134 relations: Accusative case, Affricate consonant, Alemannic German, Alsatian dialect, Alveolar consonant, Ambraser Heldenbuch, Annolied, Approximant consonant, Austria, Back vowel, Bavarian language, Benrath line, Bilabial consonant, Central Bavarian, Central Franconian dialects, Central German, Central vowel, Chivalric romance, Chronicle, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Codex Manesse, Dative case, Diphthong, Early New High German, East Central German, East Franconian German, Eilhart von Oberge, Elbe, Epic poetry, Erec (poem), Final-obstruent devoicing, Fortis and lenis, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Gender, Genitive case, German dialects, German language, Germanic languages, Germanic strong verb, Germanic umlaut, Germanic weak verb, Germany, Gerund, Glottal consonant, Gottfried von Strassburg, Grammatical case, Grammatical gender, Grammatical number, ..., Hartmann von Aue, Heinrich Frauenlob, Herzog Ernst, High Alemannic German, High German consonant shift, High German languages, High Middle Ages, High Prussian dialect, Hohenstaufen, Imperative mood, Indo-European ablaut, Instrumental case, Iwein, Jans der Enikel, Joseph Wright (linguist), Kaiserchronik, Karl Lachmann, King Rother, Konrad von Würzburg, Kudrun, Labiodental consonant, Latin, Latin alphabet, Liquid consonant, Lyric poetry, Manuscript, Matthias Lexer, Mid vowel, Middle Dutch, Middle Low German, Minnesang, Monophthong, Morphology (linguistics), Nasal consonant, Nibelungenlied, Nominative case, Northern Bavarian, Noun, Noun phrase, Old High German, Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, Ostsiedlung, Oswald von Wolkenstein, Palatal consonant, Parzival, Plural, Postalveolar consonant, Preposition and postposition, Present tense, Preterite, Pronoun, Realis mood, Reinmar von Hagenau, Rhine Franconian dialects, Roundedness, Rudolf von Ems, Saale, Sachsenspiegel, Schwa, Semivowel, Silesian German, Slavs, Sound change, Southern Bavarian, Spielmannsdichtung, Stop consonant, Subjunctive mood, Swabia, Swabian German, Switzerland, Thuringian dialect, Tristan, Ulrich von Türheim, Upper German, Upper Saxon German, Velar consonant, Vowel length, Walther von der Vogelweide, West Central German, West Germanic languages, Willehalm, Wolfram von Eschenbach, Yiddish. Expand index (84 more) » « Shrink index
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Alemannic (German) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family.
Alsatian (Alsatian and Elsässerditsch (Alsatian German); Frankish: Elsässerdeitsch; Alsacien; Elsässisch or Elsässerdeutsch) is a Low Alemannic German dialect spoken in most of Alsace, a formerly disputed region in eastern France that has passed between French and German control five times since 1681.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
The Ambraser Heldenbuch ("The Ambras Castle Book of Heroes") is a 16th century manuscript written in Early New High German now held in the Austrian National Library (signature Cod. ser. nova 2663).
The Annolied ("Song of Anno") was composed around 1100 in Early Middle High German rhyming couplets by a monk of Siegburg Abbey.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
Bavarian (also known as Bavarian Austrian or Austro-Bavarian; Boarisch or Bairisch; Bairisch; bajor) is a West Germanic language belonging to the Upper German group, spoken in the southeast of the German language area, much of Bavaria, much of Austria and South Tyrol in Italy.
In German linguistics, the Benrath line (German: Benrather Linie) is the maken–machen isogloss: dialects north of the line have the original in maken (to make), while those to the south have the innovative (machen).
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
Central Bavarian, also known as Central Austro-Bavarian, form a subgroup of Bavarian dialects in large parts of Austria and the German state of Bavaria along the Danube river, on the northern side of the Eastern Alps.
Central Franconian (mittelfränkische Dialekte, mittelfränkische Mundarten, Mittelfränkisch) refers to the following continuum of West Central German dialects.
Central German (Mitteldeutsche Dialekte) is a group of High German dialects spoken from the Rhineland in the west to the former eastern territories of Germany.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
As a literary genre of high culture, romance or chivalric romance is a type of prose and verse narrative that was popular in the aristocratic circles of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe.
A chronicle (chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
The Codex Manesse, Manesse Codex, or Große Heidelberger Liederhandschrift is a Liederhandschrift (book of songs/poetry), the single most comprehensive source of Middle High German Minnesang poetry, written and illustrated between c. 1304 when the main part was completed, and c. 1340 with the addenda.
