127 relations: Abortifacient, Abortion, Adrenal gland, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Androgen receptor, Anti-abortion movements, Antiandrogen, Anticoagulant, Antiglucocorticoid, Antiprogestogen, Étienne-Émile Baulieu, Biological half-life, Birth control, Black market, Bleeding, Blood transfusion, Boxed warning, Carcinogen, Catholic Church, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cervical dilation, Cervical effacement, Cervix, Chemical structure, Claude Évin, Contraindication, Corpus luteum, Corticosteroid, Cortisol, Cushing's syndrome, Danco Laboratories, Decidua, Derivative (chemistry), Developing country, Dexamethasone, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Double bond, Ectopic pregnancy, Emergency contraception, Endogeny (biology), Endometrium, Estrane, Estrogen receptor, European Economic Area, European Medicines Agency, Feces, Fever, Follicular phase, Food and Drug Administration, ..., Gemeprost, Gestational age, Glucocorticoid receptor, Great Britain, Guam, Guttmacher Institute, Health Canada, Health system, Human chorionic gonadotropin, Human fertilization, Hydrophobe, Hyperglycemia, IC50, Impaired glucose tolerance, Intrauterine device, Ipas (organization), Labor induction, Levonorgestrel, Ligand (biochemistry), List of diplomatic missions of the United States, Liver, Luxembourg, Medical abortion, Metabolite, Metapristone, Methotrexate, Mineralocorticoid receptor, Misoprostol, Myometrium, Nausea, Nor-, Oral administration, Organic compound, Ovulation, Oxytocin, Partial agonist, Pelvic inflammatory disease, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacy, Phenyl group, Placenta, Planned Parenthood, Population Council, Porphyria, Postmarketing surveillance, Pregnancy, Progesterone, Progesterone receptor, Progestin, Propynyl, Prostaglandin, Prostaglandin analogue, Prostate cancer, Psychotic depression, Puerto Rico, Receptor (biochemistry), Receptor antagonist, Roussel Uclaf, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, Sepsis, Steroid, Steroid hormone, Steroid hormone receptor, Substituent, Sulprostone, Sweden, Switzerland, Syncytiotrophoblast, Testosterone, Therapeutic Goods Administration, Trophoblast, University of Geneva, Urine, Vacuum aspiration, Vomiting, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, World Health Organization. Expand index (77 more) » « Shrink index
An abortifacient ("that which will cause a miscarriage" from Latin: abortus "miscarriage" and faciens "making") is a substance that induces abortion.
Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists is a professional association of physicians specializing in obstetrics and gynecology in the United States.
The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.
Anti-abortion movements, also referred to as pro-life movements, are involved in the abortion debate advocating against the practice of abortion and its legality.
Antiandrogens, also known as androgen antagonists or testosterone blockers, are a class of drugs that prevent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from mediating their biological effects in the body.
Anticoagulants, commonly referred to as blood thinners, are chemical substances that prevent or reduce coagulation of blood, prolonging the clotting time.
An antiglucocorticoid is a drug which reduces glucocorticoid activity in the body.
Antiprogestogens, or antiprogestins, also known as progesterone antagonists or progesterone blockers, are a class of drugs which prevent progestogens like progesterone from mediating their biological effects in the body.
Étienne-Émile Baulieu (born 12 December 1926) is a French biochemist and endocrinologist who is best known for his research in the field of steroid hormones and their role in reproduction and aging.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously.
In the United States, a boxed warning (sometimes "black box warning", colloquially) is a type of warning that appears on the package insert for certain prescription drugs, so called because the U.S. Food and Drug Administration specifies that it is formatted with a 'box' or border around the text.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Cervical dilation (or cervical dilatation) is the opening of the cervix, the entrance to the uterus, during childbirth, miscarriage, induced abortion, or gynecological surgery.
Cervical effacement (also called cervical ripening) refers to a thinning of the cervix.
The cervix or cervix uteri (neck of the uterus) is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system.
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
Claude Évin (born 29 June 1949) is a French politician and lawyer.
In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that serves as a reason to withhold a certain medical treatment due to the harm that it would cause the patient.
The corpus luteum (Latin for "yellow body"; plural corpora lutea) is a temporary endocrine structure in female ovaries and is involved in the production of relatively high levels of progesterone, moderate levels of estradiol, inhibin A and small amounts of estrogen.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Cushing's syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.
Danco Laboratories is a pharmaceutical distributor located in midtown Manhattan which distributes the abortifacent drug mifepristone under the brand name Mifeprex.
The decidua is the uterine lining (endometrium) during a pregnancy, which forms the maternal part of the placenta.
In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
Ectopic pregnancy is a complication of pregnancy in which the embryo attaches outside the uterus.
Emergency contraception (EC), or emergency postcoital contraception, are birth control measures that may be used after sexual intercourse to prevent pregnancy.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus.
Estrane is a C18 steroid derivative, with a gonane core.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
The European Economic Area (EEA) is the area in which the Agreement on the EEA provides for the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the European Single Market, including the freedom to choose residence in any country within this area.
