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Durant, Wisconsin, Wisconsin Badgers, Woodland period, Wyandot people, Xavier Musketeers, Xavier University, 19th century, 21st century, 2nd Cavalry Regiment (United States). Expand index (641 more) » « Shrink index
Abolitionism in the United States was the movement before and during the American Civil War to end slavery in the United States.
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (February 5, 1900 – July 14, 1965) was an American lawyer, politician, and diplomat, noted for his intellectual demeanor, eloquent public speaking, and promotion of progressive causes in the Democratic Party.
Adventures in Babysitting (also known as A Night on the Town in certain countries) is a 1987 American comedy film written by David Simkins, directed by Chris Columbus (in his directorial debut), and starring Elisabeth Shue, Maia Brewton, Keith Coogan, Anthony Rapp, Penelope Ann Miller, Bradley Whitford, and brief cameos by blues singer/guitarist Albert Collins and singer-songwriter Southside Johnny Lyon.
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (or, in more recent editions, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn) is a novel by Mark Twain, first published in the United Kingdom in December 1884 and in the United States in February 1885.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
An agricultural experiment station (AES) or agricultural research station (ARS) is a scientific research center that investigates difficulties and potential improvements to food production and agribusiness.
Agricultural extension is the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Albert James "Alan" Freed (December 15, 1921 – January 20, 1965) was an American disc jockey.
The Algonquian languages (or; also Algonkian) are a subfamily of Native American languages which includes most of the languages in the Algic language family.
Alligator Records is an American, Chicago-based independent blues record label founded by Bruce Iglauer in 1971.
The American bison or simply bison (Bison bison), also commonly known as the American buffalo or simply buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed the grasslands of North America in massive herds.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Political Science Review is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all areas of political science.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Appalachia is a cultural region in the Eastern United States that stretches from the Southern Tier of New York to northern Alabama, Mississippi and Georgia.
The Appalachian Mountains (les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.
Appalachian Ohio is a bioregion and political unit in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Ohio, characterized by the western foothills of the Appalachian Mountains and Appalachian Plateau.
The Appalachian Plateau is a series of rugged, high plains located on the western side of the Appalachian Highlands.
The Arapaho (in French: Arapahos, Gens de Vache) are a tribe of Native Americans historically living on the plains of Colorado and Wyoming.
In the classification of the archaeological cultures of North America, the Archaic period or "Meso-Indian period" in North America, accepted to be from around 8000 to 1000 BC in the sequence of North American pre-Columbian cultural stages, is a period defined by the archaic stage of cultural development.
Aretha Louise Franklin (born March 25, 1942) is an American singer and songwriter.
Arikara, also known as Sahnish, Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation. (Retrieved Sep 29, 2011) Arikaree or Ree, are a tribe of Native Americans in North Dakota.
Arkansas is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2017.
The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River.
The Assiniboine or Assiniboin people (when singular, when plural; Ojibwe: Asiniibwaan, "stone Sioux"; also in plural Assiniboine or Assiniboin), also known as the Hohe and known by the endonym Nakota (or Nakoda or Nakona), are a First Nations/Native American people originally from the Northern Great Plains of North America.
The Association of American Universities (AAU) is a binational organization of leading research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research and education.
The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, often referred to as the Santa Fe or AT&SF, was one of the larger railroads in the United States.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
A barge is a flat-bottomed ship, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
Barry Morris Goldwater (January 2, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was an American politician, businessman, and author who was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–65, 1969–87) and the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in 1964.
The Battle of Fallen Timbers (August 20, 1794) was the final battle of the Northwest Indian War, a struggle between Native American tribes affiliated with the Western Confederacy, including support from the British led by Captain Alexander McKillop, against the United States for control of the Northwest Territory (an area north of the Ohio River, east of the Mississippi River, and southwest of the Great Lakes).
The Battle of Fort Sumter (April 12–13, 1861) was the bombardment of Fort Sumter near Charleston, South Carolina by the Confederate States Army, and the return gunfire and subsequent surrender by the United States Army, that started the American Civil War.
The Battle of Lake Erie, sometimes called the Battle of Put-in-Bay, was fought on 10 September 1813, on Lake Erie off the coast of Ohio during the War of 1812.
The Battle of the Thames, also known as the Battle of Moraviantown, was a decisive American victory in the War of 1812 against Great Britain and its Indian allies in the Tecumseh's Confederacy.
A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.
Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.
Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production).
Beloved is a 1987 novel by the American writer Toni Morrison.
The Big 12 Conference is a ten-school collegiate athletic conference headquartered in Irving, Texas.
The Big Machine Vodka 400 at the Brickyard is an annual Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series points race held at Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana.
The Big Ten Conference (B1G), formerly Western Conference and Big Nine Conference, is the oldest Division I collegiate athletic conference in the United States.
Bison hunting (hunting of the American bison, also commonly known as the American buffalo) was an activity fundamental to the economy and society of the Plains Indians peoples who inhabited the vast grasslands on the Interior Plains of North America, prior to the animal's near-extinction in the late nineteenth century.
The Black Hawk War was a brief conflict between the United States and Native Americans led by Black Hawk, a Sauk leader.
The Blackfoot Confederacy, Niitsitapi or Siksikaitsitapi (ᖹᐟᒧᐧᒣᑯ, meaning "the people" or "Blackfoot-speaking real people"Compare to Ojibwe: Anishinaabeg and Quinnipiac: Eansketambawg) is a historic collective name for the four bands that make up the Blackfoot or Blackfeet people: three First Nation band governments in the provinces of Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia, and one federally recognized Native American tribe in Montana, United States.
A blacksmith is a metalsmith who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal, using tools to hammer, bend, and cut (cf. whitesmith).
Bleeding Kansas, Bloody Kansas or the Border War was a series of violent civil confrontations in the United States between 1854 and 1861 which emerged from a political and ideological debate over the legality of slavery in the proposed state of Kansas.
Blue Jacket or Weyapiersenwah (c. 1743 – 1810) was a war chief of the Shawnee people, known for his militant defense of Shawnee lands in the Ohio Country.
Blues is a music genre and musical form originated by African Americans in the Deep South of the United States around the end of the 19th century.
The BMW Championship is a professional golf tournament which is the third of four FedEx Cup playoff events on the PGA Tour schedule.
Robert Clark Seger (born May 6, 1945) is an American singer-songwriter, guitarist and pianist.
Boogie-woogie is a musical genre that became popular during the late 1920s, but developed in African-American communities in the 1870s.
In Kansas, Border Ruffians was the name applied to pro-slavery activists from the slave state of Missouri, who in 1854 to 1860 crossed the state border into Kansas Territory to force the acceptance of slavery there.
In the context of the American Civil War (1861–65), the border states were slave states that did not declare a secession from the Union and did not join the Confederacy.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon system consisting of an elastic launching device (bow) and long-shafted projectiles (arrows).
The Brothertown Indians (also Brotherton), located in Wisconsin, are a Native American tribe formed in the late eighteenth century from communities so-called "praying Indians" (or Moravian Indians), descended from Christianized Pequot and Mohegan (Algonquian-speaking) tribes of southern New England and eastern Long Island, New York.
Bruce Lowell Braley (born October 30, 1957) is a retired American politician and attorney who served as the U.S. Representative for from 2007 to 2015.
Bruce Vincent Rauner (born February 18, 1957) is an American businessman, philanthropist, and politician.
Buffalo is the second largest city in the state of New York and the 81st most populous city in the United States.
The Butler Bulldogs are the athletic teams that represent Butler University, located in Indianapolis.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada.
Cap'n Jazz is an American emo band formed in Chicago in 1989 by brothers Tim and Mike Kinsella, who were joined by Sam Zurick and Victor Villarreal.
Carleton College is a private liberal arts college founded in 1866 located in Northfield, Minnesota, about 40 miles south of the Twin Cities of Minneapolis–Saint Paul.
Case Western Reserve University (also known as Case Western Reserve, Case Western, Case, and CWRU) is a private doctorate-granting university in Cleveland, Ohio.
Kemal Amin "Casey" Kasem (April 27, 1932 – June 15, 2014) was an American disc jockey, music historian, radio personality, voice actor, and actor, known for being the host of several music radio countdown programs, most notably American Top 40, from 1970 until his retirement in 2009, and for providing the voice of Norville "Shaggy" Rogers in the Scooby-Doo franchise from 1969 to 1997, and again from 2002 until 2009.
A catenary arch is a type of architectural pointed arch that follows an inverted catenary curve.
The Catholic Church in the United States is part of the worldwide Catholic Church in communion with the Pope in Rome.
Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.
The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
Chess Records was an American record company, founded in 1950 in Chicago and specializing in blues and rhythm and blues.
