252 relations: Absorption wavemeter, Active Denial System, Air traffic control, Antenna (radio), Antenna gain, Arno Allan Penzias, Astronomical radio source, AT&T Communications, Atacama Large Millimeter Array, Bandwidth (signal processing), BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, Big Bang, Bit rate, Black-body radiation, Block upconverter, Blood vessel, Bluetooth, Broadcast auxiliary service, Broadcast engineering, Broadcasting, Burn, C band (IEEE), Cambridge University Press, Capacitor, Carcinogen, Cassiopeia A, Cataract, Cavity magnetron, Cellular network, Chemical vapor deposition, Coaxial cable, Collision avoidance system, Communication protocol, Communications satellite, Cordless telephone, Cornea, Cosmic microwave background, Curing (chemistry), D band (waveguide), Denaturation (biochemistry), Density, Diathermy, Dielectric heating, Digital audio radio service, Diplexer, Dipole antenna, Directional antenna, Distributed element model, DVB-SH, Egg white, ..., Eleanor R. Adair, Electric current, Electrochemistry, Electromagnetic induction, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electron cyclotron resonance, Electron paramagnetic resonance, Energy, Ernst Weber (engineer), Exa-, Extremely high frequency, Extremely low frequency, F band (waveguide), Far infrared, Femto-, Field-effect transistor, Fixed-satellite service, Frequency, Frequency counter, Frequency-division multiplexing, Fresnel zone, Galaxy, Gamma ray, Garage door opener, Geostationary orbit, Global Positioning System, GLONASS, Gunn diode, Gyrotron, Harry Boot, Heinrich Barkhausen, Heinrich Hertz, Herley Industries, Heterodyne, History of electromagnetic theory, Horn antenna, Human eye, IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.11a-1999, IEEE 802.16, IEEE 802.20, IEEE Standards Association, IMPATT diode, Inductor, Infrared, International Microwave Power Institute, Inverted-F antenna, Ionosphere, ISM band, ITER, Jagadish Chandra Bose, James Clerk Maxwell, John Randall (physicist), K band (IEEE), Ka band, Kilo-, Klystron, Ku band, L band, Laptop, Laser, Lecher lines, Lens (anatomy), Leyden jar, Light, Line-of-sight propagation, Long-distance calling, Low-noise block downconverter, Lumped element model, Luneburg lens, Magnetic field, Maser, Maxwell's equations, Metropolitan area network, Micro-, Microstrip, Microstrip antenna, Microwave auditory effect, Microwave cavity, Microwave chemistry, Microwave enhanced electrochemistry, Microwave oven, Microwave radiometer, Microwave transmission, Milli-, Milstar, Mobile broadband, Mobile phone, Moon, NASA, Nebula, Network analysis (electrical circuits), News broadcasting, Node (physics), Non-ionizing radiation, Non-lethal weapon, Omnidirectional antenna, Opacity (optics), Optical fiber, Optical window, Optics, Orthomode transducer, Oscillation, Parabolic antenna, Particle accelerator, Patch antenna, Peta-, Phased array, Photon, Physical cosmology, Plasma (physics), Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, Point-to-point (telecommunications), Prefix, Protein, Q band, Radar, Radar gun, Radical (chemistry), Radio, Radio astronomy, Radio receiver, Radio Society of Great Britain, Radio telescope, Radio wave, Radioactive decay, Radiolocation, Rain fade, Reactive-ion etching, Remote keyless system, Remote pickup unit, Remote sensing, Resistor, Resonator, RF front end, RF switch matrix, Robert H. Dicke, Robert Woodrow Wilson, Rotational spectroscopy, Rubber ducky antenna, Russell and Sigurd Varian, S band, S-DMB, Satellite navigation, Satellite radio, Satellite television, Semiconductor device fabrication, Skywave, Slot antenna, Solar panel, Space-based solar power, Spark-gap transmitter, Spectroscopy, Speed limit enforcement, Standing wave, Standing wave ratio, Stellarator, Stripline, Stub (electronics), Studio/transmitter link, Super high frequency, Surface wave, Telecommunication, Telephone call, Television receive-only, Temperature, Terahertz radiation, The New York Times, The Thing (listening device), Transition metal, Transmission line, Transmitter, Traveling-wave tube, Troposphere, Tropospheric scatter, Tunnel diode, Twin-lead, U-NII, Ultra high frequency, Ultraviolet, United States Air Force, United States Marine Corps, Universe, V band, Vacuum tube, Venus, W band, Wave, Waveguide, Waveguide (electromagnetism), Wavelength, WiMAX, Wireless, Wireless LAN, Wireless network, World War II, X band, X-ray, Zoltán Lajos Bay. Expand index (202 more) » « Shrink index
An absorption wavemeter is a simple electronic instrument used to measure the frequency of radio waves.
