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Neill, AK Press, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Alexander Berkman, Alexander Herzen, Alexander II of Russia, Alexandre Auguste Ledru-Rollin, Alexandre Martin, Amur River, Anarchism, Anarchism in Russia, Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas, Anarchist St. Imier International, Anarchy Archives, Anselmo Lorenzo, Anti-authoritarianism, Antisemitism, Antitheism, Apulia, Arnold Ruge, Arthur Lehning, Austria-Hungary, Authoritarianism, Élisée Reclus, Émile Acollas, Baden, Bakumatsu, Bakunin (Carr biography), Barcelona, Barletta, Battle of Aspromonte, Báthory family, Benjamin Tucker, Bern, Black Flame: The Revolutionary Class Politics of Anarchism and Syndicalism (Counter-Power vol. 1), Bologna, Boyar, Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary, Brussels, Cabaret Voltaire (Zurich), Carl Schmitt, Carlo Cafiero, Catechism of a Revolutionary, Catholic Church, Chemnitz, Class analysis, Classless society, Clericalism, Collectivism, Collectivist anarchism, ..., Cologne, Communism, Conformity, Constitutionalism, Dada, Daniel Garbade, Daniel Guérin, Das Kapital, Decembrist revolt, Demanding the Impossible, Dictatorship of the proletariat, Direct action, Dondukov, Dresden, Dyak (clerk), E. H. Carr, E. P. Thompson, E. T. A. 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Alexander Sutherland Neill (17 October 1883 – 23 September 1973) was a Scottish educator and author known for his school, Summerhill, and its philosophies of freedom from adult coercion and community self-governance.
AK Press is a worker-managed, independent publisher and book distributor that specialises in radical left and anarchist literature.
Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (11 December 1918 – 3 August 2008) was a Russian novelist, historian, and short story writer.
Alexander Berkman (November 21, 1870June 28, 1936) was a leading member of the anarchist movement in the early 20th century, famous for both his political activism and his writing.
Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (also Aleksandr Ivanovič Gercen, Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен) was a Russian writer and thinker known as the "father of Russian socialism" and one of the main fathers of agrarian populism (being an ideological ancestor of the Narodniki, Socialist-Revolutionaries, Trudoviks and the agrarian American Populist Party).
Alexander II (p; 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia from the 2nd March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881.
Alexandre Auguste Ledru-Rollin (2 February 1807 in Paris – 31 December 1874) was a French politician, a champion of the working classes who was forced into exile after the failure of the French Revolution of 1848.
Alexandre Martin (27 April 1815 – 28 May 1895), nicknamed Albert l'Ouvrier ("Albert the Worker"), was a French socialist statesman of the French Second Republic.
The Amur River (Even: Тамур, Tamur; река́ Аму́р) or Heilong Jiang ("Black Dragon River";, "Black Water") is the world's tenth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China (Inner Manchuria).
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Russian anarchism is anarchism in Russia or among Russians.
Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas is a three-volume anthology of anarchist writings edited by historian Robert Graham.
The Anarchist International of St.
The Anarchy Archives project is a self-described online research center on the history and theory of anarchism.
Anselmo Lorenzo (21 April 1841, in Toledo, Spain – 30 November 1914) was a defining figure in the early Spanish Anarchist movement, earning the often quoted sobriquet "the grandfather of Spanish anarchism," in the words of Murray Bookchin: "his contribution to the spread of Anarchist ideas in Barcelona and Andalusia over the decades was enormous".
Anti-authoritarianism is opposition to authoritarianism, which is defined as "a form of social organisation characterised by submission to authority", "favoring complete obedience or subjection to authority as opposed to individual freedom" and to authoritarian government.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Antitheism (sometimes anti-theism) is the opposition to theism.
Apulia (Puglia; Pùglia; Pulia; translit) is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south.
Arnold Ruge (13 September 1802 – 31 December 1880) was a German philosopher and political writer.