The Cheyenne are one of the indigenous peoples of the Great Plains and their language is of the Algonquian language family.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
The Chicago Bears are a professional American football team based in Chicago, Illinois.
The Chicago Blackhawks (spelled Black Hawks until 1986, and known colloquially as the Hawks) are a professional ice hockey team based in Chicago, Illinois.
The Chicago blues is a form of blues music indigenous to Chicago, Illinois.
The Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT), established on April 3, 1848, is one of the world's oldest futures and options exchanges.
The Chicago Board Options Exchange, located at 400 South LaSalle Street in Chicago, is the largest U.S. options exchange with annual trading volume that hovered around 1.27 billion contracts at the end of 2014.
The Chicago Bulls are an American professional basketball team based in Chicago, Illinois.
The Chicago Cubs are an American professional baseball team based in Chicago, Illinois.
Chicago Fire Soccer Club is an American professional soccer club based in the Chicago suburb of Bridgeview, Illinois.
The Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) (often called "the Chicago Merc", or "the Merc") is an American financial and commodity derivative exchange based in Chicago and located at 20 S. Wacker Drive.
The Chicago metropolitan area, or Chicagoland, is the metropolitan area that includes the city of Chicago, Illinois, and its suburbs.
The Chicago Portage is a water gap, and in the past a sometime wind-gap portage, connecting the watersheds (BrE: drainage basins) and the navigable waterways of the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes.
The Chicago Stock Exchange (CHX) is a stock exchange in Chicago, Illinois.
The Chicago White Sox are an American professional baseball team based in Chicago, Illinois.
Chicagoland Speedway is a tri-oval speedway in Joliet, Illinois, southwest of Chicago.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles US LLC (commonly known as Chrysler) is the American subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V., an Italian-American automobile manufacturer registered in the Netherlands with headquarters in London, U.K., for tax purposes.
Charles Edward Anderson Berry (October 18, 1926 – March 18, 2017) was an American singer, songwriter, musician, and one of the pioneers of rock and roll music.
The Cincinnati Bearcats are the athletic teams that represent the University of Cincinnati.
The Cincinnati Bengals are a professional American football franchise based in Cincinnati, Ohio.
The Cincinnati metropolitan area, informally known as Greater Cincinnati, is a metropolitan area that includes counties in the U.S. states of Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana around the Ohio city of Cincinnati.
The Cincinnati Reds are an American professional baseball team based in Cincinnati, Ohio.
A city is a large human settlement.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County.
The Cleveland Browns are a professional American football team based in Cleveland, Ohio.
The Cleveland Cavaliers, often referred to as the Cavs, are an American professional basketball team based in Cleveland, Ohio.
The Cleveland Indians are an American professional baseball team based in Cleveland, Ohio.
A club is an association of two or more people united by a common interest or goal.
CME Group Inc. (Chicago Mercantile Exchange & Chicago Board of Trade) is an American financial market company operating an options and futures exchange.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
Columbia is a city in Missouri and the county seat of Boone County.
The Columbus Blue Jackets are a professional ice hockey team based in Columbus, Ohio.
Columbus Crew Soccer Club is an American professional soccer club based in Columbus, Ohio.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the Columbus, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area is the metropolitan area centered on the U.S. city of Columbus, Ohio.
Columbus is the state capital and the most populous city in Ohio.
The Comanche (Nʉmʉnʉʉ) are a Native American nation from the Great Plains whose historic territory, known as Comancheria, consisted of present-day eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, and most of northwest Texas and northern Chihuahua.
A composer (Latin ''compōnō''; literally "one who puts together") is a musician who is an author of music in any form, including vocal music (for a singer or choir), instrumental music, electronic music, and music which combines multiple forms.
Concealed carry or carrying a concealed weapon (CCW), is the practice of carrying a weapon (such as a handgun) in public in a concealed manner, either on one's person or in close proximity.
The Connecticut Western Reserve was a portion of land claimed by the Colony of Connecticut and later by the state of Connecticut in what is now mostly the northeastern region of Ohio.
A continental divide is a drainage divide on a continent such that the drainage basin on one side of the divide feeds into one ocean or sea, and the basin on the other side either feeds into a different ocean or sea, or else is endorheic, not connected to the open sea.
The Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) is an agency within the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), part of the executive branch of the federal government.
The Corn Belt is a region of the Midwestern United States that, since the 1850s, has dominated corn production in the United States.
The Corwin Amendment is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution that would shield "domestic institutions" of the states (which in 1861 included slavery) from the constitutional amendment process and from abolition or interference by Congress.
The Council of State Governments (CSG) is a nonpartisan, non-profit organization in the United States that serves all three branches of state government.
Country music, also known as country and western or simply country, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s.
The Creighton Bluejays, or Jays, are the athletic teams that represent Creighton University, a Jesuit/Catholic University in Omaha, Nebraska, United States.
Creighton University is a private, coeducational, Jesuit, Roman Catholic university in Omaha, Nebraska, United States.
The Crittenden Compromise was an unsuccessful proposal introduced by United States Senator John J. Crittenden (Constitutional Unionist of Kentucky) on December 18, 1860.
The Crow, called the Apsáalooke in their own Siouan language, or variants including the Absaroka, are Native Americans, who in historical times lived in the Yellowstone River valley, which extends from present-day Wyoming, through Montana and into North Dakota, where it joins the Missouri River.
Cucurbita (Latin for gourd) is a genus of herbaceous vines in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae, also known as cucurbits, native to the Andes and Mesoamerica.
Midwestern cuisine is a regional cuisine of the American Midwest.
Cursive is an American indie rock band from Omaha, Nebraska, on 15 Passenger Records, Saddle Creek Records, and Big Scary Monsters (UK).
The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.
A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting or processing (or both) of animal milk – mostly from cows or goats, but also from buffaloes, sheep, horses, or camels – for human consumption.
Dairy cattle (also called dairy cows) are cattle cows bred for the ability to produce large quantities of milk, from which dairy products are made.
The Dakota people are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government in North America.
Danes (danskere) are a nation and a Germanic ethnic group native to Denmark, who speak Danish and share the common Danish culture.
Davenport is the county seat of Scott County in Iowa and is located along the Mississippi River on the eastern border of the state.
David R. Gillingham (born 1947) is a contemporary composer.
David Michael Letterman (born April 12, 1947) is an American television host, comedian, writer, and producer.
The Dayton Flyers are the intercollegiate athletic teams of the University of Dayton of Dayton, Ohio.
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
Denison University is a private, coeducational, and residential four-year liberal arts college in Granville, Ohio, about east of Columbus.
DePaul University is a private university in Chicago, Illinois.
DePauw University in Greencastle, Indiana, is a private liberal arts college with an enrollment of approximately 2,300 students.
Derrick May (born April 6, 1963), also known as Mayday and Rhythim Is Rhythim, is an electronic musician from Belleville, Michigan, United States.
Detroit is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Michigan, the largest city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of Wayne County.
The Detroit Lions are a professional American football team based in Detroit, Michigan.
The Detroit Pistons are an American professional basketball team based in Detroit, Michigan.
The Detroit Red Wings are a professional ice hockey team based in Detroit.
The Detroit Tigers are an American professional baseball team based in Detroit, Michigan.
A disc jockey, often abbreviated as DJ, is a person who plays existing recorded music for a live audience.
Dodge is an American brand of automobile manufactured by Fiat Chrysler (formerly known as Chrysler Group LLC), based in Auburn Hills, Michigan.
The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus or only Sus domesticus), often called swine, hog, or simply pig when there is no need to distinguish it from other pigs, is a large, even-toed ungulate.
Dominick Argento (born October 27, 1927) is an American composer known for his lyric operatic and choral music.
Donald Erb (January 17, 1927 – August 12, 2008) was an American composer best known for large orchestral works such as Concerto for Brass and Orchestra and Ritual Observances.
Drake University is a private, co-educational university located in Des Moines, Iowa, United States.
The Driftless Area is a region in Minnesota, Wisconsin, northwestern Illinois, and northeastern Iowa of the American Midwest that was never glaciated.
Dubuque is the county seat of Dubuque County, Iowa, United States, located along the Mississippi River.
Durum wheat, also called pasta wheat or macaroni wheat (Triticum durum or Triticum turgidum subsp. durum), is a tetraploid species of wheat.
Earlham College is a private, liberal arts college in Richmond, Indiana.
Easley Blackwood (born April 21, 1933) is an American professor of music, a concert pianist, a composer of music, some using unusual tunings, and the author of books on music theory, including his research into the properties of microtonal tunings and traditional harmony.
The East Coast of the United States is the coastline along which the Eastern United States meets the North Atlantic Ocean.
