116 relations: Accademia dei Lincei, Amplitude, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Atomic force microscopy, August Köhler, Biology, Bright-field microscopy, Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company, Cell (biology), Cell cycle, Charge-coupled device, Charles Oatley, Christoph Cremer, CMOS, Condenser (optics), Confocal microscopy, Contrast (vision), Cornelis Drebbel, DAPI, Differential interference contrast microscopy, Diffraction, Diffraction-limited system, Digital camera, Digital microscope, DNA, Electromagnet, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron, Electron microscope, Ernst Ruska, Expatriate, Eyepiece, Fluorescence, Fluorescence interference contrast microscopy, Fluorescence microscope, Frits Zernike, Galileo Galilei, Genome, Georges Nomarski, Gerd Binnig, Ghost imaging, Giovanni Faber, Glasses, Greeks, Green fluorescent protein, Hans Lippershey, Heinrich Rohrer, Histology, IBM, Immunofluorescence, ..., Infrared, Jan Swammerdam, Jerry Tersoff, Köhler illumination, Laboratory, Laser, Laser capture microdissection, Lens (optics), Light, Lighting, Magnifying glass, Marcello Malpighi, Marvin Minsky, Max Knoll, Measuring instrument, Micrographia, Micrometre, Microscope image processing, Microscope slide, Microscopic scale, Microscopy, Multifocal plane microscopy, Murray Hill, New Jersey, Nanometre, Near-field scanning optical microscope, Netherlands, Objective (optics), Optical microscope, Optical resolution, Optics, Phase (waves), Phase-contrast microscopy, Photon, Photon counting, Quantum entanglement, Quantum tunnelling, Quartz, Real image, Red blood cell, Refraction, Robert Hooke, Royal Microscopical Society, Sarfus, Scanning acoustic microscope, Scanning electron microscope, Scanning probe microscopy, Scanning tunneling microscope, Science, Siemens, Sonar, Spermatozoon, Staining, STED microscopy, Super-resolution imaging, Switzerland, Telescope, Thomas Cremer, Transmission electron microscopy, Ultrastructure, Ultraviolet, Vertico spatially modulated illumination, Wave, World War II, X-ray microtomography, Zacharias Janssen, Zürich. Expand index (66 more) » « Shrink index
The Accademia dei Lincei (literally the "Academy of the Lynx-Eyed", but anglicised as the Lincean Academy) is an Italian science academy, located at the Palazzo Corsini on the Via della Lungara in Rome, Italy.
The amplitude of a periodic variable is a measure of its change over a single period (such as time or spatial period).
Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek FRS (24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch businessman and scientist in the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) or scanning force microscopy (SFM) is a very-high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM), with demonstrated resolution on the order of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit.
August Karl Johann Valentin Köhler (March 4, 1866 – March 12, 1948) was a German professor and early staff member of Carl Zeiss AG in Jena, Germany.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Bright-field microscopy is the simplest of all the optical microscopy illumination techniques.
Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company was a company founded in 1881 by Horace Darwin (1851–1928) and Albert George Dew-Smith (1848–1903) to manufacture scientific instruments.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.
Sir Charles William Oatley OBE, FRS FREng (14 February 1904 – 11 March 1996) was Professor of Electrical Engineering, University of Cambridge, 1960–1971, and developer of one of the first commercial scanning electron microscopes.
Christoph Cremer (born in Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany) is a German physicist and professor at the Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, honorary professor at the University of Mainz and group leader at the Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB) a newly established research centre on the campus of the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany, who has successfully overcome the conventional limit of resolution that applies to light based investigations (the Abbe limit) by a range of different methods (1971/1978 development of the concept of 4Pi-microscopy; 1996 localization microscopy SPDM; 1997 spatially structured illumination SMI).
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, abbreviated as CMOS, is a technology for constructing integrated circuits.
A condenser is an optical lens which renders a divergent beam from a point source into a parallel or converging beam to illuminate an object.
Confocal microscopy, most frequently confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) or laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM), is an optical imaging technique for increasing optical resolution and contrast of a micrograph by means of using a spatial pinhole to block out-of-focus light in image formation.
Contrast is the difference in luminance or colour that makes an object (or its representation in an image or display) distinguishable.
