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Mikhail Botvinnik

Index Mikhail Botvinnik

Mikhail Moiseyevich Botvinnik (Михаи́л Моисе́евич Ботви́нник,; – May 5, 1995) was a Soviet and Russian International Grandmaster and World Chess Champion for most of 1948 to 1963. [1]

178 relations: Abram Model, Akiba Rubinstein, Alexander Alekhine, Alexander Ilyin-Genevsky, Alexander Kotov, Alexei Shirov, Algorithm, Amsterdam, Anatoly Karpov, Andor Lilienthal, Antisemitism, Arnold Denker, Arpad Elo, Artificial intelligence, AVRO 1938 chess tournament, Ballet dancer, Belgrade, Bobby Fischer, Bolshoi Theatre, Boris Spassky, Boris Verlinsky, Boris Yeltsin, Botvinnik versus Capablanca, AVRO 1938, Bronstein, Brute-force search, Budapest, Candidates Tournament, Caro–Kann Defence, Charleston (dance), Chess middlegame, Chess Olympiad, Chess strategy, ChessBase, Chessgames.com, Chessmetrics, Chigorin Memorial, Commissar, Communism, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Computer chess, Computer scientist, David Bronstein, Defection, Dental technician, Dentist, Dnieper Hydroelectric Station, Doctorate, Electrical engineering, Elo rating system, Emanuel Lasker, ..., Encyclopaedia Judaica, English Chess Federation, English Opening, Estonia, Fedir Bohatyrchuk, FIDE, First-move advantage in chess, Foxtrot, French Defence, Garry Kasparov, Géza Maróczy, Gösta Stoltz, Gerald Abrahams, Gideon Ståhlberg, Grand Duchy of Finland, Grandmaster (chess), Grant (money), Grigory Levenfish, Groningen, Groningen 1946 chess tournament, Hamburg, Hastings International Chess Congress, History of the Jews in Russia, Homeland, IBM international chess tournament, Igor Bondarevsky, Interregnum of World Chess Champions, Interzonal, Isaac Boleslavsky, Jaan Ehlvest, José Raúl Capablanca, Joseph Stalin, KGB, Kibbutz, Komsomol, Law of the Soviet Union, Leiden, Leningrad City Chess Championship, Mariinsky Theatre, Mark Taimanov, Max Euwe, Miguel Najdorf, Mikhail Tal, Milan Matulović, Milan Vidmar, Monte Carlo, Moscow, Moscow 1925 chess tournament, Moscow 1935 chess tournament, My Great Predecessors, Nathan Divinsky, Nazi Germany, Nevsky Prospect, Nikolai Krylenko, Nimzo-Indian Defence, Noordwijk, Nottingham, Oberhausen, Odessa, Oxford University Press, Pale of Settlement, Palma de Mallorca, Pancreatic cancer, Paul Keres, People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry, Perm, Peter Romanovsky, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Pinhas Rutenberg, Ply (game theory), Prague, Queen's Gambit, Queen's Gambit Declined, Raymond Keene, Repino, Saint Petersburg, Reuben Fine, Riga, Round-robin tournament, Russia, Russia (USSR) vs Rest of the World, Russian Empire, Russian Revolution, Russians, Sacrifice (chess), Saint Petersburg, Salo Flohr, Samuel Reshevsky, Semi-Slav Defense, Semyon Furman, Show trial, Sicilian Defence, Simultaneous exhibition, Slav Defense, Soviet Union, Spassky, Sports governing body, Stockholm, The exchange (chess), The Hague, The Independent, The Oxford Companion to Chess, Thesis, Tigran Petrosian, USA vs. USSR radio chess match 1945, USSR Chess Championship, USSR Chess Federation, Vaganova Academy of Russian Ballet, Vasily Smyslov, Viacheslav Ragozin, Viktor Korchnoi, Vladimir Akopian, Vladimir Kramnik, Vladimir Makogonov, Vyacheslav Molotov, Vyborg Governorate, Wageningen, Wijk aan Zee, Wilhelm Steinitz, Wolfgang Uhlmann, World Chess Championship, World Chess Championship 1948, Yekaterinburg, Yuri Averbakh, 11th Chess Olympiad, 13th Chess Olympiad, 14th Chess Olympiad, 15th Chess Olympiad, 16th Chess Olympiad. Expand index (128 more) »

Abram Model

Abram Yakovlevich Model (Абрам Яковлевич Моде́ль; 23 October 1896, Daugavpils – 16 February 1976, Leningrad) was a Russian chess master, although he had his master title taken away by the Soviet chess authorities due to lack of results.