The East North Central states form one of the nine geographic subdivisions within the United States which are officially recognized by the United States Census Bureau.
The East River portion of South Dakota refers to the section of the state lying east of the Missouri River.
Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.
The elk or wapiti (Cervus canadensis) is one of the largest species within the deer family, Cervidae, in the world, and one of the largest land mammals in North America and Eastern Asia.
Marshall Bruce Mathers III (born October 17, 1972), known professionally as Eminem (often stylized as EMINƎM), is an American rapper, songwriter, record producer, record executive, and actor.
The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development defines the employment rate as the employment-to-population ratio.
The Erie Canal is a canal in New York, United States that is part of the east–west, cross-state route of the New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State Barge Canal).
Erie is a city in and the county seat of Erie County, Pennsylvania, United States.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources.
Fall Out Boy is an American rock band formed in Wilmette, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, in 2001.
FC Cincinnati is a United Soccer League (USL) club based in Cincinnati, Ohio that began play in 2016.
The Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (informally the Chicago Fed) is one of twelve regional Reserve Banks that, along with the Board of Governors in Washington, D.C., make up the nation's central bank.
Finns or Finnish people (suomalaiset) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Finland.
A flatboat is a rectangular flat-bottomed boat with NOTE: "" wordings in the quote below are notes added to clarify square ends used to transport freight and passengers on inland waterways.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
Ford Motor Company (commonly referred to simply as "Ford") is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit.
Fort Leavenworth is a United States Army installation located in Leavenworth County, Kansas, immediately north of the city of Leavenworth, in the northeast part of the state.
Fort Pitt was a fort built by British colonists during the Seven Years' War at the confluence of the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers, where the Ohio River is formed in western Pennsylvania (modern day Pittsburgh).
Fort Recovery was a United States Army fort begun in late 1793 and completed in March 1794 under orders by General "Mad" Anthony Wayne.
Fort Riley is a United States Army installation located in North Central Kansas, on the Kansas River, also known as the Kaw, between Junction City and Manhattan.
Fort Wayne is a city in the U.S. state of Indiana and the seat of Allen County, United States.
The Four Tops are a vocal quartet from Detroit, Michigan, USA, who helped to define the city's Motown sound of the 1960s.
Frankie Warren Knuckles Jr. (January 18, 1955 – March 31, 2014), was an American DJ, record producer and remixer.
Franklin County (county code FR) is a county located in the eastern portion of the U.S. state of Kansas.
The Free Soil Party was a short-lived political party in the United States active in the 1848 and 1852 presidential elections as well as in some state elections.
Free-Staters was the name given to settlers in Kansas Territory during the Bleeding Kansas era in the 1850s who opposed the extension of slavery.
French Canadians (also referred to as Franco-Canadians or Canadiens; Canadien(ne)s français(es)) are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada from the 17th century onward.
The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.
Funk is a music genre that originated in African American communities in the mid-1960s when African American musicians created a rhythmic, danceable new form of music through a mixture of soul music, jazz, and rhythm and blues (R&B).
The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur.
In finance, a futures contract (more colloquially, futures) is a standardized forward contract, a legal agreement to buy or sell something at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future.
A futures exchange or futures market is a central financial exchange where people can trade standardized futures contracts; that is, a contract to buy specific quantities of a commodity or financial instrument at a specified price with delivery set at a specified time in the future.
The Gateway Arch is a monument in St. Louis, Missouri, United States.
The Gateway Arch National Park, formerly known as the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial until 2018, is an American national park located in St. Louis, Missouri, near the starting point of the Lewis and Clark Expedition.
Gateway Motorsports Park (formerly Gateway International Raceway) is a motorsport race track in Madison, Illinois, just east of St. Louis, Missouri, United States, close to the Gateway Arch.
General American (abbreviated as GA or GenAm) is the umbrella variety of American English—the continuum of accents—spoken by a majority of Americans and popularly perceived, among Americans, as lacking any distinctly regional, ethnic, or socioeconomic characteristics.
General Motors Company, commonly referred to as General Motors (GM), is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services.
German Americans (Deutschamerikaner) are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry.
German Village is a historic neighborhood in Columbus, Ohio, just south of downtown.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Alton Glenn Miller (March 1, 1904 – December 15, 1944) The website for Arlington National Cemetery refers to Glenn Miller as "missing in action since Dec.
The Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI) is a ranking of the competitiveness of financial centres based on over 29,000 financial centre assessments from an online questionnaire together with over 100 indices from organisations such as the World Bank, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the Economist Intelligence Unit.
GMC (General Motors Truck Company), formally the GMC Division of General Motors LLC, is a division of the American automobile manufacturer General Motors (GM) that primarily focuses on trucks and utility vehicles.
Gospel music is a genre of Christian music.
The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Granducato di Toscana, Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence.
The Great Lakes Basin consists of the Great Lakes and the surrounding lands of the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin in the United States, and the province of Ontario in Canada, whose direct surface runoff and watersheds form a large drainage basin that feeds into the lakes.
The Great Lakes region of North America is a bi-national Canada-American region that includes portions of the eight U.S. states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin as well as the Canadian province of Ontario.
The Great Migration was the movement of 6 million African-Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1916 and 1970.
The Great Plains (sometimes simply "the Plains") is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada.
The Great Sioux Nation was the political structure of the Sioux in North America at the time of their contact with Europeans and Euro-Americans.
The Cleveland metropolitan area, or Greater Cleveland as it is more commonly known, is the metropolitan area surrounding the city of Cleveland in Northeast Ohio, United States.
The Green Bay Packers are a professional American football team based in Green Bay, Wisconsin.
Green Bay is a city in and the county seat of Brown County in the U.S. state of Wisconsin, at the head of Green Bay, a sub-basin of Lake Michigan, at the mouth of the Fox River.
Grinnell College is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational, liberal arts college in Grinnell, Iowa.
The Gros Ventre (from French: "big belly"), also known as the Aaniiih, A'aninin, Haaninin, and Atsina, are a historically Algonquian-speaking Native American tribe located in north central Montana.
Gross metropolitan product (GMP) is a monetary measure of the value of all final goods and services produced within a metropolitan statistical area during a specified period (e.g., a quarter, a year).
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
The Haitian Revolution (Révolution haïtienne) was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Hamline University is a private liberal arts college in Saint Paul, Minnesota.
Hannibal is a city in Marion and Ralls counties in the U.S. state of Missouri.
Hardwood is wood from dicot trees.
Harriet Elisabeth Beecher Stowe (June 14, 1811 – July 1, 1896) was an American abolitionist and author.
Harry Truman Reasoner (April 17, 1923 – August 6, 1991) was an American journalist for ABC and CBS News, known for his inventive use of language as a television commentator, and as a founder of the ''60 Minutes'' program.
The Hatch Act of 1887 (ch. 314,, enacted 1887-03-02, et seq.) gave federal funds, initially of $15,000 each, to state land-grant colleges in order to create a series of agricultural experiment stations, as well as pass along new information, especially in the areas of soil minerals and plant growth.
Heartland is an American term referring to states of the Union that—as in the words of commentator Ronald Brownstein—"don't touch an ocean," whether the Atlantic or Pacific.
Heartland rock is a genre of rock music that is exemplified by singer-songwriters Tom Petty, Bob Seger, Bruce Springsteen and John Mellencamp.
Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) served as the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–1945), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–1940), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–1946).
Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was an American captain of industry and a business magnate, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and the sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production.
The Hidatsa are a Siouan people.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the world's oldest extant political parties.
The Ho-Chunk, also known as Hoocąągra or Winnebago, are a Siouan-speaking Native American people whose historic territory includes parts of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, and Illinois.
Hoboken (Unami: Hupokàn) is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States.
Horace Greeley (February 3, 1811 – November 29, 1872) was an American author, statesman, founder and editor of the New-York Tribune, among the great newspapers of its time.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
A horse culture is a tribal group or community whose day-to-day life revolves around the herding and breeding of horses.
House music is a genre of electronic dance music created by club DJs and music producers in Chicago in the early 1980s.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal connected the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico.
The Illinois Country (Pays des Illinois, lit. "land of the Illinois (plural)", i.e. the Illinois people) — sometimes referred to as Upper Louisiana (la Haute-Louisiane; Alta Luisiana) — was a vast region of New France in what is now the Midwestern United States.
The Illinois Fighting Illini (IPA) are the intercollegiate athletic teams of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.
The Illinois General Assembly is the bicameral legislature of the U.S. state of Illinois and comprises the Illinois House of Representatives and the Illinois Senate.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
Immigration to the United States is the international movement of individuals who are not natives or do not possess citizenship in order to settle, reside, study, or work in the country.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indiana is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America.