Cornelis Jacobszoon Drebbel (1572 – 7 November 1633) was a Dutch engineer and inventor.
DAPI, or 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, is a fluorescent stain that binds strongly to adenine–thymine rich regions in DNA.
Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, also known as Nomarski interference contrast (NIC) or Nomarski microscopy, is an optical microscopy technique used to enhance the contrast in unstained, transparent samples.
--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.
The resolution of an optical imaging system a microscope, telescope, or camera can be limited by factors such as imperfections in the lenses or misalignment.
A digital camera or digicam is a camera that captures photographs in digital memory.
A digital microscope is a variation of a traditional optical microscope that uses optics and a digital camera to output an image to a monitor, sometimes by means of software running on a computer.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by an electric current.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
Ernst August Friedrich Ruska (25 December 1906 – 27 May 1988) was a German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986 for his work in electron optics, including the design of the first electron microscope.
An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country other than their native country.
An eyepiece, or ocular lens, is a type of lens that is attached to a variety of optical devices such as telescopes and microscopes.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
Fluorescence interference contrast (FLIC) microscopy is a microscopic technique developed to achieve z-resolution on the nanometer scale.
A fluorescence microscope is an optical microscope that uses fluorescence and phosphorescence instead of, or in addition to, reflection and absorption to study properties of organic or inorganic substances.
Frits Zernike (16 July 1888 – 10 March 1966) was a Dutch physicist and winner of the Nobel Prize for physics in 1953 for his invention of the phase-contrast microscope.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Georges (Jerzy) Nomarski (January 6, 1919 – 1997) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and optics theoretician.
Gerd Binnig (born 20 July 1947) is a German physicist, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986 for the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope.
Ghost imaging (also called "coincidence imaging", "two-photon imaging" or "correlated-photon imaging") is a technique that produces an image of an object by combining information from two light detectors: a conventional, multi-pixel detector that doesn't view the object, and a single-pixel (bucket) detector that does view the object.
Giovanni Faber (or Johann Faber, sometimes also known as Fabri or Fabro) (1574–1629) was a German papal doctor, botanist and art collector, originally from Bamberg in Bavaria, who lived in Rome from 1598.
Glasses, also known as eyeglasses or spectacles, are devices consisting of glass or hard plastic lenses mounted in a frame that holds them in front of a person's eyes, typically using a bridge over the nose and arms which rest over the ears.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a protein composed of 238 amino acid residues (26.9 kDa) that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light in the blue to ultraviolet range.
Hans Lippershey (1570 – buried 29 September 1619), also known as Johann Lippershey or Lipperhey, was a German-Dutch spectacle-maker.
Heinrich Rohrer (6 June 1933 – 16 May 2013) was a Swiss physicist who shared half of the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physics with Gerd Binnig for the design of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM).
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
Immunofluorescence is a technique used for light microscopy with a fluorescence microscope and is used primarily on microbiological samples.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Jan Swammerdam (February 12, 1637 – February 17, 1680) was a Dutch biologist and microscopist.
Jerry Tersoff is a Principal Research Staff Member at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center.
Köhler illumination is a method of specimen illumination used for transmitted and reflected light (trans- and epi-illuminated) optical microscopy.
A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Laser capture microdissection (LCM), also called microdissection, laser microdissection (LMD), or laser-assisted microdissection (LMD or LAM), is a method for isolating specific cells of interest from microscopic regions of tissue/cells/organisms (dissection on a microscopic scale with the help of a laser).
A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect.
A magnifying glass (called a hand lens in laboratory contexts) is a convex lens that is used to produce a magnified image of an object.
Marcello Malpighi (10 March 1628 – 29 November 1694) was an Italian biologist and physician, who is referred to as the "Father of microscopical anatomy, histology, physiology and embryology".
Marvin Lee Minsky (August 9, 1927 – January 24, 2016) was an American cognitive scientist concerned largely with research of artificial intelligence (AI), co-founder of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's AI laboratory, and author of several texts concerning AI and philosophy.
Max Knoll (17 July 1897 – 6 November 1969) was a German electrical engineer.
A measuring instrument is a device for measuring a physical quantity.
