280 relations: Access token, Active Desktop, Advanced Configuration and Power Interface, Adware, AGDLP, Android (operating system), Antivirus software, AOL, Apple Inc., Apple Lisa, Application programming interface, Application software, Architecture of Windows NT, ARM architecture, Ars Technica, Assembly language, Bruce Schneier, BT Managed Security Solutions, Buffer overflow, Business Insider, C (programming language), Cardfile, CBS Interactive, Cedega (software), Classic Mac OS, ClipBook Viewer, Cloud computing, CNET, Commercial software, Compatibility layer, Computer virus, Computer worm, Computerworld, Condé Nast, Control Panel (Windows), Cooperative multitasking, Criticism of Windows Vista, CrossOver (software), Darwin (operating system), Darwine, Dave Cutler, De facto standard, DEC Alpha, Development of Windows Vista, Device driver, Dice.com, Digital Equipment Corporation, Digital video recorder, DirectX, Dominance (economics), ..., Dominant design, Dreamcast, DVD, Embedded system, EWeek, Executable, Expanded memory, Extended memory, Features new to Windows Vista, File Explorer, File system, Findev, Firewall (computing), Fork (software development), Free and open-source software, Git, GNU General Public License, Graphical user interface, Handheld PC, Hibernation (computing), High memory area, Home network, Home theater PC, Hybrid kernel, Hyper-V, IA-32, IA-64, IBM, InformationWeek, Input method, Intel 80286, Intel 80386, Intel 8086, International Data Corporation, International Data Group, Internet Explorer, Internet Explorer 10, Internet Explorer 11, Internet Explorer 4, Internet Explorer 5, Internet Explorer 6, Internet Explorer 8, Internet Explorer 9, Itanium, Kaspersky Lab, Kernel (operating system), Kevin Mitnick, Keyboard shortcut, Language Interface Pack, Linspire, Linus Torvalds, Linux, Live CD, Long filename, Longene, Macintosh, MacOS, Malicious Software Removal Tool, Mark Lucovsky, Memory protection, Metro (design language), Microsoft, Microsoft account, Microsoft Corp. v. Lindows.com, Inc., Microsoft Edge, Microsoft Notepad, Microsoft Paint, Microsoft Safety Scanner, Microsoft Security Essentials, Microsoft Store (digital), Microsoft Tablet PC, Microsoft Windows, Microsoft Write, MIPS architecture, Monolithic kernel, MS-DOS, Multi-monitor, Multi-touch, Multi-user software, Multimedia, Net Applications, NetWare, Novell, Object-oriented design, OneDrive, Operating environment, Operating system, Original equipment manufacturer, OS/2, Paging, Patch Tuesday, PC World, Peer-to-peer, Perforce, Personal computer, Plug and play, Pocket PC 2000, Porting, POSIX, Power user, PowerPC, Preemption (computing), Principle of least privilege, Program Manager, Proprietary software, Protected mode, QEMU, Quick Assist, QuinStreet, ReactOS, Real mode, Resource (Windows), Reversi, San Jose, California, Security and safety features new to Windows Vista, Server (computing), Service pack, Shared source, Shell (computing), Slashdot, Smartphone, Social networking service, Software portability, Software release life cycle, Spyware, Start menu, StatCounter, Stock keeping unit, Stylus, Superuser, System Restore, Tablet computer, Taskbar, Team Foundation Server, Technical features new to Windows Vista, Terminal emulator, The Chronicle of Higher Education, The Verge, Tiling window manager, TV tuner card, Universal Windows Platform apps, Unix, Usage share of operating systems, User Account Control, Video game console, Virtual 8086 mode, Virtual desktop, Virtual memory, Vox Media, VxD, Web browser, Web server, Windows 1.0, Windows 10, Windows 10 Mobile, Windows 2.0, Windows 2.1x, Windows 2000, Windows 3.0, Windows 3.1x, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 9x, Windows Anytime Upgrade, Windows API, Windows Calculator, Windows Defender, Windows Desktop Update, Windows Driver Model, Windows Embedded Automotive, Windows Embedded CE 6.0, Windows Embedded Compact, Windows Embedded Compact 7, Windows Embedded Industry, Windows File Protection, Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs, Windows Genuine Advantage, Windows Home Server, Windows Home Server 2011, Windows Image Acquisition, Windows Installer, Windows IoT, Windows ME, Windows Media Player, Windows Mobile, Windows Mobile 2003, Windows Mobile 6.5, Windows Movie Maker, Windows NT, Windows NT 3.1, Windows NT 3.5, Windows NT 3.51, Windows NT 4.0, Windows Phone, Windows Phone 7, Windows Phone 8, Windows Phone 8.1, Windows Preinstallation Environment, Windows RT, Windows Server, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012, Windows Server 2016, Windows Server 2019, Windows Server Update Services, Windows shell, Windows Update, Windows Vista, Windows Vista editions, Windows XP, Windows XP editions, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, Wine (software), Wintel, Workstation, X86, X86-64, Xandros, Xbox, Xbox Live, Xbox One, Xbox One system software, ZDNet, 32-bit, 64-bit computing. Expand index (230 more) » « Shrink index
In computer systems, an access token contains the security credentials for a login session and identifies the user, the user's groups, the user's privileges, and, in some cases, a particular application.