The Active Denial System (ADS) is a non-lethal, directed-energy weapon developed by the U.S. military, designed for area denial, perimeter security and crowd control.
Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace, and can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace.
In radio, an antenna is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver.
In electromagnetics, an antenna's power gain or simply gain is a key performance number which combines the antenna's directivity and electrical efficiency.
Arno Allan Penzias (born 26 April 1933) is an American physicist, radio astronomer and Nobel laureate in physics who is co-discoverer of the cosmic microwave background radiation along with Robert Woodrow Wilson, which helped establish the Big Bang theory of cosmology.
Astronomical radio sources are objects in outer space that emit strong radio waves.
AT&T Communications, Inc., was a division of the AT&T Corporation that, through 23 subsidiaries, provided interexchange carrier and long distance telephone services.
The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is an astronomical interferometer of radio telescopes in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.
Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous band of frequencies.
The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) is a Chinese satellite navigation system.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (bitrate or as a variable R) is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time.
Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body).
A block upconverter (BUC) is used in the transmission (uplink) of satellite signals.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485GHz) from fixed and mobile devices, and building personal area networks (PANs).
A broadcast auxiliary service or BAS is any radio frequency system used by a radio station or TV station, which is not part of its direct broadcast to listeners or viewers.
Broadcast engineering is the field of electrical engineering, and now to some extent computer engineering and information technology, which deals with radio and television broadcasting.
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.
A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation.
The C-band is a designation by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies ranging from 4.0 to 8.0 gigahertz (GHz); however, this definition is the one used by radar manufacturers and users, not necessarily by microwave radio telecommunications users.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Cassiopeia A (Cas A) is a supernova remnant (SNR) in the constellation Cassiopeia and the brightest extrasolar radio source in the sky at frequencies above 1 GHz.
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.
The cavity magnetron is a high-powered vacuum tube that generates microwaves using the interaction of a stream of electrons with a magnetic field while moving past a series of open metal cavities (cavity resonators).
A cellular network or mobile network is a communication network where the last link is wireless.
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is deposition method used to produce high quality, high-performance, solid materials, typically under vacuum.
Cross-sectional view of a coaxial cable Coaxial cable, or coax (pronounced), is a type of electrical cable that has an inner conductor surrounded by a tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield.
A collision avoidance system is an automobile safety system designed to prevent or reduce the severity of a collision.
In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.
A cordless telephone or portable telephone is a telephone in which the handset is portable and communicates with the body of the phone by radio, instead of being attached by a cord.
The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.
The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.
Curing is a term in polymer chemistry and process engineering that refers to the toughening or hardening of a polymer material by cross-linking of polymer chains, brought about by electron beams, heat, or chemical additives.
The waveguide D band is the range of radio frequencies from 110 GHz to 170 GHz in the electromagnetic spectrum, corresponding to the recommended frequency band of operation of the WR6 and WR7 waveguides.
Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Diathermy is electrically induced heat or the use of high-frequency electromagnetic currents as a form of physical or occupational therapy and in surgical procedures.
Dielectric heating, also known as electronic heating, RF (radio frequency) heating, and high-frequency heating, is the process in which a radio frequency alternating electric field, or radio wave or microwave electromagnetic radiation heats a dielectric material.