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Early New High German (ENHG) is a term for the period in the history of the German language, generally defined, following Wilhelm Scherer, as the period 1350 to 1650.
East Central German (Ostmitteldeutsche Dialekte) is the eastern, non-Franconian sub-group of Central German dialects, themselves part of High German.
East Franconian (Ostfränkisch), usually referred to as Franconian (Fränkisch) in German, is a dialect which is spoken in Franconia, the northern part of the federal state of Bavaria and other areas in Germany around Nuremberg, Bamberg, Coburg, Würzburg, Hof, Bayreuth, Meiningen, Bad Mergentheim, and Crailsheim.
Eilhart von Oberge was a German poet of the late 12th century.
The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
Erec (also Erek, Ereck) is a Middle High German poem written in rhyming couplets in about 1185 by Hartmann von Aue.
Final-obstruent devoicing or terminal devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as Catalan, German, Dutch, Breton, Russian, Turkish, and Wolof.
In linguistics, fortis and lenis (Latin for "strong" and "weak"), sometimes identified with '''tense''' and '''lax''', are pronunciations of consonants with relatively greater and lesser energy.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
German dialect is dominated by the geographical spread of the High German consonant shift, and the dialect continua that connect German to the neighbouring varieties of Low Franconian (Dutch) and Frisian.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
In the Germanic languages, a strong verb is a verb that marks its past tense by means of changes to the stem vowel (ablaut).
The Germanic umlaut (sometimes called i-umlaut or i-mutation) is a type of linguistic umlaut in which a back vowel changes to the associated front vowel (fronting) or a front vowel becomes closer to (raising) when the following syllable contains,, or.
In Germanic languages, weak verbs are by far the largest group of verbs, which are therefore often regarded as the norm (the regular verbs), but they are not historically the oldest or most original group.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
A gerund (abbreviated) is any of various nonfinite verb forms in various languages, most often, but not exclusively, one that functions as a noun.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Gottfried von Strassburg (died c. 1210) is the author of the Middle High German courtly romance Tristan, an adaptation of the 12th-century Tristan and Iseult legend.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
Hartmann von Aue, also known as Hartmann von Ouwe, (born c. 1160–70, died c. 1210–20) was a Middle High German knight and poet.
Heinrich Frauenlob (between 1250 and 1260 – 29 November 1318), sometimes known as Henry of Meissen (Heinrich von Meißen), was a Middle High German poet, a representative of both the Sangspruchdichtung and Minnesang genres.
Herzog Ernst is a German epic from the early high Middle Ages (c. 1180), first written down by an anonymous author from the Rhine region.
High Alemannic is a dialect of Alemannic German spoken in the westernmost Austrian state of Voralberg, on the border with Switzerland and Liechtenstein.
In historical linguistics, the High German consonant shift or second Germanic consonant shift is a phonological development (sound change) that took place in the southern parts of the West Germanic dialect continuum in several phases.
The High German languages or High German dialects (hochdeutsche Mundarten) comprise the varieties of German spoken south of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses in central and southern Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, and Luxembourg, as well as in neighboring portions of France (Alsace and northern Lorraine), Italy (South Tyrol), the Czech Republic (Bohemia), and Poland (Upper Silesia).
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.
High Prussian (Hochpreußisch) is the group of East Central German dialects in former East Prussia, in present-day Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland.
The Staufer, also known as the House of Staufen, or of Hohenstaufen, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages.
The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.
In linguistics, the Indo-European ablaut (pronounced) is a system of apophony (regular vowel variations) in the Proto-Indo-European language.
The instrumental case (abbreviated or) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.
Iwein is a Middle High German verse romance by the poet Hartmann von Aue, written around 1203.
Jans der Enikel, i.e. "Jans the Grandson" was a Viennese poet and historian of the late 13th century.
Joseph Wright FBA (31 October 1855 – 27 February 1930) was an English philologist who rose from humble origins to become Professor of Comparative Philology at Oxford University.
The Kaiserchronik (Imperial Chronicle) is a 12th-century chronicle written in 17,283 lines of Middle High German verse.
Karl Konrad Friedrich Wilhelm Lachmann (4 March 1793 – 13 March 1851) was a German philologist and critic.
King Rother or König Rother is the earliest Spielmannsdichtung known to historians.
Konrad von Würzburg (died August 31, 1287) was the chief German poet of the second half of the 13th century.
Kudrun (sometimes known as the Gudrunlied or Gudrun), is an anonymous Middle High German heroic epic.
