177 relations: Abdominal migraine, ACE inhibitor, Acephalgic migraine, Acupuncture, Amitriptyline, Analgesic, Ancient Egypt, Angiotensin II receptor blocker, Angiotensin-converting enzyme, Antiemetic, Anxiety disorder, Aretaeus of Cappadocia, Aristides Leão, Aspirin, Auditory hallucination, Aura (symptom), Autonomic nervous system, Axon, Barbiturate, Basilar artery, Benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood, Biofeedback, Bipolar disorder, Blood vessel, Blurred vision, Botulinum toxin, Brain, Brain tumor, Brainstem, CADASIL, Caffeine, Calcitonin gene-related peptide, Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist, Cardiovascular disease, Central nervous system, Cerebral cortex, Child, Choosing Wisely, Cluster headache, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Coronary artery disease, Cortical spreading depression, Cyclic vomiting syndrome, Delusion, Depression (mood), Dexamethasone, Diarrhea, Diclofenac, Diencephalon, Dihydroergotamine, ..., Disability, Dominance (genetics), Dura mater, Dysarthria, Ebers Papyrus, Ergoline, Ergot, Ergotamine, Euphoria, Exocytosis, Familial hemiplegic migraine, Family history (medicine), Fatigue, Fever, Frovatriptan, Gabapentin, Galen, Genetic disorder, Giant-cell arteritis, Glaucoma, Greek language, Haloperidol, Headache, Headache (journal), Hemianopsia, Hippocrates, Hormonal contraception, Hyperacusis, Ibuprofen, Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, In vitro, Indoor air quality, International Classification of Headache Disorders, International Headache Society, Ion channel, Ion transporter, Ketorolac, Lidocaine, Magnesium (medical use), Major depressive disorder, Malaise, Medication overuse headache, Melatonin, Melatonin receptor 1A, Menarche, Meningitis, Menopause, Menstruation, Mental disorder, Methysergide, Metoclopramide, Metoprolol, Migraine surgery, Migraine treatment, Monoclonal antibody, Monosodium glutamate, Mosby's Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & Health Professions, Naproxen, Nasal spray, Nausea, Neolithic, Nerve, Neuroimaging, Neurology, Neuron, Neurostimulation, NMDA receptor, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Olcegepant, Opioid, Oral contraceptive pill, Orbit (anatomy), Osmophobia, Pain, Pallor, Papilledema, Paracetamol, Petasites, Phases of clinical research, Phonophobia, Photophobia, Pia mater, Postdrome, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Pregabalin, Pregnancy, Prochlorperazine, Prodrome, Propranolol, Proprioception, Puberty, Retinal migraine, Scalp, Scintillating scotoma, Self-report study, Sensory nerve, Serotonin, Sinusitis, Spinal manipulation, Sporadic hemiplegic migraine, Stroke, Subarachnoid hemorrhage, Sumatriptan, Telcagepant, Temple (anatomy), Tension headache, Therapy, Timolol, Tinnitus, Topiramate, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, Trepanning, Trigeminal nerve nuclei, Triptan, TRPM8, Tyramine, Valproate, Venlafaxine, Venous thrombosis, Vertebral artery dissection, Vertigo, Visual field, Vomiting, White matter, William Harvey. Expand index (127 more) » « Shrink index
Abdominal migraine is a disorder primarily of children which presents with episodes of abdominal pain without an accompanying headache.
An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.
Acephalgic migraine (also called acephalalgic migraine, migraine aura without headache, amigrainous migraine, isolated visual migraine, and optical migraine) is a neurological syndrome.
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body.
Amitriptyline, sold under the brand name Elavil among others, is a medicine primarily used to treat a number of mental illnesses.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists, AT1 receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals that modulate the renin–angiotensin system.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme, or ACE, is a central component of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), which controls blood pressure by regulating the volume of fluids in the body.
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
Aretaeus (Ἀρεταῖος) is one of the most celebrated of the ancient Greek physicians, of whose life, however, few particulars are known.