Paul Arthur Müller-Lehning (23 October 1899 in Utrecht – 1 January 2000 in Lys-Saint-Georges) was a Dutch author, historian and anarchist.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
Jacques Élisée Reclus (15 March 1830 – 4 July 1905) was a renowned French geographer, writer and anarchist.
Emile Acollas (25 June 1826, La Châtre – 17 October 1891, Asnières) was a French professor of jurisprudence born in La Châtre, Indre and educated in Bourges and Paris.
Baden is a historical German territory.
refers to the final years of the Edo period when the Tokugawa shogunate ended.
Michael Bakunin is a biography of the Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin written by E. H. Carr and published by the Macmillan Company in 1937.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
Barletta is a city, comune and capoluogo together with Andria and Trani of Apulia, in south eastern Italy.
The Battle of Aspromonte, also known as The Day of Aspromonte (in Italian: "La Giornata dell'Aspromonte"), was a battle that took place on 29 August 1862, and was an inconclusive episode of the Italian unification process.
The Báthory family (Batory) was a Hungarian noble family of the Gutkeled clan.
Benjamin Ricketson Tucker (April 17, 1854 – June 22, 1939) was a 19th century proponent of American individualist anarchism, which he called "unterrified Jeffersonianism," and editor and publisher of the individualist anarchist periodical Liberty.
Bern or Berne (Bern, Bärn, Berne, Berna, Berna) is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their (e.g. in German) Bundesstadt, or "federal city".
Black Flame: The Revolutionary Class Politics of Anarchism and Syndicalism (Counter-Power vol. 1) is a book written by Lucien van der Walt and Michael Schmidt which deals with “the ideas, history and relevance of the broad anarchist tradition through a survey of 150 years of global history.” The book includes a preface by Scottish anarchist, and former political prisoner, Stuart Christie.
Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.
A boyar was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Kievan, Moscovian, Wallachian and Moldavian and later, Romanian aristocracies, second only to the ruling princes (in Bulgaria, tsars), from the 10th century to the 17th century.
The Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (Russian: Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона, abbr. ЭСБЕ; 35 volumes, small; 86 volumes, large) is a comprehensive multi-volume encyclopedia in Russian.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Cabaret Voltaire was the name of a artistic nightclub in Zürich, Switzerland.
Carl Schmitt (11 July 1888 – 7 April 1985) was a conservative German jurist and political theorist.
Carlo Cafiero (September 1, 1846 – July 17, 1892) was an Italian anarchist, champion of Mikhail Bakunin during the second half of the 19th century and one of the main proponents of insurrectionary anarchism and anarcho-communism during the First International.
The Catechism of a Revolutionary refers to a manifesto written by Russian revolutionary Sergey Nechayev between April and August 1869.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Chemnitz, known from 1953 to 1990 as Karl-Marx-Stadt, is the third-largest city in the Free State of Saxony, Germany.
Class analysis is research in sociology, politics and economics from the point of view of the stratification of the society into dynamic classes.
Classless society refers to a society in which no one is born into a social class.
Clericalism is the application of the formal, church-based, leadership or opinion of ordained clergy in matters of either the church or broader political and sociocultural import.
Collectivism is a cultural value that is characterized by emphasis on cohesiveness among individuals and prioritization of the group over self.
Collectivist anarchism (also known as anarcho-collectivism) is a revolutionaryPatsouras, Louis.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
Conformity is the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms.
Constitutionalism is "a complex of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law".
Dada or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century, with early centers in Zürich, Switzerland, at the Cabaret Voltaire (circa 1916); New York Dada began circa 1915, and after 1920 Dada flourished in Paris.
Daniel Garbade (born 1957 in Zurich) is a Swiss painter, illustrator, art director and publisher.
Daniel Guérin (19 May 1904 in Paris – 14 April 1988 in Suresnes) was a French anarcho-communist author, best known for his work Anarchism: From Theory to Practice, as well as his collection No Gods No Masters: An Anthology of Anarchism in which he collected writings on the idea and movement it inspired, from the first writings of Max Stirner in the mid-19th century through the first half of the 20th century.