Digital audio radio service (DARS) refers to any type of digital radio program service.
A diplexer is a passive device that implements frequency-domain multiplexing.
In radio and telecommunications a dipole antenna or doublet is the simplest and most widely used class of antenna.
A directional antenna or beam antenna is an antenna which radiates or receives greater power in specific directions allowing increased performance and reduced interference from unwanted sources.
In electrical engineering, the distributed element model or transmission line model of electrical circuits assumes that the attributes of the circuit (resistance, capacitance, and inductance) are distributed continuously throughout the material of the circuit.
DVB-SH ("Digital Video Broadcasting - Satellite services to Handhelds") is a physical layer standard for delivering IP based media content and data to handheld terminals such as mobile phones or PDAs, based on a hybrid satellite/terrestrial downlink and for example a GPRS uplink.
Egg white is the clear liquid (also called the albumen or the glair/glaire) contained within an egg.
Eleanor R. Adair (November 11, 1926 – April 20, 2013) was an American scientist known for her work related to the health aspects of microwave radiation technology.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Electron cyclotron resonance is a phenomenon observed in plasma physics, condensed matter physics, and accelerator physics.
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a method for studying materials with unpaired electrons.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Ernst Weber (September 6, 1901 in Vienna, Austria – February 16, 1996 in Columbus, North Carolina), Austria-born American electrical engineer, was a pioneer in microwave technologies and played an important role in the history of the Polytechnic Institute of New York University, where in 1945 he founded the Microwave Research Institute (later renamed the Weber Research Institute in his honor).
Exa is a decimal unit prefix in the metric system denoting 1018 or.
Extremely high frequency (EHF) is the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) designation for the band of radio frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum from 30 to 300 gigahertz (GHz).
Extremely low frequency (ELF) is the ITU designation for electromagnetic radiation (radio waves) with frequencies from 3 to 30 Hz, and corresponding wavelengths of 100,000 to 10,000 kilometers, respectively.
The waveguide F band is the range of radio frequencies from 90 GHz to 140 GHz in the electromagnetic spectrum, corresponding to the recommended frequency band of operation of WR8 waveguides.
Far infrared (FIR) is a region in the infrared spectrum of electromagnetic radiation.
Femto- (symbol f) is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of 10−15 or.
The field-effect transistor (FET) is a transistor that uses an electric field to control the electrical behaviour of the device.
Fixed-satellite service (short: FSS | also: fixed-satellite radiocommunication service) is – according to article 1.21 of the International Telecommunication Union´s (ITU) Radio Regulations (RR) – defined as A radiocommunication service between earth stations at given positions, when one or more satellites are used; the given position may be a specified fixed point or any fixed point within specified areas; in some cases this service includes satellite-to-satellite links, which may also be operated in the inter-satellite service; the fixed-satellite service may also include feeder links for other space radiocommunication services.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
A frequency counter is an electronic instrument, or component of one, that is used for measuring frequency.
In telecommunications, frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) is a technique by which the total bandwidth available in a communication medium is divided into a series of non-overlapping frequency bands, each of which is used to carry a separate signal.
A Fresnel zone, named for physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel, is one of a series of concentric prolate ellipsoidal regions of space between and around a transmitting antenna and a receiving antenna system.
A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
A garage door opener is a motorized device that opens and closes garage doors.
A geostationary orbit, often referred to as a geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), is a circular geosynchronous orbit above Earth's equator and following the direction of Earth's rotation.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.
GLONASS (ГЛОНАСС,; Глобальная навигационная спутниковая система; transliteration), or "Global Navigation Satellite System", is a space-based satellite navigation system operating in the radionavigation-satellite service.
A Gunn diode, also known as a transferred electron device (TED), is a form of diode, a two-terminal passive semiconductor electronic component, with negative resistance, used in high-frequency electronics.
A gyrotron is a high-power linear-beam vacuum tube which generates millimeter-wave electromagnetic waves by the cyclotron resonance of electrons in a strong magnetic field.