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Akiba Rubinstein

Akiba Kiwelowicz Rubinstein (1 December 1880 – 14 March 1961) was a Polish chess grandmaster who is considered to have been one of the strongest players never to have become World Chess Champion.

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Alexander Alekhine

Alexander Alekhine (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Але́хин, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Alekhin;; March 24, 1946) was a Russian and French chess player and the fourth World Chess Champion.

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Alexander Ilyin-Genevsky

Alexander Fyodorovich Ilyin (Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ильи́н-Жене́вский; November 28, 1894 – September 3, 1941), known with the party name Zhenevsky, "the Genevan" because he joined the Bolshevik group of Russian émigrés while exiled in that city, was a Soviet chess master and organizer, one of founders of the Soviet chess school, an Old-Guard Bolshevik cadre, a writer, a military organizer, a historian and a diplomat.

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Alexander Kotov

Alexander Alexandrovich Kotov (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Ко́тов; – 8 January 1981) was a Soviet chess grandmaster and author.

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Alexei Shirov

Alexei Shirov (Aleksejs Širovs;; born 4 July 1972) is a Latvian and Spanish chess grandmaster.

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In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

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Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.

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Anatoly Karpov

Anatoly Yevgenyevich Karpov (Анато́лий Евге́ньевич Ка́рпов; born May 23, 1951) is a Russian chess grandmaster and former World Champion.

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Andor Lilienthal

Andor (André, Andre, Andrei) Arnoldovich LilienthalReuben Fine, The World's Great Chess Games, Dover Publications, 1983, p. 216.

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Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.

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Arnold Denker

Arnold Sheldon Denker (February 20, 1914 – January 2, 2005) was an American chess player, Grandmaster, and chess author.

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Arpad Elo

Arpad Emmerich Elo (born Árpád Imre Élő; August 25, 1903 – November 5, 1992) was the creator of the Elo rating system for two-player games such as chess.

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Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

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AVRO 1938 chess tournament

The AVRO tournament was a famous chess tournament held in the Netherlands in 1938, sponsored by the Dutch broadcasting company AVRO.

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Ballet dancer

A ballet dancer (ballerina fem., ballerino masc.) is a person who practices the art of classical ballet.

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Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.

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Bobby Fischer

Robert James Fischer (March 9, 1943January 17, 2008) was an American chess grandmaster and the eleventh World Chess Champion.

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Bolshoi Theatre

The Bolshoi Theatre (p) is a historic theatre in Moscow, Russia, originally designed by architect Joseph Bové, which holds ballet and opera performances.

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Boris Spassky

Boris Vasilievich Spassky (Бори́с Васи́льевич Спа́сский; born January 30, 1937) is a Russian chess grandmaster.

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Boris Verlinsky

Boris Markovich Verlinsky (8 January 1888 in Bakhmut, Ukraine – 30 October 1950 in Moscow, Soviet Union) was a Ukrainian-Russian International Master of chess.

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Boris Yeltsin

Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.

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Botvinnik versus Capablanca, AVRO 1938

In Rotterdam on 22 November 1938, then future World Chess Champion Mikhail Botvinnik (as white) defeated former World Champion José Raúl Capablanca in round 11 of the AVRO tournament in one of the most famous games in chess history.

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Bronstein is the surname of.

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Brute-force search

In computer science, brute-force search or exhaustive search, also known as generate and test, is a very general problem-solving technique that consists of systematically enumerating all possible candidates for the solution and checking whether each candidate satisfies the problem's statement.

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Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.

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Candidates Tournament

The Candidates Tournament is a chess tournament organized by FIDE, chess' international governing body, since 1950, as the final contest to determine the challenger for the World Chess Championship.

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Caro–Kann Defence

The Caro–Kann Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves: The Caro–Kann is a common defence against the King's Pawn Opening and is classified as a "Semi-Open Game" like the Sicilian Defence and French Defence, although it is thought to be more solid and less dynamic than either of those openings.

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Charleston (dance)

The Charleston is a dance named for the harbor city of Charleston, South Carolina.