The Indiana Hoosiers are the intercollegiate sports teams and players of Indiana University Bloomington, named after the colloquial term for people from the state of Indiana.
The Indiana Pacers are an American professional basketball team based in Indianapolis, Indiana.
The Indiana State Sycamores are the NCAA Division I intercollegiate athletic teams of Indiana State University.
Indiana University Bloomington (abbreviated "IU Bloomington" and colloquially referred to as "IU" or simply "Indiana") is a public research university in Bloomington, Indiana, United States.
Indianapolis is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County.
The Indianapolis 500 is an automobile race held annually at Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana, United States, an enclave suburb of Indianapolis, Indiana.
The Indianapolis Colts are an American football team based in Indianapolis, Indiana.
Indianapolis–Carmel–Anderson or Indianapolis metropolitan area is an 11-county metropolitan area in the U.S. state of Indiana, as defined by the Office of Management and Budget.
The Indianapolis Motor Speedway is an automobile racing circuit located in Speedway, Indiana (an enclave suburb of Indianapolis) in the United States.
The Indianapolis Grand Prix was a motorcycling event held on the combined road course at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana, as part of the Grand Prix motorcycle racing season.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
Inland Northern (American) English, also known in American linguistics as the Inland North or Great Lakes dialect, is an American English dialect spoken primarily by White Americans in a geographic band reaching from Central New York westward along the Erie Canal, through much of the U.S. Great Lakes region, to eastern Iowa.
The Interior Plains is a vast physiographic region that spreads across the Laurentian craton of central North America.
The interurban (or radial railway) is a type of electric railway, with streetcar-like light electric self-propelled railcars which run within and between cities or towns.
Iowa is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers to the west.
The Iowa Caucuses are quadrennial electoral events in which members of the Democratic and Republican parties in the U.S. state of Iowa meet to select delegates who will vote for their party's nominee in the United States presidential election at the party convention.
The Iowa General Assembly (IGA) is the legislative branch of the state government of Iowa.
The Iowa Hawkeyes are the athletic teams that represent the University of Iowa, located in Iowa City, Iowa.
The Iowa House of Representatives is the lower house of the Iowa General Assembly, the upper house being the Iowa Senate.
The Iowa or Ioway, known as the Báxoǰe in their own language, are a Native American Siouan people.
The Iowa Senate is the upper house of the Iowa General Assembly, United States.
Iowa Speedway is a 7/8-mile (1.4 km) paved oval motor racing track in Newton, Iowa, United States, approximately east of Des Moines.
The Iowa State Cyclones are the athletic teams that represent Iowa State University.
Iowa State University of Science and Technology, generally referred to as Iowa State, is a public flagship land-grant and space-grant research university located in Ames, Iowa, United States.
Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánaigh) are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics.
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Jackson is a city in the south central area of the U.S. state of Michigan, about west of Ann Arbor and south of Lansing.
Jacques Cartier (Jakez Karter; December 31, 1491September 1, 1557) was a Breton explorer who claimed what is now Canada for France.
Father Jacques Marquette S.J. (June 1, 1637 – May 18, 1675), sometimes known as Père Marquette or James Marquette, was a French Jesuit missionary who founded Michigan's first European settlement, Sault Ste. Marie, and later founded St. Ignace, Michigan.
Janet Damita Jo Jackson (born May 16, 1966) is an American singer, songwriter, dancer, and actress.
The Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation, Between His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America, commonly known as the Jay Treaty, and also as Jay's Treaty, was a 1795 treaty between the United States and Great Britain that averted war, resolved issues remaining since the Treaty of Paris of 1783 (which ended the American Revolutionary War), and facilitated ten years of peaceful trade between the United States and Britain in the midst of the French Revolutionary Wars, which began in 1792.
Jayhawkers and red legs are terms that came to prominence just before the American Civil War in Bleeding Kansas, where they were adopted by militant bands affiliated with the free-state cause during the American Civil War, a freedom fighting movement against slavery and in favor of individual liberty.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
Ferdinand Joseph LaMothe (October 20, 1890 – July 10, 1941), known professionally as Jelly Roll Morton, was an American ragtime and early jazz pianist, bandleader and composer who started his career in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John Brown (May 9, 1800 – December 2, 1859) was an American abolitionist who believed in and advocated armed insurrection as the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States.
John Carroll University (Latin: Universitas Joannis Carroll) is a private, co-educational Jesuit Catholic university in University Heights, Ohio, a suburb of Cleveland.
John Chippewa Crerar (8 March 1827 – 19 October 1889) was a wealthy American industrialist and businessman from Chicago whose investments were primarily in the railroad industry.
John Deere (February 7, 1804 – May 17, 1886) was an American blacksmith and manufacturer who founded Deere & Company, one of the largest and leading agricultural and construction equipment manufacturers in the world.
The John Deere Classic is a professional golf tournament on the PGA Tour.
John Madden (born April 10, 1936) is a former broadcaster and coach for the NFL.
John Sidney McCain III (born August 29, 1936) is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Arizona, a seat he was first elected to in 1986.
John J Mellencamp (born October 7, 1951), previously known as Johnny Cougar, John Cougar, and John Cougar Mellencamp, is an American musician, singer-songwriter, painter, and actor.
John Villiers Farwell Sr. (July 29, 1825 – August 20, 1908) was an American merchant and philanthropist from New York City.
John Whitfield Bunn (June 21, 1831 – June 7, 1920)Illinois State Historical Society, Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, Vol.
John William Carson (October 23, 1925 – January 23, 2005) was an American television host, comedian, writer, and producer.
Jon C. Teaford is Professor Emeritus in the History Department at Purdue University.
Joni Kay Ernst (née Culver; July 1, 1970) is an American politician serving as the junior United States Senator for Iowa since 2015.
The Joseph Schlitz Brewing Company was an American brewery based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and once the largest producer of beer in the United States.
Juan Atkins (born December 9, 1962) is an American musician.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Julius Rosenwald (August 12, 1862 – January 6, 1932) was an American businessman and philanthropist.
Kalamazoo College, also known as K College or simply K, is a private liberal arts college founded in 1833 in Kalamazoo, Michigan.
Kansas is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States.
Kansas is an American rock band that became popular in the 1970s initially on album-oriented rock charts and later with hit singles such as "Carry On Wayward Son" and "Dust in the Wind".
The Kansas City Chiefs are a professional American football team based in Kansas City, Missouri.
The Kansas City metropolitan area is a 15-county metropolitan area anchored by Kansas City, Missouri, that straddles the border between the U.S. states of Missouri and Kansas.
The Kansas City Royals are an American professional baseball team based in Kansas City, Missouri.
Kansas City is the largest city in the U.S. state of Missouri.
The Kansas Jayhawks, commonly referred to as KU, are the athletic teams that represent the University of Kansas.
Kansas Speedway is a tri-oval race track in Kansas City, Kansas.
Kansas State University (KSU), commonly shortened to Kansas State or K-State, is a public research university with its main campus in Manhattan, Kansas, United States.
The Kansas State Wildcats (variously "Kansas State", "K-State" or "KSU") are the intercollegiate athletic teams that represent Kansas State University.
The Territory of Kansas was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854, until January 29, 1861, when the eastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Kansas.
The Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and was drafted by Democratic Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois and President Franklin Pierce.
The Kaw Nation (or Kanza, or Kansa) are a federally recognized Native American tribe in Oklahoma and parts of Kansas.
Kenneth Louis Gaburo (July 5, 1926 – January 26, 1993) was an American composer.
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.
Kentucky Speedway is a tri-oval speedway in Sparta, Kentucky, which has hosted ARCA, NASCAR and Indy Racing League racing annually since it opened in 2000.
Kenyon College is a private liberal arts college in Gambier, Ohio, United States, founded in 1824 by Philander Chase.
Kevin Maurice Saunderson (born September 5, 1964) is an American electronic music producer.
The Kichai tribe (also Keechi or Kitsai) was a Native American Southern Plains tribe that lived in Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma.
Robert James Ritchie (born January 17, 1971), known professionally as Kid Rock, is an American singer-songwriter, rapper, musician, record producer, activist and actor.
Kiowa people are a Native American tribe and an indigenous people of the Great Plains.
Knox College is a four-year coeducational private liberal arts college located in Galesburg, Illinois, United States.
Lake Erie is the fourth-largest lake (by surface area) of the five Great Lakes in North America, and the eleventh-largest globally if measured in terms of surface area.
The Lakota (pronounced, Lakota language: Lakȟóta) are a Native American tribe.
A land-grant university (also called land-grant college or land-grant institution) is an institution of higher education in the United States designated by a state to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890.