Das Kapital, also known as Capital.
The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (r) took place in Imperial Russia on.
Demanding the Impossible is a book on the history of anarchism by Peter Marshall.
In Marxist sociopolitical thought, the dictatorship of the proletariat refers to a state in which the proletariat, or the working class, has control of political power.
Direct action occurs when a group takes an action which is intended to reveal an existing problem, highlight an alternative, or demonstrate a possible solution to a social issue.
Dondukov is a Russian princely family descending from Donduk-Ombo, the sixth khan of the Kalmucks (reigned 1737–41).
Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.
Dyak (дьяк) is a historical Russian bureaucratic occupation whose meaning varied over time and approximately corresponded to the notions of "chief clerk" or "chief of office department".
Edward Hallett "Ted" Carr (28 June 1892 – 3 November 1982) was an English historian, diplomat, journalist and international relations theorist, and an opponent of empiricism within historiography.
Edward Palmer Thompson (3 February 1924 – 28 August 1993), usually cited as E. P.
Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann (commonly abbreviated as E. T. A. Hoffmann; born Ernst Theodor Wilhelm Hoffmann; 24 January 177625 June 1822) was a Prussian Romantic author of fantasy and Gothic horror, a jurist, composer, music critic, draftsman and caricaturist.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
Emma Goldman (1869May 14, 1940) was an anarchist political activist and writer.
The Encyclopédistes were members of the Société des gens de lettres, a French writer's society, who contributed to the development of the Encyclopédie from June 1751 to December 1765 under editors Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
Errico Malatesta (14 December 1853 – 22 July 1932) was an Italian anarchist.
The Explanatory Dictionary of the Living Great Russian Language (Толко́вый слова́рь живо́го великору́сского языка́), commonly known as Dahl's Explanatory Dictionary (Толко́вый слова́рь Да́ля), is a major explanatory dictionary of the Russian language.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
Ferdinand Flocon (1 November 1800 – 15 March 1866) was a French journalist and politician who was one of the founding members of the Provisional Government at the start of the French Second Republic in 1848.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
The Forty-Eighters were Europeans who participated in or supported the revolutions of 1848 that swept Europe.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
Freedom of association encompasses both an individual's right to join or leave groups voluntarily, the right of the group to take collective action to pursue the interests of its members, and the right of an association to accept or decline membership based on certain criteria.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
Friedrich Franz Karl Hecker (September 28, 1811 – March 24, 1881) was a German lawyer, politician and revolutionary.
Friedrich Kapp (13 April 1824 – 27 October 1884) was a German-American lawyer, writer, and politician.
Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (10 November 17599 May 1805) was a German poet, philosopher, physician, historian, and playwright.
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (27 January 1775 – 20 August 1854), later (after 1812) von Schelling, was a German philosopher.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
Georg Friedrich Rudolph Theodor Herwegh (31 May 1817 – 7 April 1875) was a German poet,Herwegh, Georg, The Columbia Encyclopedia (2008) who is considered part of the Young Germany movement.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
Giuseppe Fanelli (13 October 1827 – 5 January 1877) was a nineteenth-century Italian revolutionary anarchist, best known for his tour of Spain 1868, introducing the anarchist ideas of Mikhail Bakunin.
Giuseppe Garibaldi; 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, politician and nationalist. He is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times and one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland" along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Giuseppe Mazzini. Garibaldi has been called the "Hero of the Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in Brazil, Uruguay and Europe. He personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the Italian unification. Garibaldi was appointed general by the provisional government of Milan in 1848, General of the Roman Republic in 1849 by the Minister of War, and led the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II. His last military campaign took place during the Franco-Prussian War as commander of the Army of the Vosges. Garibaldi was very popular in Italy and abroad, aided by exceptional international media coverage at the time. Many of the greatest intellectuals of his time, such as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, and George Sand, showered him with admiration. The United Kingdom and the United States helped him a great deal, offering him financial and military support in difficult circumstances. In the popular telling of his story, he is associated with the red shirts worn by his volunteers, the Garibaldini, in lieu of a uniform.