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Active Desktop was a feature of Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.0's optional Windows Desktop Update that allowed users to add HTML content to the desktop, along with some other features.
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Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
In a computer, the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) provides an open standard that operating systems can use to discover and configure computer hardware components, to perform power management by (for example) putting unused components to sleep, and to perform status monitoring.
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Adware, or advertising-supported software, is software that generates revenue for its developer by automatically generating online advertisements in the user interface of the software or on a screen presented to the user during the installation process.
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AGDLP (an abbreviation of "account, global, domain local, permission") briefly summarizes Microsoft's recommendations for implementing role-based access controls (RBAC) using nested groups in a native-mode Active Directory (AD) domain: User and computer accounts are members of global groups that represent business roles, which are members of domain local groups that describe resource permissions or user rights assignments.
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Android (operating system)
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.
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Antivirus software, or anti-virus software (abbreviated to AV software), also known as anti-malware, is a computer program used to prevent, detect, and remove malware.
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AOL (formerly a company known as AOL Inc., originally known as America Online, and stylized as Aol.) is a web portal and online service provider based in New York.
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Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
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The Apple Lisa is a desktop computer developed by Apple, released on January 19, 1983.
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Application programming interface
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.
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An application software (app or application for short) is a computer software designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user.
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Architecture of Windows NT
The architecture of Windows NT, a line of operating systems produced and sold by Microsoft, is a layered design that consists of two main components, user mode and kernel mode.
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ARM, previously Advanced RISC Machine, originally Acorn RISC Machine, is a family of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments.
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Ars Technica (a Latin-derived term that the site translates as the "art of technology") is a website covering news and opinions in technology, science, politics, and society, created by Ken Fisher and Jon Stokes in 1998.
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An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.
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Bruce Schneier (born January 15, 1963, is an American cryptographer, computer security professional, privacy specialist and writer. He is the author of several books on general security topics, computer security and cryptography. Schneier is a fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School, a program fellow at the New America Foundation's Open Technology Institute. He has been working for IBM since they acquired Resilient Systems where Schneier was CTO. He is also a contributing writer for The Guardian news organization.
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BT Managed Security Solutions
BT Counterpane, formerly Counterpane Internet Security, Inc., is a company that sells managed computer network security services.
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In information security and programming, a buffer overflow, or buffer overrun, is an anomaly where a program, while writing data to a buffer, overruns the buffer's boundary and overwrites adjacent memory locations.
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Business Insider is an American financial and business news website that also operates international editions in the UK, Australia, China, Germany, France, South Africa, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nordics, Poland, Spanish and Singapore.
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C (programming language)
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
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Cardfile is a personal information manager, based on index cards, that was distributed with Microsoft Windows starting from the original version 1.01 until Windows NT 4.0 Server.
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CBS Interactive Inc. (formerly CBS Digital Media Group) is an American media company and is a division of the CBS Corporation.
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Cedega (formerly known as WineX) was the proprietary fork by TransGaming Technologies of Wine, from the last version of Wine under the X11 license before switching to GNU LGPL.
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Classic Mac OS
Classic Mac OS is a colloquial term used to describe a series of operating systems developed for the Macintosh family of personal computers by Apple Inc. from 1984 until 2001.
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ClipBook Viewer is a discontinued utility included in the Windows NT family of operating system that allows users to view the contents of the local clipboard, clear the clipboard or save copied and cut items.
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Cloud computing is an information technology (IT) paradigm that enables ubiquitous access to shared pools of configurable system resources and higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet.
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CNET (stylized as c|net) is an American media website that publishes reviews, news, articles, blogs, podcasts and videos on technology and consumer electronics globally.
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Commercial software, or seldom payware, is computer software that is produced for sale or that serves commercial purposes.
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In software engineering, a compatibility layer is an interface that allows binaries for a legacy or foreign system to run on a host system.
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A computer virus is a type of malicious software program ("malware") that, when executed, replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code.
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A computer worm is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers.
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Computerworld is a publication website and digital magazine for information technology (IT) and business technology professionals.
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Condé Nast Inc. is an American mass media company founded in 1909 by Condé Montrose Nast, based at One World Trade Center and owned by Advance Publications.
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Control Panel (Windows)
The Control Panel is a component of Microsoft Windows that provides the ability to view and change system settings.
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Cooperative multitasking, also known as non-preemptive multitasking, is a style of computer multitasking in which the operating system never initiates a context switch from a running process to another process.
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Criticism of Windows Vista
Windows Vista, an operating system released by Microsoft for consumers on January 30, 2007, has been criticised by reviewers and users.
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CrossOver is a Microsoft Windows compatibility layer available for macOS and Linux.
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Darwin (operating system)
Darwin is an open-source Unix operating system first released by Apple Inc. in 2000.
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Darwine was a port of the Wine libraries to Darwin and Mac OS X (the Wine project provides source code for OS X but not binary builds).
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David Neil "Dave" Cutler Sr. (born March 13, 1942) is an American software engineer, a designer, and a developer of several operating systems in the computer industry.
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De facto standard
A standard is a custom or convention that has achieved a dominant position by public acceptance or market forces (for example, by early entrance to the market).
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Alpha, originally known as Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), designed to replace their 32-bit VAX complex instruction set computer (CISC) ISA.