The Lawrence massacre (also known as Quantrill's raid) was an attack during the American Civil War (186165) by the Quantrill's Raiders, a Confederate guerilla group led by William Quantrill, on the Unionist town of Lawrence, Kansas.
Lawrence University is a liberal arts college and conservatory of music in Appleton, Wisconsin, United States.
Lawrence is the county seat of Douglas County and sixth largest city in Kansas.
Leslie Raymond Bassett (born Hanford, 22 January 1923 – 4 February 2016) was an American composer of classical music, and the University of Michigan's Albert A. Stanley Distinguished University Professor Emeritus of Composition.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition from May 1804 to September 1806, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross the western portion of the United States.
Life on the Mississippi (1883) is a memoir by Mark Twain of his days as a steamboat pilot on the Mississippi River before the American Civil War, and also a travel book, recounting his trip along the Mississippi River from St. Louis to New Orleans many years after the War.
Lincoln is the capital of the U.S. state of Nebraska and the county seat of Lancaster County.
Lipan Apache are Southern Athabaskan (Apachean) Native Americans whose traditional territory included present-day Texas, New Mexico, Colorado and the northern Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Coahuila, and Tamaulipas prior to the 17th century.
The National Basketball Association (NBA) (formerly Basketball Association of America (BAA) from 1946 to 1949) Finals is the championship series for the NBA and the conclusion of the NBA's postseason.
This is a list of some of the regions in the United States.
This is a list of research universities in the United States classified as Doctoral Universities in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education.
The Stanley Cup is a trophy awarded annually to the playoff champion club of the National Hockey League (NHL) ice hockey league.
The United States of America is a federal republic consisting of 50 states, a federal district (Washington, D.C., the capital city of the United States), five major territories, and various minor islands.
The Super Bowl is the annual American football game that determines the champion of the National Football League (NFL).
This is a list of urban areas in the United States as defined by the United States Census Bureau, ordered according to their 2010 census populations.
The World Series is the annual championship series of Major League Baseball (MLB) and concludes the MLB postseason.
The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period.
Little Turtle, or Mihšihkinaahkwa (in Miami-Illinois) (1747July 14, 1812), was a chief of the Miami people, and one of the most famous Native American military leaders of his time.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
Louis Jolliet (September 21, 1645last seen May 1700) was a French Canadian explorer known for his discoveries in North America.
Louisiana (La Louisiane; La Louisiane française) or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France.
Louisiana (Luisiana, sometimes called Luciana In some Spanish texts of the time the name of Luciana appears instead of Louisiana, as is the case in the Plan of the Internal Provinces of New Spain made in 1817 by the Spanish militar José Caballero.) was the name of an administrative Spanish Governorate belonging to the Captaincy General of Cuba, part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1762 to 1802 that consisted of territory west of the Mississippi River basin, plus New Orleans.
The Louisiana Purchase (Vente de la Louisiane "Sale of Louisiana") was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory (828,000 square miles or 2.14 million km²) by the United States from France in 1803.
Loyola University Chicago (often referred to as Loyola or LUC) is a private Catholic research university in Chicago, Illinois.
Lucas Oil Raceway (formerly Indianapolis Raceway Park and O'Reilly Raceway Park at Indianapolis) is an auto racing facility in Brownsburg, Indiana, about 10 miles west of downtown Indianapolis.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
Macalester College is a private, coeducational liberal arts college located in Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States.
Madison is the capital of the U.S. state of Wisconsin and the seat of Dane County.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada.
Major League Soccer (MLS) is a men's professional soccer league sanctioned by U.S. Soccer that represents the sport's highest level in both the United States and Canada.
The Mandan are a Native American tribe of the Great Plains who have lived for centuries primarily in what is now North Dakota.
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada.
Marietta is a city in and the county seat of Washington County, Ohio, United States.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer.
The Marquette Golden Eagles, formerly known as the Marquette Warriors, Blue and Gold, Gold, Hilltoppers, and Golden Avalanche (football only), are the athletic teams representing Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States.
Marquette University is a private, coeducational Catholic university located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in the central United States.
Marshall Field (August 18, 1834January 16, 1906) was an American entrepreneur and the founder of Marshall Field and Company, the Chicago-based department stores.
Marshall Jefferson (born September 19, 1959 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American musician, working in house music, in particular, the subgenres of Chicago house and deep house.
Martha and the Vandellas (known from 1967 to 1972 as Martha Reeves and the Vandellas) were an American all-female vocal group formed in 1957.
Mary Esther Wells (May 13, 1943 – July 26, 1992) was an American singer who helped to define the emerging sound of Motown in the early 1960s.
The Memorial Tournament is a PGA Tour golf tournament, founded in 1976 by Jack Nicklaus.
The Menominee (also spelled Menomini, derived from the Ojibwe language word for "Wild Rice People;" known as Mamaceqtaw, "the people," in the Menominee language) are a federally recognized nation of Native Americans, with a reservation in Wisconsin.
Robert Meredith Willson (May 18, 1902 – June 15, 1984) was an American composer and playwright, best known for writing the book, music, and lyrics for the hit Broadway musical The Music Man.
The Mesabi Iron Range is an elongate trend containing large deposits of iron ore, and the largest of four major iron ranges in the region collectively known as the Iron Range of Minnesota.
The Meskwaki (sometimes spelled Mesquakie) are a Native American people often known to European-Americans as the Fox tribe.
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.
The Detroit metropolitan area, often referred to as Metro Detroit, is a major metropolitan area in the U. S. State of Michigan, consisting of the city of Detroit and its surrounding area.
In the United States, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is a geographical region with a relatively high population density at its core and close economic ties throughout the area.
The Miami (Miami-Illinois: Myaamiaki) are a Native American nation originally speaking one of the Algonquian languages.
Michael Kevin Daugherty (born April 28, 1954) is an American composer, pianist, and teacher.
Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American singer, songwriter, and dancer.
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.
Michigan International Speedway (MIS) is a moderate-banked D-shaped speedway located off U.S. Highway 12 on more than approximately south of the village of Brooklyn, in the scenic Irish Hills area of southeastern Michigan.
The Michigan State Spartans are the athletic teams that represent Michigan State University.
Michigan State University (MSU) is a public research university in East Lansing, Michigan, United States.
The Michigan Wolverines comprise 27 varsity sports teams at the University of Michigan.
The Mid-Atlantic, also called Middle Atlantic states or the Mid-Atlantic states, form a region of the United States generally located between New England and the South Atlantic States.
Mid-Ohio Sports Car Course is a road course auto racing facility located in Troy Township, Morrow County, Ohio, United States, just outside the village of Lexington.
Middletown studies were sociological case studies of the white residents of City of Muncie in Indiana conducted by Robert Staughton Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd, husband-and-wife sociologists.
Midland American English is a regional dialect or super-dialect of American English, geographically lying between the traditionally-defined Northern and Southern United States.
Midwest emo (or Midwestern emo) refers to the vibrant and influential emo scene that developed in 1990s Midwestern United States.
The Miller Brewing Company is an American beer brewing company headquartered in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, that was owned until October 11, 2016 by the MillerCoors division of the SABMiller–Molson Coors joint venture.
Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin and the fifth-largest city in the Midwestern United States.
The Milwaukee Brewers are an American professional baseball team based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
The Milwaukee Bucks are an American professional basketball team based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
The Milwaukee metropolitan area (also known as Metro Milwaukee or Greater Milwaukee) is a major metropolitan area located in Southeastern Wisconsin, consisting of the city of Milwaukee and the surrounding area.
The Milwaukee Mile is an approximately one mile-long (1.6 km) oval race track in the central United States, located on the grounds of the Wisconsin State Fair Park in West Allis, Wisconsin, a suburb west of Milwaukee.
The Milwaukee Panthers are the athletic teams of the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee.
Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County, and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States.
Minneapolis–Saint Paul is a major metropolitan area built around the Mississippi, Minnesota and St. Croix rivers in east central Minnesota.
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States.
The Minnesota Golden Gophers (commonly shortened to Gophers) are the college sports teams of the University of Minnesota.
The Minnesota Legislature is the bicameral legislature of the U.S. state of Minnesota consisting of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives.
The Minnesota River is a tributary of the Mississippi River, approximately 332 miles (534 km) long, in the U.S. state of Minnesota.
The Minnesota Timberwolves (also commonly known as the Wolves) are an American professional basketball team based in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
The Minnesota Twins are an American professional baseball team based in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Minnesota United FC is an American professional soccer club based in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul area that plays in the Western Conference of Major League Soccer.
The Minnesota Vikings are a professional American football team based in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
The Minnesota Wild are a professional ice hockey team based in Saint Paul, Minnesota.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American civilization archeologists date from approximately 800 CE to 1600 CE, varying regionally.