Giuseppe Mazzini (22 June 1805 – 10 March 1872) was an Italian politician, journalist, activist for the unification of Italy and spearhead of the Italian revolutionary movement.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
God and the State (called by its author The Historical Sophisms of the Doctrinaire School of Communism) is an unfinished manuscript by the Russian anarchist philosopher Mikhail Bakunin, published posthumously in 1882.
The Greater Poland uprising of 1848 or Poznań Uprising (powstanie wielkopolskie 1848 roku or powstanie poznańskie) was an unsuccessful military insurrection of Poles against Prussian forces, during the Spring of Nations period.
The Grodno Governorate, (translit, Gubernia grodzieńska, translit, Gardino gubernija) was a governorate (guberniya) of the Russian Empire.
The Hague Congress was the fifth congress of the International Workingmen's Association (IWA), held from 2–7 September 1872 in The Hague, Holland.
is a city and port located in Oshima Subprefecture, Hokkaido, Japan.
Hegelianism is the philosophy of G. W. F. Hegel which can be summed up by the dictum that "the rational alone is real", which means that all reality is capable of being expressed in rational categories.
Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German-American philosopher, sociologist, and political theorist, associated with the Frankfurt School of Critical Theory.
A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.
(), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island of Japan, and the largest and northernmost prefecture.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
The Imperial Russian Navy was the navy of the Russian Empire.
Indoctrination is the process of inculcating a person with ideas, attitudes, cognitive strategies or professional methodologies (see doctrine).
The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), members of which are commonly termed "Wobblies", is an international labor union that was founded in 1905 in Chicago, Illinois in the United States of America.
The International Alliance of Socialist Democracy was an organisation founded by Mikhail Bakunin along with 79 other members on October 28, 1868 as an organisation within the International Workingmen's Association.
The International Institute of Social History (IISG) is one of the largest archives for labour, left and social history in the world.
The International Workingmen's Association (IWA, 1864–1876), often called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing socialist, communist and anarchist political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle.
An invisible dictatorship was a term coined by Mikhail Bakunin to describe clandestine revolutionary leadership.
Irkutsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, and one of the largest cities in Siberia.
Ischia is a volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Prince was a Japanese statesman and genrō.
James Guillaume (February 16, 1844, London – November 20, 1916, Paris) was a leading member of the Jura federation, the anarchist wing of the First International.
James Murdoch (27 September 1856 – 30 October 1921) was a Scottish scholar and journalist, who worked as a teacher in the Empire of Japan and Australia.
The January Uprising (Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m. sukilimas, Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў, Польське повстання) was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire.
are Americans who are fully or partially of Japanese descent, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics.
Jewish ceremonial art, also known as Judaica, refers to an array of objects used by Jews for ritual purposes.
Joachim Lelewel (22 March 1786 – 29 May 1861) was a Polish historian, bibliographer, polyglot and politician.
Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 – January 27, 1814), was a German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
Josep Lluís Pellicer i Fenyé (12 May 1842 – 15 June 1901) was a Catalan painter, illustrator and cartoonist.
Joseph Heco (born September 20, 1837 – December 12, 1897) was the first Japanese person to be naturalized as a United States citizen and the first to publish a Japanese language newspaper.
Junker (юнкер in Russian, or yunker) has several meanings in Imperial Russia.
is one of the 18 wards of the city of Yokohama in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
(born; August 11, 1833 – May 26, 1877), also referred to as, was a Japanese statesman of the Meiji Restoration.
The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Regno dê Doje Sicilie, Regnu dî Dui Sicili, Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the largest of the states of Italy before the Italian unification.
Kirkpatrick Sale (born June 27, 1937) is an independent scholar and author who has written prolifically about political decentralism, environmentalism, luddism and technology.
Knyaz or knez is a historical Slavic title, used both as a royal and noble title in different times of history and different ancient Slavic lands.