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Chess middlegame

The middlegame in chess refers to the portion of the game in between the opening and the endgame.

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Chess Olympiad

The Chess Olympiad is a biennial chess tournament in which teams from all over the world compete.

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Chess strategy

Chess strategy is the aspect of chess playing concerned with evaluation of chess positions and setting of goals and long-term plans for future play.

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ChessBase GmbH is a German company that markets chess software, maintains a chess news site, and operates servers for online chess.

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Chessgames.com is an Internet chess community with over 224,000 members.

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Chessmetrics is a system for rating chess players devised by Jeff Sonas.

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Chigorin Memorial

The Chigorin Memorial is a chess tournament played in honour of Mikhail Chigorin (1850–1908), founder of the Soviet Chess School and one of the leading players of his day.

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Commissar (or sometimes Kommissar) is an English transliteration of the Russian комиссáр, which means commissary.

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In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.

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Communist Party of the Soviet Union

The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.

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Computer chess

Computer chess is a game of computer architecture encompassing hardware and software capable of playing chess autonomously without human guidance.

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Computer scientist

A computer scientist is a person who has acquired the knowledge of computer science, the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their application.

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David Bronstein

David Ionovich Bronstein (Дави́д Ио́нович Бронште́йн; February 19, 1924 – December 5, 2006) was a Soviet chess grandmaster, who narrowly missed becoming World Chess Champion in 1951.

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In politics, a defector is a person who gives up allegiance to one state in exchange for allegiance to another, in a way which is considered illegitimate by the first state.

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Dental technician

A dental technologist (dental laboratory technician) is a member of the dental team who, upon prescription from a dental clinician, constructs custom made restorative and dental appliances.

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A dentist, also known as a dental surgeon, is a surgeon who specializes in dentistry, the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and conditions of the oral cavity.

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Dnieper Hydroelectric Station

The Dnieper Hydroelectric Station (ДніпроГЕС - DniproHES, ДнепроГЭС - DneproGES, also known as Dneprostroi Dam) is the largest hydroelectric power station on the Dnieper River, located in Zaporizhia, Ukraine.

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A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.

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Electrical engineering

Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.

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Elo rating system

The Elo rating system is a method for calculating the relative skill levels of players in zero-sum games such as chess.

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Emanuel Lasker

Emanuel Lasker (December 24, 1868 – January 11, 1941) was a German chess player, mathematician, and philosopher who was World Chess Champion for 27 years (from 1894 to 1921).

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Encyclopaedia Judaica

The Encyclopaedia Judaica is a 26-volume English-language encyclopedia of the Jewish people and of Judaism.

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English Chess Federation

The English Chess Federation (ECF) is the governing chess organisation in England and is affiliated to FIDE.

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English Opening

The English Opening is a chess opening that begins with the move: A flank opening, it is the fourth most popular and, according to various databases, anywhere from one of the two most successful to the fourth most successful of White's twenty possible first moves.

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Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.

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Fedir Bohatyrchuk

Fedir Parfenovych Bohatyrchuk (also Bogatirchuk, Bohatirchuk, Bogatyrtschuk) (in Ukrainian: Федір Парфенович Богатирчук, Fedir Parfenovych Bohatyrchuk; in Russian: Фёдор Парфеньевич Богатырчук, Fyodor Parfenyevich Bogatyrchuk) (27 November 1892 – 4 September 1984) was a Russian-Soviet-Ukrainian-Canadian International Master of chess, and an International Master of correspondence chess.

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The Fédération Internationale des Échecs or World Chess Federation is an international organization that connects the various national chess federations around the world and acts as the governing body of international chess competition.

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First-move advantage in chess

The first-move advantage in chess is the inherent advantage of the player (White) who makes the first move in chess.

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The foxtrot is a smooth, progressive dance characterized by long, continuous flowing movements across the dance floor.

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French Defence

The French Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves: This is most commonly followed by 2.d4 d5, with Black intending...c5 at a later stage, attacking White's and gaining on the.

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Garry Kasparov

Garry Kimovich Kasparov (Га́рри Ки́мович Каспа́ров,; Armenian: Գարրի Կիմովիչ Կասպարով; born Garik Kimovich Weinstein, 13 April 1963) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former world chess champion, writer, and political activist, who many consider to be the greatest chess player of all time.

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Géza Maróczy

Géza Maróczy (3 March 1870 – 29 May 1951) was a Hungarian chess master, one of the leading players in the world in his time.