Aristides de Azevedo Pacheco Leão (August 3, 1914 – December 14, 1993 in Rio de Janeiro) was one of the most important Brazilian biologists and scientists, one of the founders of the Biophysics Institute of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and the discoverer of cortical spreading depression, an electrophysiological phenomenon of the central nervous system, which received his name.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
A paracusia, or auditory hallucination, is a form of hallucination that involves perceiving sounds without auditory stimulus.
An aura is a perceptual disturbance experienced by some with migraines or seizures before either the headache or seizure begins.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
In human anatomy, the basilar artery is one of the arteries that supplies the brain with oxygen-rich blood.
Benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood is an uncommon neurological disorder which presents with recurrent episodes of dizziness.
Biofeedback is the process of gaining greater awareness of many physiological functions primarily using instruments that provide information on the activity of those same systems, with a goal of being able to manipulate them at will.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Blurred vision is an ocular symptom.
Botulinum toxin (BTX) or Botox is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
CADASIL or CADASIL syndrome, involving cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, is the most common form of hereditary stroke disorder, and is thought to be caused by mutations of the Notch 3 gene on chromosome 19.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a member of the calcitonin family of peptides, which in humans exists in two forms, α-CGRP and β-CGRP.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists are a class of drug candidates that act as antagonists of the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor (CGRPR).
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Biologically, a child (plural: children) is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty.
Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).
Cluster headache (CH) is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, severe headaches on one side of the head, typically around the eye.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) or spreading depolarization is a wave of electrophysiological hyperactivity followed by a wave of inhibition.
Cyclic vomiting syndrome (US English) or cyclical vomiting syndrome (UK English) (CVS) is a chronic functional condition of unknown cause characterised by recurring attacks of intense nausea, vomiting, and sometimes abdominal pain, headaches, or migraines.
A delusion is a mistaken belief that is held with strong conviction even in the presence of superior evidence to the contrary.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Diclofenac (sold under a number of trade names) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) taken or applied to reduce inflammation and as an analgesic reducing pain in certain conditions.
The diencephalon is a division of the forebrain (embryonic prosencephalon), and is situated between the telencephalon and the midbrain (embryonic mesencephalon).
Dihydroergotamine (DHE) is an ergot alkaloid used to treat migraines.
A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
Dura mater, or dura, is a thick membrane made of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder resulting from neurological injury of the motor component of the motor-speech system and is characterized by poor articulation of phonemes.
The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC.
Ergoline derivatives comprise a diverse group of chemical compounds whose structural skeleton is the alkaloid ergoline.
Ergot (pron.) or ergot fungi refers to a group of fungi of the genus Claviceps.
Ergotamine is an ergopeptine and part of the ergot family of alkaloids; it is structurally and biochemically closely related to ergoline.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
Exocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (e.g., neurotransmitters and proteins) out of the cell (exo- + cytosis) by expelling them through an energy-dependent process.
Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is an autosomal dominant type of hemiplegic migraine that typically includes weakness of half the body which can last for hours, days or weeks.
In medicine, a family history (FH or FHx) consists of information about disorders from which the direct blood relatives of the patient have suffered.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Frovatriptan (trade name Frova) is a triptan drug developed by Vernalis for the treatment of migraine headaches and for short term prevention of menstrual migraine.
Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is a medication which is used to treat epilepsy (specifically partial seizures), neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
Giant-cell arteritis (GCA), also called temporal arteritis, is an inflammatory disease of blood vessels.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Haloperidol, marketed under the trade name Haldol among others, is a typical antipsychotic medication.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of head and face pain.
Hemianopsia, or hemianopia, is a decreased vision or blindness (anopsia) in half the visual field, usually on one side of the vertical midline.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the endocrine system.
Hyperacusis (or hyperacousis) is a debilitating hearing disorder characterized by an increased sensitivity to certain frequencies and volume ranges of sound (a collapsed tolerance to usual environmental sound).
Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition characterized by increased intracranial pressure (pressure around the brain) without a detectable cause.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants.
The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) is a detailed hierarchical classification of all headache-related disorders published by the International Headache Society.
The International Headache Society (IHS) is a charity membership organisation founded in 1981 for those with a professional commitment to helping people affected by headache.