Konstantin Sergeyevich Aksakov (Константи́н Серге́евич Акса́ков) (10 April 1817, Novo-Aksakov, Orenburg Governorate – 19 December 1860, Zakynthos, US of the Ionian Islands) was a Russian critic and writer, one of the earliest and most notable Slavophiles.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
The Kraków Uprising of February 1846 was an attempt, led by Polish insurgents such as Jan Tyssowski and Edward Dembowski, to incite a fight for national independence.
Kuvshinovo (Кувшиново) is the name of several inhabited localities in Russia.
Kuvshinovsky District (Кувши́новский райо́н) is an administrative and municipalLaw #4-ZO district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia.
Labour vouchers (also known as labour cheques, labour certificates, and personal credit) are a device proposed to govern demand for goods in some models of socialism, unlike money does under capitalism.
The Ligue internationale de la paix (League of Peace and Freedom) was created after a public opinion campaign against a war between the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia over Luxembourg.
Left-wing nationalism, leftist nationalism or socialist nationalism describes a form of nationalism based upon social equality (not necessary political equality), popular sovereignty and national self-determination.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
This is a list of Russian anarchists.
Russian philosophy includes a variety of philosophical movements.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
Locarno (Ticinese: Locarn; formerly in Luggárus) is a southern Swiss town and municipality in the district Locarno (and its capital), located on the northern shore of Lake Maggiore at its northeastern tip in the canton of Ticino at the southern foot of the Swiss Alps.
Lorenz von Stein (18 November 1815 – 23 September 1890) was a German economist, sociologist, and public administration scholar from Eckernförde.
Louis Jean Joseph Charles Blanc (29 October 1811 – 6 December 1882) was a French politician and historian.
Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach (28 July 1804 – 13 September 1872) was a German philosopher and anthropologist best known for his book The Essence of Christianity, which provided a critique of Christianity which strongly influenced generations of later thinkers, including Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Richard Wagner, and Friedrich Nietzsche.
Ludwik Adam Mierosławski (January 17, 1814 in Nemours, Seine-et-Marne – November 22, 1878 in Paris) was a Polish general, writer, poet, historian and political activist.
Lugano is a city in southern Switzerland in the Italian-speaking canton of Ticino bordering Italy.
Lumpenproletariat is a term used primarily by Marxist theorists to describe the underclass devoid of class consciousness.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
Maria Bakunin (also known as Marussia Bakunin) was born in Krasnoyarsk, Russia, on 2 February 1873 and died in Naples on 17 April 1960.
Marie Le Compte was an American journal editor and anarchist who was active during the early 1880s.
Mark Leier is a Professor of working class and left-wing history at Simon Fraser University.
Marshal of Nobility (Предводитель дворянства) was an elected position in Russian local self-government prior to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
May Conspiracy (in Czech Májové spiknutí) was an unsuccessful attempt of radical democrats in the Czech lands to overthrow the government of Austrian Empire in May 1849.
The May Uprising took place in Dresden, Kingdom of Saxony in 1849; it was one of the last of the series of events known as the Revolutions of 1848.
In economics and sociology, the means of production (also called capital goods) are physical non-human and non-financial inputs used in the production of economic value.
Saint Michael of Chernigov or Mikhail Vsevolodovich (– Saray, 20 September 1246) was a Rus' prince (a member of the Rurik dynasty).
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
The Minsk Governorate (Минская губерния) or Government of Minsk was a governorate (guberniya) of the Russian Empire.
Minusio is a municipality in the district of Locarno in the canton of Ticino in Switzerland.
Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU; Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ) is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Negative liberty is freedom from interference by other people.
Neil Postman (March 8, 1931 – October 5, 2003) was an American author, educator, media theorist and cultural critic, who is best known for his seventeen books, including Amusing Ourselves to Death (1985), Conscientious Objections (1988), ''Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology'' (1992), The Disappearance of Childhood (1994) and The End of Education: Redefining the Value of School (1995).
The new class is used as a polemic term by critics of countries that followed the Soviet type of Communism to describe the privileged ruling class of bureaucrats and Communist Party functionaries which arose in these states.