Micrographia: or Some Phyſiological Deſcriptions of Minute Bodies Made by Magnifying Glasses.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
Microscope image processing is a broad term that covers the use of digital image processing techniques to process, analyze and present images obtained from a microscope.
A microscope slide is a thin flat piece of glass, typically 75 by 26 mm (3 by 1 inches) and about 1 mm thick, used to hold objects for examination under a microscope.
The microscopic scale (from, mikrós, "small" and σκοπέω, skopéō "look") is the scale of objects and events smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye, requiring a lens or microscope to see them clearly.
Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).
Multifocal plane microscopy (MUM) or Multiplane microscopy or Biplane microscopy is a form of light microscopy that allows the tracking of the 3D dynamics in live cells at high temporal and spatial resolution by simultaneously imaging different focal planes within the specimen.
Murray Hill is an unincorporated community located within portions of both Berkeley Heights and New Providence, located in Union County in northern New Jersey, United States.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM/SNOM) is a microscopy technique for nanostructure investigation that breaks the far field resolution limit by exploiting the properties of evanescent waves.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
In optical engineering, the objective is the optical element that gathers light from the object being observed and focuses the light rays to produce a real image.
The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects.
Optical resolution describes the ability of an imaging system to resolve detail in the object that is being imaged.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
Phase is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle.
Phase-contrast microscopy is an optical microscopy technique that converts phase shifts in light passing through a transparent specimen to brightness changes in the image.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Photon counting is a technique in which individual photons are counted using some single-photon detector (SPD).
Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon which occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the other(s), even when the particles are separated by a large distance—instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole.
Quantum tunnelling or tunneling (see spelling differences) is the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle tunnels through a barrier that it classically cannot surmount.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
In optics, a real image is an image which is located in the plane of convergence for the light rays that originate from a given object.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.
Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.
The Royal Microscopical Society (RMS) is a learned society for the promotion of microscopy. It was founded in 1839 as the Microscopical Society of London making it the oldest organisation of its kind in the world. In 1866, the society gained its royal charter and took its current name. Founded as a society of amateurs, its membership consists of individuals of all skill levels in numerous related fields from throughout the world. Every year since 1852, the society has published its own scientific journal, the Journal of Microscopy, which contains peer-reviewed papers and book reviews. The society is a registered charity that is dedicated to advancing science, developing careers and supporting wider understanding of science and microscopy through its Outreach activities. Probably the society's greatest contribution is its standardised 3x1 inches microscope glass slides in 1840, which are still the most widely used size today and known as the "RMS standard". The Royal Microscopical Society is a member of the Foundation for Science and Technology, the Biosciences Federation, the European Microscopy Society and the International Federation of Societies for Microscopy.
Sarfus is an optical quantitative imaging technique based on the association of.
A scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) is a device which uses focused sound to investigate, measure, or image an object (a process called scanning acoustic tomography).
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons.
Scanning probe microscope (SPM) is a branch of microscopy that forms images of surfaces using a physical probe that scans the specimen.
A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.
Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.
A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.
Staining is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image.
Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy is one of the techniques that make up super-resolution microscopy.
Super-resolution imaging (SR) is a class of techniques that enhance the resolution of an imaging system.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
Thomas Cremer (born July 7, 1945 in Miesbach, Germany), is a German professor of human genetics and anthropology with a main research focus on molecular cytogenetics and 3D/4D analyses of nuclear structure studied by fluorescence microscopy including super-resolution microscopy and live cell imaging.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, also sometimes conventional transmission electron microscopy or CTEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through a specimen to form an image.
Ultrastructure (or ultra-structure) is the architecture of cells that is visible at higher magnifications than found on a standard optical light microscope.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Vertico spatially modulated illumination (Vertico-SMI) is the fastest light microscope for the 3D analysis of complete cells in the nanometer range.
In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
X-ray microtomography, like tomography and x-ray computed tomography, uses x-rays to create cross-sections of a physical object that can be used to recreate a virtual model (3D model) without destroying the original object.
Zacharias Janssen (also Zacharias Jansen or Sacharias Jansen) (1585 – pre-1632) was a Dutch spectacle-maker from Middelburg associated with the invention of the first optical telescope.
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.
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