Henry Albert Howard "Harry" Boot (29 July 1917 – 8 February 1983) was an English physicist who with Sir John Randall and James Sayers developed the cavity magnetron, which was one of the keys to the Allied victory in the Second World War.
Heinrich Georg Barkhausen (2 December 1881 – 20 February 1956), born at Bremen, was a German physicist.
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light.
Herley Industries, based in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, is an American company that specializes in supplying microwave and millimeter wave products to defense and aerospace industries.
Heterodyning is a signal processing technique invented in 1901 by Canadian inventor-engineer Reginald Fessenden that creates new frequencies by combining or mixing two frequencies.
The history of electromagnetic theory begins with ancient measures to understand atmospheric electricity, in particular lightning.
A horn antenna or microwave horn is an antenna that consists of a flaring metal waveguide shaped like a horn to direct radio waves in a beam.
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
IEEE 802.11 is a set of media access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications for implementing wireless local area network (WLAN) computer communication in the 900 MHz and 2.4, 3.6, 5, and 60 GHz frequency bands.
IEEE 802.11a-1999 or 802.11a was an amendment to the IEEE 802.11 wireless local network specifications that defined requirements for an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communication system.
IEEE 802.16 is a series of wireless broadband standards written by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
IEEE 802.20 or Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA) was a specification by the standard association of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for mobile wireless Internet access networks.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association (IEEE-SA) is an organization within IEEE that develops global standards in a broad range of industries, including: power and energy, biomedical and health care, information technology and robotics, telecommunication and home automation, transportation, nanotechnology, information assurance, and many more.
An IMPATT diode (IMPact ionization Avalanche Transit-Time diode) is a form of high-power semiconductor diode used in high-frequency microwave electronics devices.
An inductor, also called a coil, choke or reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
The International Microwave Power Institute (IMPI) is an organization devoted to microwave energy and its usage.
An inverted-F antenna is a type of antenna used in wireless communication.
The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.
The industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands are radio bands (portions of the radio spectrum) reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency (RF) energy for industrial, scientific and medical purposes other than telecommunications.
ITER (Latin for "the way") is an international nuclear fusion research and engineering megaproject, which will be the world's largest magnetic confinement plasma physics experiment.
Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, CSI, CIE, FRS (30 November 1858 – 23 November 1937), also spelled Jagdish and Jagadis, was a polymath, physicist, biologist, biophysicist, botanist and archaeologist, and an early writer of science fiction.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
Sir John Turton Randall, (23 March 1905 – 16 June 1984) was a British physicist and biophysicist, credited with radical improvement of the cavity magnetron, an essential component of centimetric wavelength radar, which was one of the keys to the Allied victory in the Second World War.
The IEEE K band is a portion of the radio spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies from 18 to 27 gigahertz (GHz).
The Ka band (pronounced as either "kay-ay band" or "ka band") is a portion of the microwave part of the electromagnetic spectrum defined as frequencies in the range 26.5–40 gigahertz (GHz), i.e. wavelengths from slightly over one centimeter down to 7.5 millimeters.
Kilo is a decimal unit prefix in the metric system denoting multiplication by one thousand (103).
A klystron is a specialized linear-beam vacuum tube, invented in 1937 by American electrical engineers Russell and Sigurd Varian,Pond, Norman H. "The Tube Guys".
The Ku band is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies from 12 to 18 gigahertz (GHz).
The L band is the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) designation for the range of frequencies in the radio spectrum from 1 to 2 gigahertz (GHz).
A laptop, also called a notebook computer or just notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
In electronics, a Lecher line or Lecher wires is a pair of parallel wires or rods that were used to measure the wavelength of radio waves, mainly at UHF and microwave frequencies.
The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.
A Leyden jar (or Leiden jar) stores a high-voltage electric charge (from an external source) between electrical conductors on the inside and outside of a glass jar.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Line-of-sight propagation is a characteristic of electromagnetic radiation or acoustic wave propagation which means waves travel in a direct path from the source to the receiver.