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Development of Windows Vista
Development of Windows Vista occurred over the span of five and a half years, starting in earnest in May 2001, prior to the release of Microsoft's Windows XP operating system, and continuing until November 2006.
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In computing, a device driver is a computer program that operates or controls a particular type of device that is attached to a computer.
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Dice.com is a career website based in New York City with primary sales and development operations in Urbandale, Iowa, San Jose, California and Denver.
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Digital Equipment Corporation
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
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Digital video recorder
A digital video recorder (DVR) is an electronic device that records video in a digital format to a disk drive, USB flash drive, SD memory card, SSD or other local or networked mass storage device.
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Microsoft DirectX is a collection of application programming interfaces (APIs) for handling tasks related to multimedia, especially game programming and video, on Microsoft platforms.
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Market dominance is a measure of the strength of a brand, product, service, or firm, relative to competitive offerings.
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Dominant design is a technology management concept introduced by Utterback and Abernathy in 1975, identifying key technological features that become a de facto standard.
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The is a home video game console released by Sega on November 27, 1998 in Japan, September 9, 1999 in North America, and October 14, 1999 in Europe.
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DVD (an abbreviation of "digital video disc" or "digital versatile disc") is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed by Philips and Sony in 1995.
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An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
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eWeek (Enterprise Newsweekly, stylized as eWEEK) is a technology and business magazine, owned by QuinStreet.
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In computing, executable code or an executable file or executable program, sometimes simply referred to as an executable or binary, causes a computer "to perform indicated tasks according to encoded instructions," as opposed to a data file that must be parsed by a program to be meaningful.
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In DOS memory management, expanded memory is a system of bank switching that provided additional memory to DOS programs beyond the limit of conventional memory (640 KB).
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In DOS memory management, extended memory refers to memory above the first megabyte (220 bytes) of address space in an IBM PC or compatible with an 80286 or later processor.
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Features new to Windows Vista
Compared with previous versions of Microsoft Windows, new features of Windows Vista are numerous, covering most aspects of the operating system.
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File Explorer, previously known as Windows Explorer, is a file manager application that is included with releases of the Microsoft Windows operating system from Windows 95 onwards.
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In computing, a file system or filesystem controls how data is stored and retrieved.
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Findev Inc. (formerly TransGaming Inc.) is a real estate financing company, and former technology company, with its head office in Toronto.
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In computing, a firewall is a network security system that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules.
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Fork (software development)
In software engineering, a project fork happens when developers take a copy of source code from one software package and start independent development on it, creating a distinct and separate piece of software.
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Free and open-source software
Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software that can be classified as both free software and open-source software.
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Git is a version control system for tracking changes in computer files and coordinating work on those files among multiple people.
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GNU General Public License
The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or GPL) is a widely used free software license, which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study, share and modify the software.
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Graphical user interface
The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.
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A handheld PC, or H/PC for short, is a computer built around a form factor which is smaller than any standard laptop computer.
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Hibernation (or suspend to disk) in computing is powering down a computer while retaining its state.
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High memory area
In DOS memory management, the high memory area (HMA) is the RAM area consisting of the first 65520 bytes above the one megabyte in an IBM AT or compatible computer.
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A home network or home area network (HAN) is a type of computer network that facilitates communication among devices within the close vicinity of a home.
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Home theater PC
A home theater PC (HTPC) or media center computer is a convergence device that combines some or all the capabilities of a personal computer with a software application that supports video, photo, audio playback, and sometimes video recording functionality.
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A hybrid kernel is an operating system kernel architecture that attempts to combine aspects and benefits of microkernel and monolithic kernel architectures used in computer operating systems.
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Microsoft Hyper-V, codenamed Viridian and formerly known as Windows Server Virtualization, is a native hypervisor; it can create virtual machines on x86-64 systems running Windows.
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IA-32 (short for "Intel Architecture, 32-bit", sometimes also called i386) is the 32-bit version of the x86 instruction set architecture, first implemented in the Intel 80386 microprocessors in 1985.
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IA-64 (also called Intel Itanium architecture) is the instruction set architecture (ISA) of the Itanium family of 64-bit Intel microprocessors.
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The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
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InformationWeek is a digital magazine which conducts corresponding face-to-face events, virtual events, and research.
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An input method (or input method editor, commonly abbreviated IME) is an operating system component or program that allows any data, such as keyboard strokes or mouse movements, to be received as input.
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The Intel 80286 (also marketed as the iAPX 286 and often called Intel 286) is a 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced on 1 February 1982.
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The Intel 80386, also known as i386 or just 386, is a 32-bit microprocessor introduced in 1985.
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The 8086 (also called iAPX 86) is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel between early 1976 and mid-1978, when it was released.
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International Data Corporation
International Data Corporation (IDC) is a provider of market intelligence, advisory services, and events for the information technology, telecommunications, and consumer technology markets.
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International Data Group
International Data Group, Inc. (IDG) is a Chinese-owned, American-based media, data and marketing services and venture capital organization.
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Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer and Windows Internet Explorer, commonly abbreviated IE or MSIE) is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included in the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, starting in 1995.
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Internet Explorer 10
Internet Explorer 10 (IE10) is a version of the Internet Explorer web browser released by Microsoft in 2012, and is the default browser in Windows 8.