Nicholas I (r; –) was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855.
Nikita Mikhailovich Muravyov (Никита Михайлович Муравьёв) (&ndash) was an Imperial Guards staff officer and plotter in what led to the Decembrist revolt of 1825.
Nikolai Vladimirovich Stankevich (–) was a Russian public figure, philosopher, and poet.
Nikolai Onufrievich Sukhozanet (Никола́й Ону́фриевич Сухозане́т) (1794 – 22 July 1871) was an Imperial Russian Army general and statesman.
Nikolay Nikolayevich Muravyov-Amursky (also spelled as Nikolai Nikolaevich Muraviev-Amurskiy; Никола́й Никола́евич Муравьёв-Аму́рский; —) was a Russian general, statesman and diplomat, who played a major role in the expansion of the Russian Empire into the Amur River basin and to the shores of the Sea of Japan.
Nikolay Platonovich Ogarev (Ogaryov;; –) was a Russian poet, historian and political activist.
Nikolayevsk-on-Amur (Никола́евск-на-Аму́ре, Nikolayevsk-na-Amure) is a town in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia located on the Amur River close to its liman in the Pacific Ocean.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
The November Uprising (1830–31), also known as the Polish–Russian War 1830–31 or the Cadet Revolution, was an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire.
Olga (О́льга) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) and the administrative center of Olginsky District of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located on the Olga Bay of the Sea of Japan, northeast of Nakhodka.
Omnibenevolence (from Latin omni- meaning "all", bene- meaning "good" and volens meaning "willing") is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "unlimited or infinite benevolence".
Omnipotence is the quality of having unlimited power.
Omniscience, mainly in religion, is the capacity to know everything that there is to know.
Orlov (Орлóв) is the name of a Russian noble family which produced several distinguished statesmen, diplomats and soldiers.
Pan-Slavism, a movement which crystallized in the mid-19th century, is the political ideology concerned with the advancement of integrity and unity for the Slavic-speaking peoples.
The Paris Commune (La Commune de Paris) was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
Paul Avrich (1931–2006) was a historian of the 19th and early 20th century anarchist movement in Russia and the United States.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
The Peter and Paul Fortress is the original citadel of St. Petersburg, Russia, founded by Peter the Great in 1703 and built to Domenico Trezzini's designs from 1706 to 1740 as a star fortress.
Pyotr Alexeevich Kropotkin (Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин; December 9, 1842 – February 8, 1921) was a Russian activist, revolutionary, scientist and philosopher who advocated anarcho-communism.
Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold (17 February 1796 – 18 October 1866) was a German physician, botanist, and traveler.
Filippo Giuseppe Maria Ludovico Buonarroti, more usually referred to under the French version Philippe Buonarroti (11 November 1761 – 16 September 1837), was an Italian utopian socialist, writer, agitator, freemason, and conspirator; he was active in Corsica, France, and Geneva.
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (15 January 1809 – 19 January 1865) was a French politician and the founder of mutualist philosophy.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
Political theology investigates the ways in which theological concepts or ways of thinking relate to politics, society, and economics.
Positive liberty is the possession of the capacity to act upon one's free will, as opposed to negative liberty, which is freedom from external restraint on one's actions.
Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Praporshchik (3) is a rank in the Russian military, also used in other uniformed services of the Russian government such as the police.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.
The proletariat (from Latin proletarius "producing offspring") is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power (their ability to work).
In Greek mythology, Prometheus (Προμηθεύς,, meaning "forethought") is a Titan, culture hero, and trickster figure who is credited with the creation of man from clay, and who defies the gods by stealing fire and giving it to humanity, an act that enabled progress and civilization.
Pyotr or Petr Yakovlevich Chaadayev (Пётр Я́ковлевич Чаада́ев; June 7, 1794 – April 26, 1856) was a Russian philosopher.
Rafael Farga i Pellicer, also known as the "Just Pastor of Pellico", (1844, Barcelona - Aug. 14, 1890) was a typesetter, political cartoonist, painter, syndicalist, anarchist and journalist from Catalonia.