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.
The Missouri Compromise is the title generally attached to the legislation passed by the 16th United States Congress on May 9, 1820.
The Missouri River is the longest river in North America.
The Missouri State Bears and Lady Bears are the athletic teams representing Missouri State University (formerly Southwest Missouri State University).
The Missouri Tigers athletics programs include the extramural and intramural sports teams of the University of Missouri, located in Columbia, Missouri, United States.
The Missouria or Missouri (in their own language, Niúachi, also spelled Niutachi) are a Native American tribe that originated in the Great Lakes region of United States before European contact.
Willard Mitt Romney (born March 12, 1947) is an American businessman and politician who served as the 70th Governor of Massachusetts from 2003 to 2007 and was the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2012 election.
The Morrill Land-Grant Acts are United States statutes that allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges in U.S. states using the proceeds of federal land sales.
Motown is an American record company.
The various cultures collectively termed Mound Builders were inhabitants of North America who, during a 5,000-year period, constructed various styles of earthen mounds for religious, ceremonial, burial, and elite residential purposes.
Muncie is an incorporated city and the seat of Delaware County, Indiana.
The Nakoda (also known as Stoney or Îyârhe Nakoda) are an indigenous people in Western Canada and, originally, the United States.
The term Nakota (or Nakoda or also Nakona) is the endonym used by those native peoples of North America who usually go by the name of Assiniboine (or Hohe), in the United States, and of Stoney, in Canada.
The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).
The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is a non-profit organization which regulates athletes of 1,281 institutions and conferences.
The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC).
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
The National Hockey League (NHL; Ligue nationale de hockey—LNH) is a professional ice hockey league in North America, currently comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada.
The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations.
NCAA Division I (D-I) is the highest level of intercollegiate athletics sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in the United States.
Nebraska is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States.
The Nebraska Cornhuskers (often abbreviated to Huskers) are the intercollegiate athletic teams that represent the University of Nebraska–Lincoln.
The Nebraska Legislature (also called the Unicameral) is the supreme legislative body of the state of Nebraska.
The Neutral Confederacy or Neutral Nation or Neutral people were a Iroquoian-speaking North American indigenous people who lived near the northern shores of Lake Ontario and Lake Erie, on the west side of the Niagara River, west of the Tabacco Nation.
New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) is a commodity futures exchange owned and operated by CME Group of Chicago.
The New York Yankees are an American professional baseball team based in the New York City borough of the Bronx.
The New-York Tribune was an American newspaper, first established in 1841 by editor Horace Greeley (1811–1872).
The Nez Perce (autonym: Niimíipuu in their own language, meaning "the walking people" or "we, the people") are an Indigenous people of the Plateau who have lived on the Columbia River Plateau in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States for a long time.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
North Dakota is a U.S. state in the midwestern and northern regions of the United States.
The North Dakota State Bison is the name of the athletic teams of North Dakota State University (NDSU), which is located in the city of Fargo, North Dakota.
North-Central American English (also known as the Upper Midwestern or North Central dialect in the United States) is an American English dialect native to the Upper Midwestern United States, an area that somewhat overlaps with speakers of the separate Inland North dialect, centered more around the eastern Great Lakes region.
The Northeastern United States, also referred to as the American Northeast or simply the Northeast, is a geographical region of the United States bordered to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Southern United States, and to the west by the Midwestern United States.
The Northern Illinois Huskies are the athletic teams that represent Northern Illinois University (NIU).
The Northern United States, commonly referred to as the American North or simply the North, can be a geographic or historical term and definition.
The Northwest Ordinance (formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, North-West of the River Ohio, and also known as The Ordinance of 1787) enacted July 13, 1787, was an act of the Congress of the Confederation of the United States.
The Northwest Territory in the United States was formed after the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), and was known formally as the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Northwestern University (NU) is a private research university based in Evanston, Illinois, United States, with other campuses located in Chicago and Doha, Qatar, and academic programs and facilities in Miami, Florida, Washington, D.C., and San Francisco, California.
The Northwestern Wildcats are the athletic teams that represent Northwestern University, a founding member of the Big Ten Conference and the only private university in the conference.
Norwegians (nordmenn) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Norway.
The Notre Dame Fighting Irish are the athletic teams that represent the University of Notre Dame.
The oat (Avena sativa), sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other cereals and pseudocereals).
Oberlin College is a private liberal arts college in Oberlin, Ohio.
The Odawa (also Ottawa or Odaawaa), said to mean "traders", are an Indigenous American ethnic group who primarily inhabit land in the northern United States and southern Canada.
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.
The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory or Ohio Valley by the French) was a name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake Erie.
The Ohio House of Representatives is the lower house of the Ohio General Assembly, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Ohio; the other house of the bicameral legislature being the Ohio Senate.
The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States.
The Ohio Senate is the upper house of the Ohio General Assembly.
The Ohio State Buckeyes are the athletic teams that represent The Ohio State University, located in Columbus, Ohio.
The Ohio State University, commonly referred to as Ohio State or OSU, is a large, primarily residential, public university in Columbus, Ohio.
The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, or Chippewa are an Anishinaabeg group of Indigenous Peoples in North America, which is referred to by many of its Indigenous peoples as Turtle Island.
The Omaha are a federally recognized Midwestern Native American tribe who reside on the Omaha Reservation in northeastern Nebraska and western Iowa, United States.
Omaha is the largest city in the state of Nebraska and the county seat of Douglas County.
One-room schools were commonplace throughout rural portions of various countries, including Prussia, Norway, Sweden, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Spain.
The Oneida (Onyota'a:ka or Onayotekaonotyu, meaning the People of the Upright Stone, or standing stone, Thwahrù·nęʼ in Tuscarora) are a Native American tribe and First Nations band.
The Osage Nation (Osage: Ni-u-kon-ska, "People of the Middle Waters") is a Midwestern Native American tribe of the Great Plains who historically dominated much of present-day Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma.
The Otoe are a Native American people of the Midwestern United States.
Over-the-Rhine is a neighborhood in Cincinnati.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
The Ozarks, also referred to as the Ozark Mountains and Ozark Plateau, is a physiographic region in the U.S. states of Arkansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Kansas.
The Pabst Brewing Company is an American company that dates its origins to a brewing company founded in 1844 by Jacob Best and was, by 1889, named after Frederick Pabst.
Packard was an American luxury automobile marque built by the Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan, United States.
Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleoamericans is a classification term given to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
The parallel 36°30′ north is a circle of latitude that is 36 and one-half degrees north of the equator of the Earth.
The Pawnee are a Plains Indian tribe who are headquartered in Pawnee, Oklahoma.
The People's Party, also known as the Populist Party or the Populists, was an agrarian-populist political party in the United States.
Peoria is the county seat of Peoria County, Illinois, and the largest city on the Illinois River.
Peter Schickele (born July 17, 1935) is an American composer, musical educator, and parodist, best known for comedy albums featuring music written by Schickele, but which he presents as being composed by the fictional P. D. Q. Bach.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.
Plain White T's (read as "plain white tees") are an American rock band from Lombard, Illinois, formed in 1997 by high school friends Tom Higgenson, Dave Tirio and Ken Fletcher.
The Plains Apache are a small Southern Athabaskan group who traditionally live on the Southern Plains of North America, in close association with the linguistically unrelated Kiowa nation, and today are centered in Southwestern Oklahoma.
Plains Cree (native name: ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ nēhiyawēwin) is a dialect of the Algonquian language, Cree, which is the most populous Canadian indigenous language.
A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
The Ponca (Páⁿka iyé: Páⁿka or Ppáⁿkka pronounced) are a Midwestern Native American tribe of the Dhegihan branch of the Siouan language group.
Popular sovereignty is a doctrine rooted in the belief that each citizen has sovereignty over themselves.
Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).
ThePottawatomi, also spelled Pottawatomie and Potawatomi (among many variations), are a Native American people of the Great Plains, upper Mississippi River, and western Great Lakes region. They traditionally speak the Potawatomi language, a member of the Algonquian family. The Potawatomi called themselves Neshnabé, a cognate of the word Anishinaabe. The Potawatomi were part of a long-term alliance, called the Council of Three Fires, with the Ojibwe and Odawa (Ottawa). In the Council of Three Fires, the Potawatomi were considered the "youngest brother" and were referred to in this context as Bodéwadmi, a name that means "keepers of the fire" and refers to the council fire of three peoples. In the 19th century, they were pushed to the west by European/American encroachment in the late 18th century and removed from their lands in the Great Lakes region to reservations in Oklahoma. Under Indian Removal, they eventually ceded many of their lands, and most of the Potawatomi relocated to Nebraska, Kansas, and Indian Territory, now in Oklahoma. Some bands survived in the Great Lakes region and today are federally recognized as tribes. In Canada, there are over 20 First Nation bands.