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Internet Explorer 11
Internet Explorer 11 (IE11) is the last version of the Internet Explorer web browser by Microsoft.
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Internet Explorer 4
Microsoft Internet Explorer 4 (IE4) is a graphical web browser that Microsoft released in October 1997, primarily for Microsoft Windows, but also with versions available for the classic Mac OS, Solaris, and HP-UX - Robert McMillan writing for SunWorld (November 5, 1997) - Help and Support page on Microsoft's website (August 17, 2005) and marketed as "The Web the Way You Want It".
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Internet Explorer 5
Microsoft Internet Explorer 5 (IE5) is a graphical web browser and one of the main participants of the first browser war.
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Internet Explorer 6
Microsoft Internet Explorer 6 (IE6) is the sixth major revision of Internet Explorer, a web browser developed by Microsoft for Windows operating systems.
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Internet Explorer 8
Windows Internet Explorer 8 (IE8) is a web browser developed by Microsoft in the Internet Explorer browser series, released on October 22, 2009.
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Internet Explorer 9
Internet Explorer 9 or IE9 (officially Windows Internet Explorer 9) is a version of the Internet Explorer web browser from Microsoft.
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Itanium is a family of 64-bit Intel microprocessors that implement the Intel Itanium architecture (formerly called IA-64).
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Kaspersky Lab (/kæˈspɜːrski/; Russian: Лаборатория Касперского, Laboratoriya Kasperskogo) is a multinational cybersecurity and anti-virus provider headquartered in Moscow, Russia and operated by a holding company in the United Kingdom.
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Kernel (operating system)
The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's operating system, with complete control over everything in the system.
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Kevin David Mitnick (born August 6, 1963) is an American computer security consultant, author, and hacker, best known for his high-profile 1995 arrest and later five years in prison for various computer and communications-related crimes.
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In computing, a keyboard shortcut is a series of one or several keys, such as Ctrl+F to search a character string.
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Language Interface Pack
In Microsoft terminology, a Language Interface Pack (LIP) is a skin for localizing a Windows operating system in languages such as Lithuanian, Serbian, Hindi, Marathi, Kannada, Tamil, and Thai.
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Linspire is a commercial operating system based on Debian GNU/Linux and Ubuntu and currently owned by PC/OpenSystems LLC.
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Linus Benedict Torvalds (born December 28, 1969) is a Finnish-American software engineer who is the creator, and historically, the principal developer of the Linux kernel, which became the kernel for operating systems such as the Linux operating systems, Android, and Chrome OS.
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Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
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A live CD (also live DVD, live disc, or live operating system) is a complete bootable computer installation including operating system which runs directly from a CD-ROM or similar storage device into a computer's memory, rather than loading from a hard disk drive.
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Long filename (LFN) support is Microsoft's backward compatible extension of the 8.3 filename (short filename) naming scheme used in DOS.
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Longene is an operating system kernel intended to be binary compatible with application software and device drivers made for Microsoft Windows and Linux.
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The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.
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macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
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Malicious Software Removal Tool
Microsoft Windows Malicious Software Removal Tool is a freely distributed virus removal tool developed by Microsoft for the Microsoft Windows operating system.
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Mark Lucovsky is an American software developer who worked for Microsoft and who is now employed by Facebook as General Manager of Operating Systems.
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Memory protection is a way to control memory access rights on a computer, and is a part of most modern instruction set architectures and operating systems.
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Metro (design language)
Metro (officially known as Microsoft design language or MDL) is a design language created by Microsoft.
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Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
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Microsoft account or MSA (previously known as Microsoft Passport,.NET Passport, Microsoft Passport Network, and Windows Live ID) is a single sign-on web service developed and provided by Microsoft that allows users to log into websites (like Outlook.com), devices (e.g. Windows 10 computers and tablets, Windows Phones, or Xbox consoles), and applications (including Visual Studio) using one account.
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Microsoft Corp. v. Lindows.com, Inc.
Microsoft v. Lindows.com, Inc. was a court case brought by Microsoft against Lindows, Inc in December 2001, claiming that the name "Lindows" was a violation of its trademark "Windows." After two and a half years of court battles, Microsoft paid million for the Lindows trademark, and Lindows Inc. became Linspire Inc.
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Microsoft Edge (codename "Spartan") is a web browser developed by Microsoft and included in Windows 10, Windows 10 Mobile and Xbox One, replacing Internet Explorer as the default web browser on all device classes.
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Notepad is a simple text editor for Microsoft Windows and a basic text-editing program which enables computer users to create documents.
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Paint (formerly Paintbrush), commonly known as Microsoft Paint or MS Paint, was a simple raster graphics editor that has been included with all versions of Microsoft Windows.
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Microsoft Safety Scanner
Microsoft Safety Scanner is a free virus scanner similar to Windows Malicious Software Removal Tool that can be used to scan a system for computer viruses and other forms of malware.
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Microsoft Security Essentials
Microsoft Security Essentials (MSE) is an antivirus software (AV) that provides protection against different types of malicious software, such as computer viruses, spyware, rootkits, and trojan horses.
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Microsoft Store (digital)
Microsoft Store (formerly known as Windows Store prior to October 2017) is a digital distribution platform for Microsoft Windows.