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Gösta Stoltz

Gösta Stoltz (May 9, 1904 – July 25, 1963) was a Swedish chess grandmaster.

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Gerald Abrahams

Gerald Abrahams (15 April 1907 – 15 March 1980) was an English chess player, author, and barrister.

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Gideon Ståhlberg

Anders Gideon Tom Ståhlberg (or Stahlberg) (26 January 1908, Surte near Gothenburg – 26 May 1967, Leningrad) was a Swedish chess grandmaster.

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Grand Duchy of Finland

The Grand Duchy of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Storfurstendömet Finland, Великое княжество Финляндское,; literally Grand Principality of Finland) was the predecessor state of modern Finland.

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Grandmaster (chess)

The title Grandmaster (GM) is awarded to chess players by the world chess organization FIDE.

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Grant (money)

Grants are non-repayable funds or products disbursed or gifted by one party (grant makers), often a government department, corporation, foundation or trust, to a recipient, often (but not always) a nonprofit entity, educational institution, business or an individual.

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Grigory Levenfish

Grigory Yakovlevich Levenfish (Григо́рий Я́ковлевич Левенфи́ш; in Piotrków – 9 February 1961 in Moscow) was a Russian chess grandmaster who scored his peak competitive results in the 1920s and 1930s.

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Groningen (Gronings: Grunnen) is the main municipality as well as the capital city of the eponymous province in the Netherlands.

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Groningen 1946 chess tournament

Groningen 1946 was the first major international chess tournament to be held after World War II.

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Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.

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Hastings International Chess Congress

The Hastings International Chess Congress is an annual chess tournament which takes place in Hastings, England, around the turn of the year.

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History of the Jews in Russia

Jews in the Russian Empire have historically constituted a large religious diaspora; the vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest population of Jews in the world.

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A homeland (country of origin and native land) is the concept of the place (cultural geography) with which an ethnic group holds a long history and a deep cultural association – the country in which a particular national identity began.

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IBM international chess tournament

The IBM international chess tournament was a series of very strong chess tournaments held in the Amsterdam, The Netherlands from 1961 to 1981, and was sponsored by IBM.

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Igor Bondarevsky

Igor Zakharovich Bondarevsky (Игорь Захарович Бондаревский) (May 12, 1913 in Rostov-on-the-Don, Russia – June 14, 1979 in Pyatigorsk, Soviet Union) was a Soviet Russian chess Grandmaster in both over-the-board and correspondence chess, an International Arbiter, trainer, and chess author.

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Interregnum of World Chess Champions

The Interregnum of World Chess Champions was the period between March 24, 1946 (the date of Alexander Alekhine's death) and May 17, 1948 (when Mikhail Botvinnik won a special championship tournament).

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Interzonal chess tournaments were tournaments organized by the World Chess Federation FIDE from the 1950s to the 1990s.

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Isaac Boleslavsky

Isaac Yefremovich Boleslavsky (Ісаак Єфремович Болеславський, Исаак Ефремович Болеславский; June 9, 1919 in Zolotonosha, Ukraine – February 15, 1977 in Minsk) was a Soviet chess grandmaster.

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Jaan Ehlvest

Jaan Ehlvest (born 14 October 1962) is an Estonian-American chess grandmaster.

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José Raúl Capablanca

José Raúl Capablanca y Graupera (19 November 1888 – 8 March 1942) was a Cuban chess player who was world chess champion from 1921 to 1927.

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.

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The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.

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A kibbutz (קִבּוּץ /, lit. "gathering, clustering"; regular plural kibbutzim /) is a collective community in Israel that was traditionally based on agriculture.

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The All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (Всесою́зный ле́нинский коммунисти́ческий сою́з молодёжи (ВЛКСМ)), usually known as Komsomol (Комсомо́л, a syllabic abbreviation of the Russian kommunisticheskiy soyuz molodyozhi), was a political youth organization in the Soviet Union.

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Law of the Soviet Union

The Law of the Soviet Union was the law as it developed in the Soviet Union (USSR) following the October Revolution of 1917.

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Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.

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Leningrad City Chess Championship

The Leningrad City Chess Championship is a chess tournament held officially in the city of Leningrad, Russia starting from 1920.