In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
In phonetics, liquids or liquid consonants are a class of consonants consisting of lateral consonants like 'l' together with rhotics like 'r'.
Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.
A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.
Matthias Lexer (18 October 1830 – 16 April 1892), later Matthias von Lexer (from 1885), was a German lexicographer, author of the principal dictionary of the Middle High German language, Mittelhochdeutsches Handwörterbuch von Matthias Lexer, completed in 1878 in three volumes.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
Middle Dutch is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic dialects (whose ancestor was Old Dutch) spoken and written between 1150 and 1500.
Middle Low German or Middle Saxon (ISO 639-3 code gml) is a language that is the descendant of Old Saxon and the ancestor of modern Low German.
Minnesang ("love song") was a tradition of lyric- and song-writing in Germany that flourished in the Middle High German period.
A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
The Nibelungenlied (Middle High German: Der Nibelunge liet or Der Nibelunge nôt), translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem from around 1200 written in Middle High German.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
Northern Bavarian is a dialect of the Bavarian language, together with Central Bavarian and Southern Bavarian.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
A noun phrase or nominal phrase (abbreviated NP) is a phrase which has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head, or which performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase.
Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Ostsiedlung (literally east settling), in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire, especially its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, and the Baltics.
Oswald von Wolkenstein (1376 or 1377, presumably in Castle Schöneck in Kiens – August 2, 1445 in Merano) was a poet, composer and diplomat.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Parzival is a medieval romance written by the knight-poet Wolfram von Eschenbach in Middle High German.
The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.
The preterite (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense or verb form serving to denote events that took place or were completed in the past.
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
A realis mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood which is used principally to indicate that something is a statement of fact; in other words, to express what the speaker considers to be a known state of affairs, as in declarative sentences.
Reinmar von Hagenau (died before 1210) was a German minnesinger of the twelfth century, surnamed in the MSS.
Rhine Franconian (German), or Rhenish Franconian, is a dialect family of West Central German.
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.
Rudolf von Ems (c. 1200 – 1254), also called in English Rudolf of Ems, was a medieval Austrian epic poet.
The Saale, also known as the Saxon Saale (Sächsische Saale) and Thuringian Saale (Thüringische Saale), is a river in Germany and a left-bank tributary of the Elbe.
The Sachsenspiegel (literally “Saxon Mirror”; Middle Low German: Sassen Speyghel; Sassenspegel) is the most important law book and custumal of the Holy Roman Empire.
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
Silesian German (Silesian German: Schläsche Sproache or Schläs'sche Sproche, Schlesisch) or Lower Silesian is a nearly extinct German dialect spoken in Silesia.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
Southern Bavarian, or Southern Austro-Bavarian, is a cluster of Upper German dialects of the Bavarian group.
The Spielmannsdichtung or Spielmannsepik (or -epos) is a proposed genre, now generally deprecated, of Middle High German literature, specifically the lyric poetry (Dichtung) or epic (Epik or Epos) of wandering minstrels (Spielmannen) of the twelfth century.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.
Swabia (Schwaben, colloquially Schwabenland or Ländle; in English also archaic Suabia or Svebia) is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.
Swabian is one of the dialect groups of Alemannic German that belong to the High German dialect continuum.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Thuringian is an East Central German dialect group spoken in much of the modern German Free State of Thuringia north of the Rennsteig ridge, southwestern Saxony-Anhalt and adjacent territories of Hesse and Bavaria.
Tristan (Latin & Brythonic: Drustanus; Trystan), also known as Tristram, is a Cornish knight of the Round Table and the hero of the Arthurian Tristan and Iseult story.
Ulrich von Türheim (c. 1195 – c. 1250) was a German writer from the Augsburg area writing during the first half of the 13th century.
Upper German (German) is a family of High German languages spoken primarily in the southern German-speaking area (Sprachraum).
Upper Saxon (Obersächsisch) is an East Central German dialect spoken in much of the modern German State of Saxony and in the adjacent parts of Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
Walther von der Vogelweide (c. 1170 – c. 1230) was a Minnesänger, who composed and performed love-songs and political songs ("Sprüche") in Middle High German.
West Central German (Westmitteldeutsche Dialekte) belongs to the Central, High German dialect family in the German language.
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).
Willehalm is an unfinished Middle High German poem from the early 13th century, written by the poet Wolfram von Eschenbach.
Wolfram von Eschenbach (–) was a German knight and poet, regarded as one of the greatest epic poets of medieval German literature.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.