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
In biology, an ion transporter (or ion pump) is a transmembrane protein that moves ions across a plasma membrane against their concentration gradient through active transport.
Ketorolac, sold under the brand name Toradol among others, is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in the family of heterocyclic acetic acid derivatives, used as an analgesic.
Lidocaine, also known as xylocaine and lignocaine, is a medication used to numb tissue in a specific area.
Magnesium salts are available as a medication in a number of formulations.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort, uneasiness or pain, often the first indication of an infection or other disease.
Medication overuse headache (MOH), also known as rebound headache usually occurs when analgesics are taken frequently to relieve headaches.
Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.
Melatonin receptor type 1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MTNR1A gene.
Menarche (Greek: μήν mēn "month" + ἀρχή arkhē "beginning") is the first menstrual cycle, or first menstrual bleeding, in female humans.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Methysergide (1-methyl-D-lysergic acid butanolamide or UML-491) also known as methysergide maleate, is an ergot derived prescription drug used for the prophylaxis of difficult to treat migraine and cluster headaches.
Metoclopramide is a medication used mostly for stomach and esophageal problems.
Metoprolol, marketed under the tradename Lopressor among others, is a medication of the selective β1 receptor blocker type.
Migraine surgery is any surgical operation undertaken with the goal of reducing or preventing migraines.
Migraine treatment may be either prophylactic (preventive) or abortive (rescue).
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.
Monosodium glutamate (MSG, also known as sodium glutamate) is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, one of the most abundant naturally occurring non-essential amino acids.
Mosby's Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & Health Professions is a dictionary of health related topics.
Naproxen (brand names: Aleve, Naprosyn, and many others) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the propionic acid class (the same class as ibuprofen) that relieves pain, fever, swelling, and stiffness.
Nasal sprays, or nasal drops, are used as local treatments for conditions such as nasal congestion and allergic rhinitis.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurostimulation is the purposeful modulation of the nervous system's activity using invasive (e.g. microelectrodes) or non-invasive means (e.g. transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial electric stimulation, tES, such as tDCS or transcranial alternating current stimulation, tACS).
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").
Olcegepant (INN, code name BIBN-4096BS) is a calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist being studied as a potential treatment for migraines.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control.
In anatomy, the orbit is the cavity or socket of the skull in which the eye and its appendages are situated.
Osmophobia or olfactophobia refers to a fear, aversion, or psychological hypersensitivity to odors.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Pallor is a pale color of the skin that can be caused by illness, emotional shock or stress, stimulant use, or anemia, and is the result of a reduced amount of oxyhaemoglobin and is visible in skin conjuctivae or mucous membrane.
Papilledema (or papilloedema) is optic disc swelling that is caused by increased intracranial pressure due to any cause.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
Petasites is a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower family, Asteraceae, that are commonly referred to as butterburs and coltsfoots.
The phases of clinical research are the steps in which scientists do experiments with a health intervention in an attempt to find enough evidence for a process which would be useful as a medical treatment.
Phonophobia, also called ligyrophobia or sonophobia, is a fear of or aversion to loud sounds—a type of specific phobia.
Photophobia is a symptom of abnormal intolerance to visual perception of light.
Pia mater (or in, retrieved 2012-07-28.), often referred to as simply the pia, is the delicate innermost layer of the meninges, the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
A postdrome is a symptom or set of symptoms that occurs after a particular condition has passed.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
Pregabalin, marketed under the brand name Lyrica among others, is a medication used to treat epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and generalized anxiety disorder.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Prochlorperazine is a dopamine (D2) receptor antagonist that belongs to the phenothiazine class of antipsychotic agents that are used for the antiemetic treatment of nausea and vertigo.
In medicine, a prodrome is an early sign or symptom (or set of signs and symptoms), which often indicate the onset of a disease before more diagnostically specific signs and symptoms develop.