Ramsey Kanaan is a Scottish-Lebanese businessman and publisher of anarchist literature, best known as the founder of AK Press, a distributor of anarchist and left-wing booksRamsey Kanaan, Jura Books, Sydney, 2005.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
Renato Caccioppoli (20 January 1904 – 8 May 1959) was an Italian mathematician, known for his contributions to mathematical analysis, including the theory of functions of several complex variables, functional analysis, measure theory.
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.
A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates revolution.
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").
Robert Graham (born 1958) is a Canadian anarchist historian and writer.
The Rurik dynasty, or Rurikids (Рю́риковичи, Ryúrikovichi; Рю́риковичі, Ryúrykovychi; Ру́рыкавічы, Rúrykavichi, literally "sons of Rurik"), was a dynasty founded by the Varangian prince Rurik, who established himself in Novgorod around the year AD 862.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian nobility (дворянство. dvoryanstvo) arose in the 14th century.
Ryazan (a) is a city and the administrative center of Ryazan Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River southeast of Moscow.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Saint-Imier is a municipality in the Jura bernois administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.
Sam Dolgoff (1902–1990) was an anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist from Russia who grew up and lived and was active in the United States.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
Scurvy is a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
Sergey Ivanovich Muravyov-Apostol (Серге́й Ива́нович Муравьёв-Апо́стол) (&ndash) was a Russian Imperial Lieutenant Colonel and one of the organizers of the Decembrist revolt.
Sergey Gennadiyevich Nechayev (or Nyechayev; Серге́й Генна́диевич Неча́ев) (October 2, 1847 – November 21 or December 3, 1882) was a Russian revolutionary associated with the Nihilist movement and known for his single-minded pursuit of revolution by any means necessary, including terrorism.
Seven Stories Press is an independent American publishing company.
Shlisselburg (p; Schlüsselburg; Nöteborg) is a town in Kirovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the head of the Neva River on Lake Ladoga, east of St. Petersburg.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Slavophilia was an intellectual movement originating from 19th century that wanted the Russian Empire to be developed upon values and institutions derived from its early history.
Social anarchism (sometimes referred to as socialist anarchism or anarcho-socialism)Ostergaard, Geoffrey.
Social revolutions are sudden changes in the structure and nature of society.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the South Slavic languages.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
The Government of the Spanish Republic in exile (Gobierno de la República Española en el exilio) was a continuation in exile of the government of the Second Spanish Republic following the victory of Francisco Franco's forces in the Spanish Civil War.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
In political science, statism is the belief that the state should control either economic or social policy, or both, to some degree.
Statism and Anarchy (Государственность и анархия, Gosudarstvennost' i anarkhiia, literally "Statehood and Anarchy") was the last work by the Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Syndicalism is a proposed type of economic system, considered a replacement for capitalism.
The American Conservative (TAC) is a bi-monthly magazine founded in 2002 and published by the American Ideas Institute, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, 501(c)(3) organization based in Washington, D.C., which states that it exists to promote a conservatism that opposes unchecked power in government and business; promotes the flourishing of families and communities through vibrant markets and free people; and embraces realism and restraint in foreign affairs based on America's vital national interests.
The Coast of Utopia is a 2002 trilogy of plays: Voyage, Shipwreck, and Salvage, written by Tom Stoppard with focus on the philosophical debates in pre-revolution Russia between 1833 and 1866.
The Gulag Archipelago (Архипела́г ГУЛА́Г, Arkhipelág GULÁG) is a three-volume book written between 1958 and 1968 by Russian writer and historian Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn.
The People's Stick is a political metaphor by 19th-century Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin, and used in his 1873 work Statism and Anarchy.
The Spanish Anarchists: The Heroic Years, 1868–1936 is a history of anarchism in Spain prior to its late 1930s civil war and social revolution written by anarchist Murray Bookchin and published in 1976 by Free Life Press.