The Pottawatomie massacre occurred during the night of May 24 and the morning of May 25, 1856.
Prairies are ecosystems considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and a composition of grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type.
The Progressive Party was a third party in the United States formed in 1912 by former President Theodore Roosevelt after he lost the presidential nomination of the Republican Party to his former protégé, incumbent President William Howard Taft.
The Progressive Party of 1924 was a new party created as a vehicle for Robert M. La Follette, Sr. to run for president in the 1924 election.
Progressivism is the support for or advocacy of improvement of society by reform.
The pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is a species of artiodactyl mammal indigenous to interior western and central North America.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
A proxy war is an armed conflict between two states or non-state actors which act on the instigation or on behalf of other parties that are not directly involved in the hostilities.
A punitive expedition is a military journey undertaken to punish a state or any group of persons outside the borders of the punishing state.
The Purdue Boilermakers are the official intercollegiate athletics teams representing Purdue University, located in West Lafayette, Indiana.
Purdue University is a public research university in West Lafayette, Indiana and is the flagship campus of the Purdue University system.
Quantrill's Raiders were the best-known of the pro-Confederate partisan guerrillas (also known as "bushwhackers") who fought in the American Civil War.
The Quapaw (or Arkansas and Ugahxpa) people are a tribe of Native Americans that coalesced in the Midwest and Ohio Valley.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
In the United States, railroads are designated as Class I, II, or III, according to size criteria first established by the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) in 1911, and now governed by the Surface Transportation Board.
A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area (away from the wind).
Ralph Shapey (12 March 1921 – 13 June 2002) was an American composer and conductor.
The Red River Colony (or Selkirk Settlement) was a colonization project set up in 1811 by Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk on of land.
Redleg is a term used to refer to poor whites that live on Barbados, St. Vincent, Grenada and a few other Caribbean islands.
REO Speedwagon (originally styled as R.E.O. Speedwagon) is an American rock band from Champaign, Illinois.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
Rhythm and blues, commonly abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in African American communities in the 1940s.
Richard Joseph Jensen (born October 24, 1941) is an American historian, who was professor of history at the University of Illinois, Chicago, from 1973 to 1996.
Richard Teller Crane I (May 15, 1832 – January 8, 1912) was the founder of R.T. Crane & Bro., a Chicago-based manufacturer.
Ripon is a city in Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin, United States.
A riverboat is a watercraft designed for inland navigation on lakes, rivers, and artificial waterways.
Road America is a road course located near Elkhart Lake, Wisconsin on Wisconsin Highway 67.
Robert Alphonso Taft Sr. (September 8, 1889 – July 31, 1953) was an American conservative politician, lawyer, and scion of the Taft family.
Robert Marion La Follette, Sr. (June 14, 1855June 18, 1925) was an American lawyer and politician.
Robert Rutherford "Colonel" McCormick (July 30, 1880 – April 1, 1955) was a member of the McCormick family of Chicago who became a lawyer, Republican Chicago alderman, distinguished U.S. Army officer in World War I, and eventually owner and publisher of the Chicago Tribune newspaper.
Rochester is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York.
Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950sJim Dawson and Steve Propes, What Was the First Rock'n'Roll Record (1992),.
The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, located on the shore of Lake Erie in downtown Cleveland, Ohio, recognizes and archives the history of the best-known and most influential artists, producers, engineers, and other notable figures who have had some major influence on the development of rock and roll.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities.
Rush Hudson Limbaugh III (born January 12, 1951) is an American radio talk show host and conservative political commentator.
S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC is a joint venture between S&P Global, the CME Group, and News Corp that was announced in 2011 and later launched in 2012.
The Sacking of Lawrence occurred on May 21, 1856, when pro-slavery activists, led by Sheriff Samuel J. Jones, attacked and ransacked the town of Lawrence, Kansas, which had been founded by anti-slavery settlers from Massachusetts, who were hoping to make Kansas a "free state".
The Saint Lawrence River (Fleuve Saint-Laurent; Tuscarora: Kahnawáʼkye; Mohawk: Kaniatarowanenneh, meaning "big waterway") is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway (la Voie Maritime du Saint-Laurent) is a system of locks, canals, and channels in Canada and the United States that permits oceangoing vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes of North America, as far inland as the western end of Lake Superior.
Saint Louis University (SLU) is a private Roman Catholic four-year research university with campuses in St. Louis, Missouri, United States and Madrid, Spain.
Saint Paul (abbreviated St. Paul) is the capital and second-most populous city of the U.S. state of Minnesota.
Salvatore Giovanni Martirano (January 12, 1927 – November 17, 1995) was an American composer of contemporary classical music.
The Santee tribe were a historical tribe of Siouan-language speakers from South Carolina.
Saskatchewan is a prairie and boreal province in western Canada, the only province without natural borders.
The Sac or Sauk are a group of Native Americans of the Eastern Woodlands culture group, who lived primarily in the region of what is now Green Bay, Wisconsin, when first encountered by the French in 1667.
The Saulteaux (pronounced,; also written Salteaux and many other variants) are a First Nations band government in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, Canada.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Secession (derived from the Latin term secessio) is the withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a political entity, but also from any organization, union or military alliance.
In the context of the 20th-century history of the United States, the Second Great Migration was the migration of more than 5 million African Americans from the South to the North, Midwest and West.
The shortgrass prairie is an ecosystem located in the Great Plains of North America.
The Shoshone or Shoshoni are a Native American tribe with four large cultural/linguistic divisions.
Siouan or Siouan–Catawban is a language family of North America that is located primarily in the Great Plains, Ohio and Mississippi valleys and southeastern North America with a few outlier languages in the east.
The Sioux also known as Očhéthi Šakówiŋ, are groups of Native American tribes and First Nations peoples in North America.
The Slave Power or Slaveocracy was the perceived political power in the U.S. federal government held by slave owners during the 1840s and 1850s, prior to the Civil War.
In the history of the United States, a slave state was a U.S. state in which the practice of slavery was legal, and a free state was one in which slavery was prohibited or being legally phased out.
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.
The Social Democratic Party of America (SDP) was a short-lived political party in the United States established in 1898.
South Dakota is a U.S. state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
Southern American English or Southern U.S. English is a large collection of related American English dialects spoken throughout the Southern United States, though increasingly in more rural areas and primarily by white Americans.
The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a Christian denomination based in the United States.
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head.
Sporting Kansas City is an American professional soccer club based in Kansas City, Missouri, playing its home games in Kansas City, Kansas.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
A steel mill or steelworks is an industrial plant for the manufacture of steel.
Stephen Paulus (August 24, 1949 – October 19, 2014) was a Grammy winning American composer, best known for his operas and choral music.
Stevland Hardaway Morris (né Judkins; born May 13, 1950), known by his stage name Stevie Wonder, is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, and multi-instrumentalist.
The Stockbridge-Munsee Community also known as the Mohican Nation Stockbridge-Munsee Band is a federally recognized Native American tribe formed in the late eighteenth century from communities of so-called "praying Indians" (or Moravian Indians), descended from Christianized members of two distinct peoples: Mohicans from the praying town of Stockbridge, Massachusetts, and Munsees.
Styx is an American rock band from Chicago that formed in 1972 and became famous for its albums released in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
The Sun Belt is a region of the United States generally considered to stretch across the Southeast and Southwest.
The Supreme Court of Ohio is the highest court in the U.S. state of Ohio, with final authority over interpretations of Ohio law and the Ohio Constitution.
Swedes (svenskar) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Sweden.
Swedish Americans (Svenskamerikaner) are an American ethnic group of people who have ancestral roots from Sweden.
Swing music, or simply swing, is a form of popular music developed in the United States that dominated in the 1930s and 1940s.
In American politics, the term swing state refers to any state that could reasonably be won by either the Democratic or Republican presidential candidate.
The tallgrass prairie is an ecosystem native to central North America.
Techno is a form of electronic dance music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan, in the United States during the mid-to-late 1980s.
Tecumseh (March 1768 – October 5, 1813) was a Native American Shawnee warrior and chief, who became the primary leader of a large, multi-tribal confederacy in the early 19th century.
Tennessee (translit) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.
Territories of the United States on stamps discusses commemorative postal issues devoted to lands that have been ceded to the nation or purchased by treaty in conjunction with both war and peace.
Terry Edward Branstad (born November 17, 1946) is an American politician and diplomat serving as the United States Ambassador to China since 2017.
The Blues Brothers is a 1980 American musical comedy film directed by John Landis.