Propranolol, sold under the brand name Inderal among others, is a medication of the beta blocker type. It is used to treat high blood pressure, a number of types of irregular heart rate, thyrotoxicosis, capillary hemangiomas, performance anxiety, and essential tremors. It is used to prevent migraine headaches, and to prevent further heart problems in those with angina or previous heart attacks. It can be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein. The formulation that is taken by mouth comes in short-acting and long-acting versions. Propranolol appears in the blood after 30 minutes and has a maximum effect between 60 and 90 minutes when taken by mouth. Common side effects include nausea, abdominal pain, and constipation. It should not be used in those with an already slow heart rate and most of those with heart failure. Quickly stopping the medication in those with coronary artery disease may worsen symptoms. It may worsen the symptoms of asthma. Caution is recommended in those with liver or kidney problems. Propranolol may cause harmful effects in the baby if taken during pregnancy. Its use during breastfeeding is probably safe, but the baby should be monitored for side effects. It is a non-selective beta blocker which works by blocking β-adrenergic receptors. Propranolol was discovered in 1964. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Propranolol is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.24 and 2.16 per month as of 2014. In the United States it costs about $15 per month at a typical dose.
Proprioception, from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual", and capio, capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Retinal migraine (also known as ophthalmic migraine, and ocular migraine) is a retinal disease often accompanied by migraine headache and typically affects only one eye.
The scalp is the anatomical area bordered by the face at the front, and by the neck at the sides and back.
Scintillating scotoma, also called visual migraine, is the most common visual aura preceding migraine and was first described by 19th-century physician Hubert Airy (1838–1903).
A self-report study is a type of survey, questionnaire, or poll in which respondents read the question and select a response by themselves without researcher interference.
A sensory nerve, also called an afferent nerve, is a nerve that carries sensory information toward the central nervous system (CNS).
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Sinusitis, also known as a sinus infection or rhinosinusitis, is inflammation of the sinuses resulting in symptoms.
Spinal manipulation is an intervention performed on spinal articulations which are synovial joints, which is asserted to be therapeutic.
Sporadic hemiplegic migraine (SHM) is a form of hemiplegic migraine headache isolated cases of which are observed.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space—the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain.
Sumatriptan is a medication used for the treatment of migraine and cluster headaches.
Telcagepant (INN) (code name MK-0974) is a calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist which was an investigational drug for the acute treatment and prevention of migraine, developed by Merck & Co..
Temple indicates the side of the head behind the eyes.
Tension headache, also known as tension-type headache, is the most common type of primary headache.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
Timolol is a medication used either by mouth or as eye drops.
Tinnitus is the hearing of sound when no external sound is present.
Topiramate (brand name Topamax) is an anticonvulsant (antiepilepsy) drug.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a method in which a changing magnetic field is used to cause electric current to flow in a small region of the brain via electromagnetic induction.
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS or TNS) is the use of electric current produced by a device to stimulate the nerves for therapeutic purposes.
Trepanning, also known as trepanation, trephination, trephining or making a burr hole (the verb trepan derives from Old French from Medieval Latin trepanum from Greek trypanon, literally "borer, auger") is a surgical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull, exposing the dura mater to treat health problems related to intracranial diseases or release pressured blood buildup from an injury.
The sensory trigeminal nerve nuclei are the largest of the cranial nerve nuclei, and extend through the whole of the midbrain, pons and medulla, and into the high cervical spinal cord.
Triptans are a family of tryptamine-based drugs used as abortive medication in the treatment of migraines and cluster headaches.
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8), also known as the cold and menthol receptor 1 (CMR1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRPM8 gene.
Tyramine (also spelled tyramin), also known by several other names is a naturally occurring trace amine derived from the amino acid tyrosine.
Valproate (VPA), and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and valproate semisodium forms, are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches.
Venlafaxine, sold under the brand name Effexor among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class.
A venous thrombus is a blood clot (thrombus) that forms within a vein.
Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is a flap-like tear of the inner lining of the vertebral artery, which is located in the neck and supplies blood to the brain.
Vertigo is a symptom where a person feels as if they or the objects around them are moving when they are not.
The visual field is the "spatial array of visual sensations available to observation in introspectionist psychological experiments".
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.
William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology.
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