Sir Tom Stoppard (born Tomáš Straussler; 3 July 1937) is a Czech-born British playwright and screenwriter.
Tomsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Tomsk Oblast in Russia, located on the Tom River.
Torzhok (Торжо́к) is a town in Tver Oblast, Russia, located on the Tvertsa River along the federal highway M10 and a branch of the Oktyabrskaya Railway division of the Russian Railways.
Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.
Tver (p; IPA: tvʲerʲi) is a city and the administrative center of Tver Oblast, Russia.
Tver Governorate (Тверская губерния, Tverskaya guberniya) was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Russian Empire and Russian SFSR, which existed from 1796 until 1929.
Tver Oblast (Тверска́я о́бласть, Tverskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
In Russian historiography the term Upper Oka Principalities (Верховские княжества - literally: "Upper Principalities") traditionally applies to about a dozen tiny and ephemeral polities situated along the upper course of the Oka River at the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries.
Vasili III Ivanovich (Василий III Иванович, also Basil; 26 March 14793 December 1533, Moscow) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1505 to 1533.
Veliky Novgorod (p), also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast.
Vevey is a town in Switzerland in the canton of Vaud, on the north shore of Lake Geneva, near Lausanne.
Victor Emmanuel II (Vittorio Emanuele Maria Alberto Eugenio Ferdinando Tommaso di Savoia; 14 March 1820 – 9 January 1878) was King of Sardinia from 1849 until 17 March 1861.
Vissarion Grigoryevich Belinsky (vʲɪsərʲɪˈon grʲɪˈgorʲjɪvʲɪtɕ bʲɪˈlʲinskʲɪj; –) was a Russian literary critic of Westernizing tendency.
Vsevolod Mikhailovich Eikhenbaum (Все́волод Миха́йлович Эйхенба́ум, Vsevolod Mikhaïlovitch Eichenbaum; 11 August 188218 September 1945), known in later life as Volin or (the spelling he used himself) Voline (Во́лин), was a leading Russian anarchist who participated in the Russian and Ukrainian Revolutions before being forced into exile by the Bolshevik Party government.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
Walery Karłowicz Mroczkowski, born 1840 in Olonets, Russian Republic of Karelia - died 1889 in Paris, was a Polish insurgent in the 1863 January Uprising.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation.
Peter Bernhard Wilhelm Heine, better known as Wilhelm (or William) Heine (January 30, 1827 in Dresden – October 5, 1885 in Lößnitz bei Dresden) was a German-American artist, world traveller and writer as well as an officer during the American Civil War.
Wilhelm Christian Weitling (October 5, 1808 – January 25, 1871) was a German-born tailor, inventor, and radical political activist.
The Workers Solidarity Movement is an anarchist-communist organisation in Ireland, identifying itself as broadly within the platformist tradition of Nestor Makhno.
The workforce or labour force (labor force in American English; see spelling differences) is the labour pool in employment.
Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.
, literally "Port to the side" or "Beside the port", is the second largest city in Japan by population, after Tokyo, and the most populous municipality of Japan.
The Young Hegelians (Junghegelianer), or Left Hegelians (Linkshegelianer), or the Hegelian Left (die Hegelsche Linke), were a group of German intellectuals who, in the decade or so after the death of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in 1831, reacted to and wrote about his ambiguous legacy.
Yuri Mikhailovich Steklov (Юрий Михайлович Стеклов; born Ovshey Moiseyevich Nakhamkis; Овший Моисе́евич Наха́мкис.;, Odessa - 15 September 1941 Saratov) was a Russian revolutionary, journalist and historian.
In the 19th century the philosophies of the Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect, the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau influencing new generations of thinkers.
Bakhunin, Bakounine, Bakunian, Bakunin's maxim, Bakunin, Mikhail, Bakuninism, Bakuninist, International Revolutionary Brotherhood, Michael Bakounine, Michael Bakunin, Michail Aleksandrovič Bakunin, Michail Bakunin, Michel Bakunin, Miguel Bakunin, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bakunin, Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin, Михаил Александрович Бакунин.