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Microsoft Tablet PC
Microsoft Tablet PC is a term coined by Microsoft for tablet computers conforming to a set of specifications announced in 2001 by Microsoft, for a pen-enabled personal computer, conforming to hardware specifications devised by Microsoft and running a licensed copy of Windows XP Tablet PC Edition operating system or a derivative thereof.
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Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
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Microsoft Write is a basic word processor included with Windows 1.0 and later, until Windows NT 3.51.
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MIPS (an acronym for Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages) is a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA)Price, Charles (September 1995).
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A monolithic kernel is an operating system architecture where the entire operating system is working in kernel space and is alone in supervisor mode.
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MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.
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Multi-monitor, also called multi-display and multi-head, is the use of multiple physical display devices, such as monitors, televisions, and projectors, in order to increase the area available for computer programs running on a single computer system.
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In computing, multi-touch is technology that enables a surface (a trackpad or touchscreen) to recognize the presence of more than one or more than two points of contact with the surface.
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Multi-user software is software that allows access by multiple users of a computer.
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Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content.
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Net Applications is a web analytics firm.
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NetWare is a discontinued computer network operating system developed by Novell, Inc. It initially used cooperative multitasking to run various services on a personal computer, using the IPX network protocol.
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Novell, Inc. was a software and services company headquartered in Provo, Utah.
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Object-oriented design is the process of planning a system of interacting objects for the purpose of solving a software problem.
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OneDrive (previously SkyDrive, Windows Live SkyDrive, and Windows Live Folders) is a file hosting service operated by Microsoft as part of its suite of Office Online services.
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In computer software, an operating environment or integrated applications environment is the environment in which users run application software.
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An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
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Original equipment manufacturer
An Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) is a company that produces parts and equipment that may be marketed by another manufacturer.
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OS/2 is a series of computer operating systems, initially created by Microsoft and IBM under the leadership of IBM software designer Ed Iacobucci.
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In computer operating systems, paging is a memory management scheme by which a computer stores and retrieves data from secondary storage for use in main memory.
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Patch Tuesday (also known as Update Tuesday) is an unofficial term used to refer to when Microsoft regularly releases security patches for its software products.
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PC World, stylized PCWorld, is a global computer magazine published monthly by IDG.
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Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers.
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Perforce, sometimes referred to as Perforce Software, is a Minneapolis, Minnesota-based developer of software used for application development, including version control software, web-based repository management, developer collaboration, application lifecycle management and Agile planning software.
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A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
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Plug and play
In computing, a plug and play (PnP) device or computer bus, is one with a specification that facilitates the discovery of a hardware component in a system without the need for physical device configuration or user intervention in resolving resource conflicts.
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Pocket PC 2000
Pocket PC 2000, originally codenamed "Rapier",De Herrera, Chris.
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In software engineering, porting is the process of adapting software for the purpose of achieving some form of execution in a computing environment that is different from the one that a given program (meant for such execution) was originally designed for (e.g. different CPU, operating system, or third party library).
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The Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) is a family of standards specified by the IEEE Computer Society for maintaining compatibility between operating systems.
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A power user or an experienced user is a computer user who uses advanced features of computer hardware, operating systems, programs, or web sites which are not used by the average user.
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PowerPC (with the backronym Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC – Performance Computing, sometimes abbreviated as PPC) is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM.
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In computing, preemption is the act of temporarily interrupting a task being carried out by a computer system, without requiring its cooperation, and with the intention of resuming the task at a later time.
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Principle of least privilege
In information security, computer science, and other fields, the principle of least privilege (PoLP, also known as the principle of minimal privilege or the principle of least authority) requires that in a particular abstraction layer of a computing environment, every module (such as a process, a user, or a program, depending on the subject) must be able to access only the information and resources that are necessary for its legitimate purpose.
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Program Manager is the shell of Windows 3.x and Windows NT 3.x operating systems.
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Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code, but sometimes patent rights.
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In computing, protected mode, also called protected virtual address mode, is an operational mode of x86-compatible central processing units (CPUs).
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QEMU (short for Quick Emulator) is a free and open-source emulator that performs hardware virtualization.
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Quick Assist, originally known as Windows Remote Assistance, is a feature of Windows XP and later that allows a user to temporarily view or control a remote Windows computer over a network or the Internet to resolve issues without directly touching the unit.
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QuinStreet, Inc. is a publicly traded marketing company based in Foster City, California.
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ReactOS is a free and open-source operating system for x86/x64 personal computers intended to be binary-compatible with computer programs and device drivers made for Windows Server 2003.
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Real mode, also called real address mode, is an operating mode of all x86-compatible CPUs.
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In Microsoft Windows, resources are read-only data embedded in portable executable files like EXE, DLL, CPL, SCR, SYS or (beginning with Windows Vista) MUI files.
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San Jose, California
San Jose (Spanish for 'Saint Joseph'), officially the City of San José, is an economic, cultural, and political center of Silicon Valley and the largest city in Northern California.
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Security and safety features new to Windows Vista
There are a number of security and safety features new to Windows Vista, most of which are not available in any prior Microsoft Windows operating system release.
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In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".
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In computing, a service pack comprises a collection of updates, fixes, or enhancements to a computer program|software program delivered in the form of a single installable package.