In telecommunications, a long-distance call or trunk call is a telephone call made to a location outside a defined local calling area.
A low-noise block downconverter (LNB) is the receiving device mounted on satellite dishes used for satellite TV reception, which collects the radio waves from the dish and converts them to a signal which is sent through a cable to the receiver inside the building.
The lumped element model (also called lumped parameter model, or lumped component model) simplifies the description of the behaviour of spatially distributed physical systems into a topology consisting of discrete entities that approximate the behaviour of the distributed system under certain assumptions.
A Luneburg lens (originally Lüneburg lens, often incorrectly spelled Luneberg lens) is a spherically symmetric gradient-index lens.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
A maser (an acronym for "microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation") is a device that produces coherent electromagnetic waves through amplification by stimulated emission.
Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.
A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large local area network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network (WAN).
Micro- (symbol µ) is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of 10−6 (one millionth).
Microstrip is a type of electrical transmission line which can be fabricated using printed circuit board technology, and is used to convey microwave-frequency signals.
In telecommunication, a microstrip antenna (also known as a printed antenna) usually means an antenna fabricated using microstrip techniques on a printed circuit board (PCB).
The microwave auditory effect, also known as the microwave hearing effect or the Frey effect, consists of audible clicks induced by pulsed/modulated microwave frequencies.
A microwave cavity or radio frequency (RF) cavity is a special type of resonator, consisting of a closed (or largely closed) metal structure that confines electromagnetic fields in the microwave region of the spectrum.
Microwave chemistry is the science of applying microwave radiation to chemical reactions.
Microwave radiation was applied in electrochemical methods in 1998 when Frank Marken and Richard G. Compton in Oxford placed a piece of platinum wire inside a microwave cavity in small electrochemical cell.
A microwave oven (also commonly referred to as a microwave) is an electric oven that heats and cooks food by exposing it to electromagnetic radiation in the microwave frequency range.
A microwave radiometer (MWR) is a radiometer that measures energy emitted at millimetre-to-centimetre wavelengths (frequencies of 1–1000 GHz) known as microwaves.
Microwave transmission is the transmission of information or energy by microwave radio waves.
Milli- (symbol m) is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of one thousandth (10−3).
Milstar, originally meaning Military Strategic and Tactical Relay, is a constellation of military communications satellites in geostationary orbit, which are operated by the United States Air Force, and provide secure and jam-resistant worldwide communications to meet the requirements of the Armed Forces of the United States.
Mobile broadband is the marketing term for wireless Internet access through a portable modem, USB wireless modem, tablet/smartphone or other mobile device.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
A nebula (Latin for "cloud" or "fog"; pl. nebulae, nebulæ, or nebulas) is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases.
A network, in the context of electronics, is a collection of interconnected components.
News broadcasting is the medium of broadcasting of various news events and other information via television, radio, or internet in the field of broadcast journalism.
A node is a point along a standing wave where the wave has minimum amplitude.
Non-ionizing (or non-ionising) radiation refers to any type of electromagnetic radiation that does not carry enough energy per quantum (photon energy) to ionize atoms or molecules—that is, to completely remove an electron from an atom or molecule.
Non-lethal weapons, also called less-lethal weapons, less-than-lethal weapons, non-deadly weapons, compliance weapons, or pain-inducing weapons are weapons intended to be less likely to kill a living target than conventional weapons such as knives and firearms.
In radio communication, an omnidirectional antenna is a class of antenna which have an axis about which radio wave power is radiated symmetrically, and, upon that axis, is zero.
Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light.
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
The meaning of this term depends on the context.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
An orthomode transducer (OMT) is a waveguide component.
Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states.
A parabolic antenna is an antenna that uses a parabolic reflector, a curved surface with the cross-sectional shape of a parabola, to direct the radio waves.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
A patch antenna is a type of radio antenna with a low profile, which can be mounted on a flat surface.
Peta is a decimal unit prefix in the metric system denoting multiplication by 1015.