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is a European Union agency for the evaluation of medicinal products.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
The follicular phase is the phase of the estrous cycle, (or, in humans and great apes, the menstrual cycle) during which follicles in the ovary mature.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Gemeprost (16, 16-dimethyl-trans-delta2 PGE1 methyl ester) is an analogue of prostaglandin E1.
Gestational age is a measure of the age of a pregnancy which is taken from the woman's last menstrual period (LMP), or the corresponding age of the gestation as estimated by a more accurate method if available.
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR, or GCR) also known as NR3C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is the receptor to which cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
Guam (Chamorro: Guåhån) is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean.
The Guttmacher Institute is a research and policy organization committed to advancing sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) in the United States and globally.
Health Canada (Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation.
Human fertilization is the union of a human egg and sperm, usually occurring in the ampulla of the fallopian tube.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.
The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is a measure of the potency of a substance in inhibiting a specific biological or biochemical function.
Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic state of hyperglycemia that is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular pathology.
An intrauterine device (IUD), also known as intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD or ICD) or coil, is a small, often T-shaped birth control device that is inserted into a woman's uterus to prevent pregnancy.
Ipas is a global non-profit organization that works to increase women's ability to exercise their sexual and reproductive rights, and to end deaths and injuries from unsafe abortion.
Labor induction is the process or treatment that stimulates childbirth and delivery.
Levonorgestrel is a hormonal medication which is used in a number of birth control methods.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
This is a list of diplomatic missions of the United States of America.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
A medical abortion is a type of non-surgical abortion in which medication is used to bring about abortion.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Metapristone (developmental code name RU-42633; also known as desmethylmifepristone) is the major metabolite of mifepristone (RU-486, RU-38486) and a selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) which itself was never marketed.
Methotrexate (MTX), formerly known as amethopterin, is a chemotherapy agent and immune system suppressant.
The mineralocorticoid receptor (or MR, MLR, MCR), also known as the aldosterone receptor or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 2, (NR3C2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR3C2 gene that is located on chromosome 4q31.1-31.2.
Misoprostol, sold under the brandname Cytotec among others, is a medication used to start labor, cause an abortion, prevent and treat stomach ulcers, and treat postpartum bleeding due to poor contraction of the uterus.
The myometrium is the middle layer of the uterine wall, consisting mainly of uterine smooth muscle cells (also called uterine myocytes), but also of supporting stromal and vascular tissue.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
In chemical nomenclature, nor- is a prefix to name a structural analog that can be derived from a parent compound by the removal of one carbon atom along with the accompanying hydrogen atoms.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
Oxytocin (Oxt) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide.
In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist.
Pelvic inflammatory disease or pelvic inflammatory disorder (PID) is an infection of the upper part of the female reproductive system namely the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, and inside of the pelvis.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs.
In organic chemistry, the phenyl group or phenyl ring is a cyclic group of atoms with the formula C6H5.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc. (PPFA), or Planned Parenthood, is a nonprofit organization that provides reproductive health care in the United States and globally.
The Population Council is an international, nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
Porphyria is a group of diseases in which substances called porphyrins build up, negatively affecting the skin or nervous system.
Postmarketing surveillance (PMS) (also post market surveillance) is the practice of monitoring the safety of a pharmaceutical drug or medical device after it has been released on the market and is an important part of the science of pharmacovigilance.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells.
A progestin is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
In organic chemistry, a propynyl functional group is a propyl bearing a triple bond.
The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.
Prostaglandin analogues are a class of drugs that bind to a prostaglandin receptor.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Psychotic depression, also known as depressive psychosis, is a major depressive episode that is accompanied by psychotic symptoms.
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Roussel Uclaf S.A. was a French pharmaceutical company and one of several predecessor companies of today's Sanofi.
The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) is professional association based in London, United Kingdom.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
Steroid hormone receptors are found in the nucleus, cytosol, and also on the plasma membrane of target cells.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms which replaces one or more hydrogen atoms on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon, becoming a moiety of the resultant new molecule.
Sulprostone is an analogue of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) that has oxytocic activity in assays of rat kidney cells and tissues.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Syncytiotrophoblast (from the Greek 'syn'- "together"; 'cytio'- "of cells"; 'tropho'- "nutrition"; 'blast'- "bud") is the epithelial covering of the highly vascular embryonic placental villi, which invades the wall of the uterus to establish nutrient circulation between the embryo and the mother.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) is the regulatory body for therapeutic goods (including medicines, medical devices, gene technology, and blood products) in Australia.
Trophoblasts (from Greek trephein: to feed, and blastos: germinator) are cells forming the outer layer of a blastocyst, which provide nutrients to the embryo and develop into a large part of the placenta.
The University of Geneva (French: Université de Genève) is a public research university located in Geneva, Switzerland.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Vacuum or suction aspiration uses aspiration to remove uterine contents through the cervix.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.