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A shared source or source available software source code distribution model includes arrangements where the source can be viewed, and in some cases modified, but without necessarily meeting the criteria to be called open source.
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In computing, a shell is a user interface for access to an operating system's services.
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Slashdot (sometimes abbreviated as /.) is a social news website that originally billed itself as "News for Nerds.
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A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.
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Social networking service
A social networking service (also social networking site, SNS or social media) is a web application that people use to build social networks or social relations with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections.
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Portability in high-level computer programming is the usability of the same software in different environments.
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Software release life cycle
A software release life cycle is the sum of the stages of development and maturity for a piece of computer software: ranging from its initial development to its eventual release, and including updated versions of the released version to help improve software or fix software bugs still present in the software.
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Spyware is software that aims to gather information about a person or organization sometimes without their knowledge, that may send such information to another entity without the consumer's consent, that asserts control over a device without the consumer's knowledge, or it may send such information to another entity with the consumer's consent, through cookies.
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The Start menu is a user interface element used in Microsoft Windows since Windows 95 and in some other operating systems.
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Statcounter is a web traffic analysis tool.
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Stock keeping unit
In the field of inventory management, a stock keeping unit (SKU) is a distinct type of item for sale, such as a product or service, and all attributes associated with the item type that distinguish it from other item types.
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A stylus, plural styli or styluses, is a writing utensil or a small tool for some other form of marking or shaping, for example, in pottery.
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In computing, the superuser is a special user account used for system administration.
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System Restore is a feature in Microsoft Windows that allows the user to revert their computer's state (including system files, installed applications, Windows Registry, and system settings) to that of a previous point in time, which can be used to recover from system malfunctions or other problems.
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A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a portable personal computer, typically with a mobile operating system and LCD touchscreen display processing circuitry, and a rechargeable battery in a single thin, flat package.
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A taskbar is an element of a graphical user interface which has various purposes.
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Team Foundation Server
Team Foundation Server (commonly abbreviated to TFS) is a Microsoft product that provides source code management (either with Team Foundation Version Control or Git), reporting, requirements management, project management (for both agile software development and waterfall teams), automated builds, lab management, testing and release management capabilities.
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Technical features new to Windows Vista
Windows Vista (formerly codenamed Windows "Longhorn") has many significant new features compared with previous Microsoft Windows versions, covering most aspects of the operating system.
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A terminal emulator, terminal application, or term, is a program that emulates a video terminal within some other display architecture.
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The Chronicle of Higher Education
The Chronicle of Higher Education is a newspaper and website that presents news, information, and jobs for college and university faculty and Student Affairs professionals (staff members and administrators).
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The Verge is an American technology news and media network operated by Vox Media.
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Tiling window manager
In computing, a tiling window manager is a window manager with an organization of the screen into mutually non-overlapping frames, as opposed to the more popular approach of coordinate-based stacking of overlapping objects (windows) that tries to fully emulate the desktop metaphor.
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TV tuner card
A TV tuner card is a kind of television tuner that allows television signals to be received by a computer.
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Universal Windows Platform apps
Universal Windows Platform (UWP) apps (formerly Windows Store apps and Metro-style apps) are apps that can be used across all compatible Microsoft Windows devices, including personal computers (PCs), tablets, smartphones, Xbox One, Microsoft HoloLens, and Internet of Things.
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Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
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Usage share of operating systems
The usage share of operating systems is an estimate of the percentage of computing devices that run each operating system at any particular time.
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User Account Control
User Account Control (UAC) is a technology and security infrastructure introduced with Microsoft's Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 operating systems, with a more relaxed, An overview of UAC in Windows 7 by Paul Thurott version also present in Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows 8, Windows Server 2012 and Windows 10.
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Video game console
A video game console is an electronic, digital or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.
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Virtual 8086 mode
In the 80386 microprocessor and later, virtual 8086 mode (also called virtual real mode, V86-mode or VM86) allows the execution of real mode applications that are incapable of running directly in protected mode while the processor is running a protected mode operating system.
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In computing, a virtual desktop is a term used with respect to user interfaces, usually within the WIMP paradigm, to describe ways in which the virtual space of a computer's desktop environment is expanded beyond the physical limits of the screen's display area through the use of software.
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In computing, virtual memory (also virtual storage) is a memory management technique that provides an "idealized abstraction of the storage resources that are actually available on a given machine" which "creates the illusion to users of a very large (main) memory." The computer's operating system, using a combination of hardware and software, maps memory addresses used by a program, called virtual addresses, into physical addresses in computer memory.
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Vox Media is an American digital media company founded on July 14, 2005 as SportsBlogs Inc.
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VxD is the device driver model used in Microsoft Windows/386, the 386 enhanced mode of Windows 3.x, Windows 9x, and to some extent also by the Novell DOS 7, OpenDOS 7.01, and DR-DOS 7.02 (and higher) multitasker (TASKMGR).
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A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
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Web server refers to server software, or hardware dedicated to running said software, that can serve contents to the World Wide Web.
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Windows 1.0 is a graphical personal computer operating environment developed by Microsoft.
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Windows 10 (codenamed Redstone, formerly Threshold) is a personal computer operating system developed and released by Microsoft, as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.
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Windows 10 Mobile
Windows 10 Mobile is a mobile operating system developed by Microsoft, released in 2015.
