
Source-code compatibility (source-compatible) means that a program can run on computers (or operating systems), independently of binary-code compatibility and that the source code is needed for portability.
SPARC, for Scalable Processor Architecture, is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) originally developed by Sun Microsystems.
Stanley Mazor is an American microelectronics engineer who was born on 22 October 1941 in Chicago, Illinois.
Stream processing is a computer programming paradigm, equivalent to dataflow programming, event stream processing, and reactive programming, that allows some applications to more easily exploit a limited form of parallel processing.
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.
The Super Nintendo Entertainment System (officially abbreviated the Super NES or SNES, and colloquially shortened to Super Nintendo) is a 16-bit home video game console developed by Nintendo that was released in 1990 in Japan and South Korea, 1991 in North America, 1992 in Europe and Australasia (Oceania), and 1993 in South America.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) involves a multiprocessor computer hardware and software architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single, shared main memory, have full access to all input and output devices, and are controlled by a single operating system instance that treats all processors equally, reserving none for special purposes.
A system on a chip or system on chip (SoC) is an integrated circuit (also known as an "IC" or "chip") that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic systems.
Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.
The Texas Instruments TI-99/4A is a home computer, released June 1981 in the United States at a price of $525 ($ adjusted for inflation).
Introduced in June 1976, the TMS9900 was one of the first commercially available, single-chip 16-bit microprocessors.
In computer science, a thread of execution is the smallest sequence of programmed instructions that can be managed independently by a scheduler, which is typically a part of the operating system.
The TI-990 was a series of 16-bit minicomputers sold by Texas Instruments (TI) in the 1970s and 1980s.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
Sun Microsystems' UltraSPARC T1 microprocessor, known until its 14 November 2005 announcement by its development codename "Niagara", is a multithreading, multicore CPU.
Sun Microsystems' UltraSPARC T2 microprocessor is a multithreading, multi-core CPU.
A United States defense standard, often called a military standard, "MIL-STD", "MIL-SPEC", or (informally) "MilSpecs", is used to help achieve standardization objectives by the U.S. Department of Defense.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
UNIX System V (pronounced: "System Five") is one of the first commercial versions of the Unix operating system.
UNOS is the first, now discontinued, 32-bit Unix-like real-time operating system (RTOS) with real-time extensions.
A video game console is an electronic, digital or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.
In electronics engineering, video processing is a particular case of signal processing, which often employs video filters and where the input and output signals are video files or video streams.
In computing, virtual memory (also virtual storage) is a memory management technique that provides an "idealized abstraction of the storage resources that are actually available on a given machine" which "creates the illusion to users of a very large (main) memory." The computer's operating system, using a combination of hardware and software, maps memory addresses used by a program, called virtual addresses, into physical addresses in computer memory.
A vision processing unit (VPU) is (as of 2016) an emerging class of microprocessor; it is a specific type of AI accelerator, designed to accelerate machine vision tasks.
The W65C816S (also 65C816 or 65816) is a 16-bit microprocessor (MPU) developed and sold by the Western Design Center (WDC).
The Western Design Center (WDC) 65C02 microprocessor is an enhanced CMOS version of the popular NMOS-based 8-bit MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor—the CMOS redesign being made by Bill Mensch in 1978.
The Western Design Center (WDC), located in Mesa, Arizona, USA, is a company developing and manufacturing MOS 65xx-based microprocessors, microcontrollers (µCs), and related support devices.
Western Electric Company (WE, WECo) was an American electrical engineering and manufacturing company that served as the primary supplier to AT&T from 1881 to 1996.
Windows 7 (codenamed Vienna, formerly Blackcomb) is a personal computer operating system developed by Microsoft.
Windows Vista (codenamed Longhorn) is an operating system by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs and media center PCs.
Microsoft Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, released on April 25, 2005, is an edition of Windows XP for x86-64 personal computers.
In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design.
A workstation is a special computer designed for technical or scientific applications.
x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.
x86-64 (also known as x64, x86_64, AMD64 and Intel 64) is the 64-bit version of the x86 instruction set.
x87 is a floating point-related subset of the x86 architecture instruction set.
The Z80 CPU is an 8-bit based microprocessor.
The Z80000 ("zee-eighty-thousand" American, "zed-eighty-thousand" British) is Zilog's 32-bit processor, first released in 1986.
The ZX81 is a home computer that was produced by Sinclair Research and manufactured in Dundee, Scotland by Timex Corporation.
Possibly the best-known 12-bit CPU is the PDP-8 and its relatives, such as the Intersil 6100 microprocessor produced in various incarnations from August 1963 to mid-1990.
16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm.
32-bit microcomputers are computers in which 32-bit microprocessors are the norm.
A group of four bits is also called a nibble and has 24.
In computer architecture, 64-bit computing is the use of processors that have datapath widths, integer size, and memory address widths of 64 bits (eight octets).
8-bit is also a generation of microcomputers in which 8-bit microprocessors were the norm.
32 bit microprocessors, CPU chip, Digital Processors, Digital processors, Embedded microprocessor, Embedded microprocessors, Micro Processor, Micro processor, Micro-processor, Microprocessor unit, Microprocessors, UProcessor, ΜP, ΜProcessor.