In antenna theory, a phased array usually means an electronically scanned array; a computer-controlled array of antennas which creates a beam of radio waves which can be electronically steered to point in different directions, without moving the antennas.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is a chemical vapor deposition process used to deposit thin films from a gas state (vapor) to a solid state on a substrate.
In telecommunications, a point-to-point connection refers to a communications connection between two Communication endpoints or nodes.
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
The Q band is a range of frequencies contained in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
A radar speed gun (also radar gun and speed gun) is a device used to measure the speed of moving objects.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies.
In radio communications, a radio receiver (receiver or simply radio) is an electronic device that receives radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form.
The Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB), first founded in 1913 as the London Wireless Club, is the United Kingdom's recognised national society for amateur radio operators.
A radio telescope is a specialized antenna and radio receiver used to receive radio waves from astronomical radio sources in the sky in radio astronomy.
Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radiolocating is the process of finding the location of something through the use of radio waves.
Rain fade refers primarily to the absorption of a microwave radio frequency (RF) signal by atmospheric rain, snow, or ice, and losses which are especially prevalent at frequencies above 11 GHz.
Reactive-ion etching (RIE) is an etching technology used in microfabrication.
A keyless entry system is an electronic lock that controls access to a building or vehicle without using a traditional mechanical key.
A remote pickup unit or RPU is a radio system using special radio frequencies set aside for electronic news gathering (ENG) and remote broadcasting.
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.
A resonator is a device or system that exhibits resonance or resonant behavior, that is, it naturally oscillates at some frequencies, called its resonant frequencies, with greater amplitude than at others.
In a radio receiver circuit, the RF front end is a generic term for all the circuitry between the antenna up to and including the mixer stage.
An RF switch matrix is a system of discrete electronic components that are integrated to route radio frequency(RF) signals between multiple inputs and multiple outputs.
Robert Henry Dicke (May 6, 1916 – March 4, 1997) was an American physicist who made important contributions to the fields of astrophysics, atomic physics, cosmology and gravity.
Robert Woodrow Wilson (born January 10, 1936) is an American astronomer, 1978 Nobel laureate in physics, who with Arno Allan Penzias discovered in 1964 the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB).
Rotational spectroscopy is concerned with the measurement of the energies of transitions between quantized rotational states of molecules in the gas phase.
The rubber ducky antenna (or rubber duck aerial) is an electrically short monopole antenna that functions somewhat like a base-loaded whip antenna.
Russell Harrison Varian (April 24, 1898 – July 28, 1959) and Sigurd Fergus Varian (May 4, 1901 – October 18, 1961) were brothers who founded one of the earliest high-tech companies in Silicon Valley.
The S band is a designation by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for a part of the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum covering frequencies from 2 to 4 gigahertz (GHz).
S-DMB (Satellite-DMB) is a hybrid version of the Digital Multimedia Broadcasting.
A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning.
Satellite radio is defined by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU)'S ITU Radio Regulations (RR) as a broadcasting-satellite service.
Satellite television is a service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite orbiting the Earth directly to the viewer's location.
Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to create the integrated circuits that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices.
In radio communication, skywave or skip refers to the propagation of radio waves reflected or refracted back toward Earth from the ionosphere, an electrically charged layer of the upper atmosphere.
A slot antenna consists of a metal surface, usually a flat plate, with one or more holes or slots cut out.
Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity.
Space-based solar power (SBSP) is the concept of collecting solar power in outer space and distributing it to Earth.
A spark-gap transmitter is a device that generates radio frequency electromagnetic waves using a spark gap.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
Speed limit enforcement is the effort made by appropriately empowered authorities to improve driver compliance with speed limits.
In physics, a standing wave – also known as a stationary wave – is a wave which oscillates in time but whose peak amplitude profile does not move in space.
In radio engineering and telecommunications, standing wave ratio (SWR) is a measure of impedance matching of loads to the characteristic impedance of a transmission line or waveguide.
A stellarator is a device used to confine hot plasma with magnetic fields in order to sustain a controlled nuclear fusion reaction.