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Windows 2.0 is a 16-bit Microsoft Windows GUI-based operating environment that was released on December 9, 1987, and is the successor to Windows 1.0.
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Windows 2.1x (marketed as Windows/286 and Windows/386) is a family of Microsoft Windows graphical user interface-based operating environments.
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Windows 2000 (codenamed NT 5.0) is an operating system for use on both client and server computers.
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Windows 3.0, a graphical environment, is the third major release of Microsoft Windows, and was released on May 22, 1990.
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Windows 3.1x (codenamed Janus) is a series of 16-bit operating environments produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers.
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Windows 7 (codenamed Vienna, formerly Blackcomb) is a personal computer operating system developed by Microsoft.
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Windows 8 is a personal computer operating system developed by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.
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Windows 8.1 (codenamed Blue) is a computer operating system released by Microsoft.
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Windows 95 (codenamed Chicago) is a consumer-oriented operating system developed by Microsoft.
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Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis while in development) is a graphical operating system by Microsoft.
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Windows 9x is a generic term referring to a series of Microsoft Windows computer operating systems produced from 1995 to 2000, which were based on the Windows 95 kernel and its underlying foundation of MS-DOS, both of which were updated in subsequent versions.
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Windows Anytime Upgrade
Windows Anytime Upgrade is a discontinued component of Windows Vista and Windows 7 that enabled users to upgrade their editions of Windows (e.g., from Home Basic to Ultimate).
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The Windows API, informally WinAPI, is Microsoft's core set of application programming interfaces (APIs) available in the Microsoft Windows operating systems.
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Windows Calculator is a software calculator included in all versions of Windows.
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Windows Defender (called Windows Defender Antivirus in Windows 10 Creators Update) is an anti-malware component of Microsoft Windows.
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Windows Desktop Update
Microsoft's Windows Desktop Update was an optional feature included with Internet Explorer 4 (IE, released in September 1997), which introduced several updated shell features to the Windows 95 and Windows NT 4.0 operating systems.
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Windows Driver Model
In computing, the Windows Driver Model (WDM) also known at one point as the Win32 Driver Model is a framework for device drivers that was introduced with Windows 98 and Windows 2000 to replace VxD, which was used on older versions of Windows such as Windows 95 and Windows 3.1, as well as the Windows NT Driver Model.
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Windows Embedded Automotive
Windows Embedded Automotive, formerly Microsoft Auto, Windows CE for Automotive, Windows Automotive, and Windows Mobile for Automotive, is an operating system subfamily of Windows Embedded based on Windows CE for use on computer systems in automobiles.
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Windows Embedded CE 6.0
Windows Embedded CE 6.0 (codenamed "Yamazaki") is the sixth major release of Microsoft Windows embedded operating system targeted to enterprise specific tools such as industrial controllers and consumer electronics devices like digital cameras.
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Windows Embedded Compact
Windows Embedded Compact, formerly Windows Embedded CE and Windows CE, is an operating system subfamily developed by Microsoft as part of its Windows Embedded family of products.* Unlike Windows Embedded Standard, which is based on Windows NT, Windows Embedded Compact uses a different hybrid kernel.
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Windows Embedded Compact 7
Windows Embedded Compact 7 (formerly known as Windows Embedded CE 7.0) is the seventh major release of Windows Embedded CE operating system.
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Windows Embedded Industry
Windows Embedded Industry, formerly Windows Embedded POSReady and Windows Embedded for Point of Service, is an operating system subfamily developed by Microsoft as part of its Windows Embedded family of products.
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Windows File Protection
Windows File Protection (WFP), a sub-system included in Microsoft Windows operating systems of the Windows 2000 and Windows XP era, aims to prevent programs from replacing critical Windows system files.
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Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs
Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs ("WinFLP") is a thin client operating system from Microsoft.
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Windows Genuine Advantage
Windows Genuine Advantage (WGA) is an anti-infringement system created by Microsoft that enforces online validation of the licensing of several recent Microsoft Windows operating systems when accessing several services, such as Windows Update, and downloading Windows components from the Microsoft Download Center.
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Windows Home Server
Windows Home Server, code-named Quattro, is a home server operating system from Microsoft.
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Windows Home Server 2011
Windows Home Server 2011, code named Vail, is a home server operating system by Microsoft designed for small office/home offices and homes with multiple connected PCs to offer protected file storage, file sharing, automated PC backup, remote access, and remote control of PC desktops.
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Windows Image Acquisition
Windows Image Acquisition (WIA; sometimes also called Windows Imaging Architecture) is a proprietary Microsoft driver model and application programming interface (API) for Microsoft Windows Me and later Windows operating systems that enables graphics software to communicate with imaging hardware such as scanners, digital cameras and Digital Video-equipment.
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Windows Installer (previously known as Microsoft Installer, codename Darwin) is a software component and application programming interface (API) of Microsoft Windows used for the installation, maintenance, and removal of software.
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Windows IoT, formerly Windows Embedded, is a family of operating systems from Microsoft designed for use in embedded systems.
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Windows Millennium Edition, or Windows ME (marketed with the pronunciation of the pronoun "me", commonly pronounced as an initialism, "M-E (Codenamed Millennium)", is a graphical operating system from Microsoft released to manufacturing in June 2000, and launched in September 2000.