The College of Wooster is a private liberal arts college primarily known for its emphasis on mentored undergraduate research.
The Dakotas is a collective term for the U.S. states of North Dakota and South Dakota.
The German Element in the United States, With Special Reference to Its Political, Moral, Social and Educational Influence, by Albert Bernhardt Faust is a two-volume work published in 1909.
The Get Up Kids are an American rock band from Kansas City, Missouri.
The Jackson 5, or Jackson Five, currently known as the Jacksons, are an American family music group.
The Journal of American History is the official academic journal of the Organization of American Historians.
The Journal of Economic History is an academic journal of economic history which has been published since 1941.
The Kansas Historical Quarterly (1931–1977) was an academic journal published by the Kansas State Historical Society in Topeka, Kansas.
The Marvelettes was an American girl group that achieved popularity in the early- to mid-1960s.
The Miracles (also known as Smokey Robinson and the Miracles from 1965 to 1972) were an American rhythm and blues vocal group that was the first successful recording act for Berry Gordy's Motown Records, and one of the most important and influential groups in pop, rock and roll, and R&B music history.
The Smashing Pumpkins (or Smashing Pumpkins) are an American alternative rock band from Chicago, Illinois.
The Supremes were an American female singing group and the premier act of Motown Records during the 1960s.
The Temptations are an American vocal group who released a series of successful singles and albums with Motown Records during the 1960s and 1970s.
The Third Treaty of San Ildefonso was a treaty between France and Spain in which Spain returned the colonial territory of Louisiana to France in exchange for Tuscany.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Timothy James Pawlenty (born November 27, 1960) is an American businessman and politician who is president and CEO of Financial Services Roundtable, a Washington, D.C.-based industry advocacy group.
A tipi (also teepee) is a cone-shaped tent, traditionally made of animal skins upon wooden poles.
Toledo is a city in and the county seat of Lucas County, Ohio, United States.
Thomas John Brokaw (born February 6, 1940) is an American television journalist and author, best known for being the anchor and managing editor of NBC Nightly News for 22 years (1982–2004).
Toni Morrison (born Chloe Ardelia Wofford; February 18, 1931) is an American novelist, essayist, editor, teacher, and professor emeritus at Princeton University.
The Tonkawa are a Native American tribe indigenous to present-day Oklahoma and Texas.
Trax Records is a house-music record label based in Chicago.
The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Great Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War.
The Tsuut'ina Nation (also Tsu T’ina, Tsuu T’ina, Tsúùtínà - "a great number of people"; formerly Sarcee, Sarsi) is a First Nation in Canada.
Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly, is an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe.
The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States during the early to mid-19th century, and used by African-American slaves to escape into free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause.
During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Union, also known as the North, referred to the United States of America and specifically to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states (some with split governments and troops sent both north and south) that supported it.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
Non-interventionism, the diplomatic policy whereby a nation seeks to avoid alliances with other nations in order to avoid being drawn into wars not related to direct territorial self-defense, has had a long history of popularity in the government and among the people of the United States at various periods in time.
This list of physiographic regions of the contiguous United States identifies the 8 regions, 25 provinces, and 85 sections.
The election of President and Vice President of the United States is an indirect election in which citizens of the United States who are registered to vote in one of the 50 U.S. states or in Washington, D.C. cast ballots not directly for those offices, but instead for members of the U.S. Electoral College, known as electors.
The United States presidential election of 1956 was the 43rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 6, 1956.
The United States presidential election of 1964, the 45th quadrennial American presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 3, 1964.
The United States presidential election of 2008 was the 56th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 2012 was the 57th quadrennial American presidential election.
This is a United States territorial acquisitions and conquests list, beginning with American independence.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The University of Cincinnati (commonly referred to as UC or Cincinnati) is a comprehensive public research university in Cincinnati, in the U.S. state of Ohio, and a part of the University System of Ohio.
The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.
The University of Iowa (also known as the UI, U of I, UIowa, or simply Iowa) is a flagship public research university in Iowa City, Iowa.
The University of Kansas, also referred to as KU or Kansas, is a public research university in the U.S. state of Kansas.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (often referred to as the University of Minnesota, Minnesota, the U of M, UMN, or simply the U) is a public research university in Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota.
The University of Missouri (also, Mizzou, or MU) is a public, land-grant research university in Columbia, Missouri.
The University of Nebraska–Lincoln, often referred to as Nebraska, UNL or NU, is a public research university in the city of Lincoln, in the state of Nebraska in the Midwestern United States.
The University of Notre Dame du Lac (or simply Notre Dame or ND) is a private, non-profit Catholic research university in the community of Notre Dame, Indiana, near the city of South Bend, in the United States.
The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.
The terms Upland South and Upper South refer to the northern section of the Southern United States, in contrast to the Lower South or Deep South.
The Upper Midwest is a region in the northern portion of the U.S. Census Bureau's Midwestern United States.
Upper Peninsula (U.P.) English, also known as Yooper English, or colloquially as Yoopanese, is a variety of American English native to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan (locally abbreviated as "U.P." and the basis for the endonym "Yooper").
The Upper Peninsula (UP), also known as Upper Michigan, is the northern of the two major peninsulas that make up the U.S. state of Michigan.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
The Valentin Blatz Brewing Company was an American brewery based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Veal is the meat of calves, in contrast to the beef from older cattle.
A vigilante is a civilian or organization acting in a law enforcement capacity (or in the pursuit of self-perceived justice) without legal authority.
The Wabash River (French: Ouabache) is a U.S. Geological Survey.
Walter Percy Chrysler (April 2, 1875 – August 18, 1940) was an American automotive industry executive and founder of Chrysler Corporation, now a part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles.
Walter Leland Cronkite Jr. (November 4, 1916 – July 17, 2009) was an American broadcast journalist who served as anchorman for the CBS Evening News for 19 years (1962–1981).
Walter Frederick "Fritz" Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician, diplomat, and lawyer who served as the 42nd Vice President of the United States from 1977 to 1981, and as a United States Senator from Minnesota (1964–76).
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
Washington University in St.
The West North Central states form one of the nine geographic subdivisions within the United States that are officially recognized by the U.S. Census Bureau.
West River is the portion of the state of South Dakota located west of the Missouri River with well over one-half of the land area and between one-quarter and one-third of the population of the state.
The Western Michigan Broncos are a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) team representing Western Michigan University (WMU).
Western New York is the westernmost region of the state of New York.
Western Pennsylvania refers to the western third of the state of Pennsylvania in the United States.
The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West, the Far West, or simply the West, traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States.
The WGC-Bridgestone Invitational is a professional golf tournament, one of the annual World Golf Championships.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
Wheaton College is a Christian, residential liberal arts college and graduate school in Wheaton, Illinois, a suburb 25 miles (40 km) west of Chicago.
The Wichita people are a confederation of Midwestern Native Americans.
The Wichita State Shockers are the athletic teams that represent Wichita State University.
Wichita is the largest city in the U.S. state of Kansas.
A wigwam, wickiup or wetu is a domed dwelling formerly used by certain Native American and First Nations tribes, and still used for ceremonial purposes.
Will it play in Peoria? is a figure of speech that is traditionally used to ask whether a given product, person, promotional theme, or event will appeal to mainstream America, or across a broad range of demographic and psychographic groups.
William Elden Bolcom (born May 26, 1938) is an American composer and pianist.
William Crapo "Billy" Durant (December 8, 1861 – March 18, 1947) was a leading pioneer of the United States automobile industry, who created the system of multi-brand holding companies with different lines of cars; and the co-founder of General Motors with Frederic L. Smith, and of Chevrolet with Louis Chevrolet.
Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions.
The Wisconsin Badgers are the athletic teams representing the University of Wisconsin–Madison (University of Wisconsin).
In the classification of Archaeological cultures of North America, the Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures spanned a period from roughly 1000 BCE to European contact in the eastern part of North America, with some archaeologists distinguishing the Mississippian period, from 1000 CE to European contact as a separate period.
The Wyandot people or Wendat, also called the Huron Nation and Huron people, in most historic references are believed to have been the most populous confederacy of Iroquoian cultured indigenous peoples of North America.
The Xavier Musketeers are composed of 16 teams representing Xavier University in intercollegiate athletics, including men and women's basketball, cross country, golf, soccer, swimming, tennis, indoor track and field, and outdoor track and field.
Xavier University is a co-educational Jesuit, Catholic university in Norwood and Cincinnati, Ohio, United States.
The 19th century was a century that began on January 1, 1801, and ended on December 31, 1900.
The 21st century is the current century of the Anno Domini era or Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar.
The 2nd Cavalry Regiment, also known as the 2nd Dragoons, is an active Stryker infantry and cavalry regiment of the United States Army.
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