Stripline is a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) transmission line medium invented by Robert M. Barrett of the Air Force Cambridge Research Centre in the 1950s.
In microwave and radio-frequency engineering, a stub or resonant stub is a length of transmission line or waveguide that is connected at one end only.
A studio/transmitter link (or STL) sends a radio station's or television station's audio and video from the broadcast studio or origination facility to a radio transmitter, television transmitter or uplink facility in another location.
Super high frequency (SHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range between 3 and 30 gigahertz (GHz).
In physics, a surface wave is a mechanical wave that propagates along the interface between differing media.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
A telephone call is a connection over a telephone network between the called party and the calling party.
Television receive-only (TVRO) is a term used chiefly in North America to refer to the reception of satellite television from FSS-type satellites, generally on C-band analog; free-to-air and unconnected to a commercial DBS provider.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Terahertz radiation – also known as submillimeter radiation, terahertz waves, tremendously high frequency (THF), T-rays, T-waves, T-light, T-lux or THz – consists of electromagnetic waves within the ITU-designated band of frequencies from 0.3 to 3 terahertz (THz; 1012 Hz).
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Thing, also known as the Great Seal bug, was one of the first covert listening devices (or "bugs") to use passive techniques to transmit an audio signal.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
In communications and electronic engineering, a transmission line is a specialized cable or other structure designed to conduct alternating current of radio frequency, that is, currents with a frequency high enough that their wave nature must be taken into account.
In electronics and telecommunications, a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna.
A traveling-wave tube (TWT, pronounced "twit") or traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA, pronounced "tweeta") is a specialized vacuum tube that is used in electronics to amplify radio frequency (RF) signals in the microwave range.
The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place.
Tropospheric scatter (also known as troposcatter) is a method of communicating with microwave radio signals over considerable distances – often up to, and further depending on terrain and climate factors.
A tunnel diode or Esaki diode is a type of semiconductor that is capable of very fast operation, well into the microwave frequency region (up to), made possible by the use of the quantum mechanical effect called tunneling.
Twin-lead cable is a two-conductor flat cable used as a balanced transmission line to carry radio frequency (RF) signals.
The Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) radio band is part of the radio frequency spectrum used by IEEE-802.11a devices and by many wireless ISPs.
Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz (MHz) and 3 gigahertz (GHz), also known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one decimeter.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
The V band ("vee-band") is a standard designation by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) for a band of frequencies in the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from 40 to 75 gigahertz (GHz).
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
The W band of the microwave part of the electromagnetic spectrum ranges from 75 to 110 GHz, wavelength ≈2.7–4 mm.
In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.
A waveguide is a structure that guides waves, such as electromagnetic waves or sound, with minimal loss of energy by restricting expansion to one dimension or two.
In electromagnetics and communications engineering, the term waveguide may refer to any linear structure that conveys electromagnetic waves between its endpoints.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a family of wireless communication standards based on the IEEE 802.16 set of standards, which provide multiple physical layer (PHY) and Media Access Control (MAC) options.
Wireless communication, or sometimes simply wireless, is the transfer of information or power between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor.
A wireless local area network (WLAN) is a wireless computer network that links two or more devices using wireless communication within a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building.
A wireless network is a computer network that uses wireless data connections between network nodes.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The X band is the designation for a band of frequencies in the microwave radio region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Zoltán Lajos Bay (July 24, 1900 in Gyulavári – October 4, 1992 in Washington, D.C.)"Fizikai Szemle 1999/5 - Zsolt Bor: OPTICS BY HUNGARIANS" (with Zoltán Bay), József Attila University, Szeged, Hungary, 1999 was a Hungarian physicist, professor, and engineer who developed technologies, including tungsten lamps and microwave devices.
Applications of microwaves, Industrial applications of microwave, Micro-wave, Microwave Applications, Microwave Radiation, Microwave applications, Microwave energy, Microwave radiation, Microwave system, Microwave tube, Microwave window, Microwaves, Mircowave, P band.