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Windows Media Player
Windows Media Player (WMP) is a media player and media library application developed by Microsoft that is used for playing audio, video and viewing images on personal computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system, as well as on Pocket PC and Windows Mobile-based devices.
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Windows Mobile is a discontinued family of mobile operating systems developed by Microsoft for smartphones and Pocket PCs.
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Windows Mobile 2003
Windows Mobile 2003, originally codenamed "Ozone", is a discontinued mobile operating system and part member of Windows Mobile family.
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Windows Mobile 6.5
Windows Mobile 6.5 is a stopgap update to Windows Mobile 6.1 intended to bridge the gap between version 6.1, that arrived in 2008, and the then yet-to-be released Windows Phone 7.
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Windows Movie Maker
Windows Movie Maker (formerly known as Windows Live Movie Maker in Windows 7) is a video editing software by Microsoft.
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Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993.
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Windows NT 3.1
Windows NT 3.1 is a 32-bit operating system developed by Microsoft, and released on July 27, 1993.
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Windows NT 3.5
Windows NT 3.5 is an operating system developed by Microsoft, released on September 21, 1994.
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Windows NT 3.51
Windows NT 3.51 is the third release of Microsoft's Windows NT line of operating systems.
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Windows NT 4.0
Windows NT 4.0 is an operating system that is part of Microsoft's Windows NT family of operating systems.
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Windows Phone (WP) is a family of discontinued mobile operating systems developed by Microsoft for smartphones as the replacement successor to Windows Mobile and Zune.
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Windows Phone 7
Windows Phone 7 is the first release of the Windows Phone mobile client operating system, released worldwide on October 21, 2010, and in the United States on November 8, 2010.
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Windows Phone 8
Windows Phone 8 is the second generation of the Windows Phone mobile operating system from Microsoft.
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Windows Phone 8.1
Windows Phone 8.1 is the third generation of Microsoft's Windows Phone mobile operating system, succeeding Windows Phone 8.
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Windows Preinstallation Environment
Windows Preinstallation Environment (also known as Windows PE and WinPE) is a lightweight version of Windows used for the deployment of PCs, workstations, and servers, or troubleshooting an operating system while it is offline.
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Windows RT is a discontinued mobile operating system developed by Microsoft.
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Windows Server is a brand name for a group of server operating systems released by Microsoft.
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Windows Server 2003
Windows Server 2003 is a server operating system produced by Microsoft and released on April 24, 2003.
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Windows Server 2008
Windows Server 2008 is the second major release of the Windows Server family of operating systems for server computers.
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Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2 is a server operating system produced by Microsoft.
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Windows Server 2012
Windows Server 2012, codenamed "Windows Server 8", is the sixth release of Windows Server.
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Windows Server 2016
Windows Server 2016 is a server operating system developed by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems, developed concurrently with Windows 10.
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Windows Server 2019
Windows Server 2019 is an operating system under development by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems designed for servers.
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Windows Server Update Services
Windows Server Update Services (WSUS), previously known as Software Update Services (SUS), is a computer program developed by Microsoft Corporation that enables administrators to manage the distribution of updates and hotfixes released for Microsoft products to computers in a corporate environment.
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The Windows shell is the graphical user interface for the Microsoft Windows operating system.
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Windows Update is a Microsoft service for the Windows 9x and Windows NT families of operating system, which automates downloading and installing software updates over the Internet.
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Windows Vista (codenamed Longhorn) is an operating system by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs and media center PCs.
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Windows Vista editions
Windows Vista—a major release of the Microsoft Windows operating system—was available in six different product editions: Starter; Home Basic; Home Premium; Business; Enterprise; and Ultimate.
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Windows XP (codenamed Whistler) is a personal computer operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.
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Windows XP editions
Windows XP has been released in several editions since its original release in 2001.
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Windows XP Professional x64 Edition
Microsoft Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, released on April 25, 2005, is an edition of Windows XP for x86-64 personal computers.
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Wine (recursive backronym for Wine Is Not an Emulator) is a free and open-source compatibility layer that aims to allow computer programs (application software and computer games) developed for Microsoft Windows to run on Unix-like operating systems.
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Wintel is a portmanteau of Windows and Intel, referring to personal computers using Intel x86-compatible processors running Microsoft Windows.
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A workstation is a special computer designed for technical or scientific applications.
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x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.
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x86-64 (also known as x64, x86_64, AMD64 and Intel 64) is the 64-bit version of the x86 instruction set.
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Xandros was a software company which sold Xandros Desktop, a Linux distribution.
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Xbox is a video gaming brand created and owned by Microsoft.
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Xbox Live is an online multiplayer gaming and digital media delivery service created and operated by Microsoft.
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Xbox One is a line of eighth generation home video game consoles developed by Microsoft.
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Xbox One system software
The Xbox One system software, sometimes called the Xbox OS, is the operating system for the eighth-generation home video game console, Xbox One.
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ZDNet is a business technology news website published by CBS Interactive, along with TechRepublic.
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32-bit microcomputers are computers in which 32-bit microprocessors are the norm.
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In computer architecture, 64-bit computing is the use of processors that have datapath widths, integer size, and memory address widths of 64 bits (eight octets).
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