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Mariinsky Theatre

The Mariinsky Theatre (Мариинский театр, Mariinskiy Teatr, also spelled Maryinsky or Mariyinsky) is a historic theatre of opera and ballet in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Mark Taimanov

Mark Evgenievich Taimanov (Марк Евгеньевич Тайманов; 7 February 1926 – 28 November 2016) was one of the leading Soviet and Russian chess players, among the world's top 20 players from 1946 to 1971.

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Max Euwe

Machgielis "Max" Euwe, PhD (May 20, 1901 – November 26, 1981) was a Dutch chess Grandmaster, mathematician, author, and chess administrator.

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Miguel Najdorf

Miguel Najdorf (born Mojsze Mendel Najdorf) (15 April 1910 – 4 July 1997) was a Polish-Argentine chess grandmaster.

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Mikhail Tal

Mikhail Nekhemyevich Tal (Mihails Tāls; Михаил Нехемьевич Таль, Mikhail Nekhem'evich Tal,; sometimes transliterated Mihails Tals or Mihail Tal; 9 November 1936 – 28 June 1992) was a Soviet Latvian chess Grandmaster and the eighth World Chess Champion (from 1960 to 1961).

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Milan Matulović

Milan Matulović (10 June 1935 – 9 October 2013) was a chess grandmaster who was the second or third strongest Yugoslav player for much of the 1960s and 1970s behind Svetozar Gligorić and possibly Borislav Ivkov.

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Milan Vidmar

Milan Vidmar (22 June 1885 – 9 October 1962) was a Slovene electrical engineer, chess Grandmaster, chess theorist, chess arbiter, philosopher, and writer.

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Monte Carlo

Monte Carlo (Monte-Carlo, or colloquially Monte-Carl; Monégasque: Monte-Carlu) officially refers to an administrative area of the Principality of Monaco, specifically the ward of Monte Carlo/Spélugues, where the Monte Carlo Casino is located.

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Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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Moscow 1925 chess tournament

This international super-tournament, organised by Nikolai Krylenko, was held in Moscow, the Soviet Union, from 10 November to 8 December 1925.

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Moscow 1935 chess tournament

Moscow 1935 was the second international chess tournament held in Moscow, taking place from 15 February to 15 March 1935.

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My Great Predecessors

My Great Predecessors is a series of chess books written by former World Champion Garry Kasparov et al.

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Nathan Divinsky

Nathan Joseph Harry Divinsky (October 29, 1925 – June 17, 2012) was a Canadian mathematician, university professor, chess master, chess writer, and chess official.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Nevsky Prospect

Nevsky Prospect (p) is the main street in the city of St. Petersburg, Russia, named after the 13th-century Russian prince Alexander Nevsky.

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Nikolai Krylenko

Nikolai Vasilyevich Krylenko (p; May 2, 1885 – July 29, 1938) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet politician.

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Nimzo-Indian Defence

The Nimzo-Indian Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves: Other move orders, such as 1.c4 e6 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.d4 Bb4, are also feasible.

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Noordwijk is a town and municipality in the west of the Netherlands, in the province of South Holland.

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Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England, north of London, in the East Midlands.

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Oberhausen is a city on the river Emscher in the Ruhr Area, Germany, located between Duisburg and Essen. The city hosts the International Short Film Festival Oberhausen and its Gasometer Oberhausen is an anchor point of the European Route of Industrial Heritage.

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Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Pale of Settlement

The Pale of Settlement (Черта́ осе́длости,, דער תּחום-המושבֿ,, תְּחוּם הַמּוֹשָב) was a western region of Imperial Russia with varying borders that existed from 1791 to 1917, in which permanent residency by Jews was allowed and beyond which Jewish permanent or temporary residency was mostly forbidden.

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Palma de Mallorca

Palma de Mallorca, frequently used name for the city of Palma, is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands in Spain.

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Pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass.

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Paul Keres

Paul Keres (January 7, 1916June 5, 1975) was an Estonian chess grandmaster and chess writer.

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People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry

The People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry (Narkomtiazhprom; Народный комиссариат тяжёлой промышленности СССР) was a government ministry in the Soviet Union.

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Perm (p;Gramota.ru.) is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia, located on the banks of the Kama River in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains.

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Peter Romanovsky

Peter Arsenievich Romanovsky (Пётр Арсеньевич Романо́вский; 29 July 1892, Saint Petersburg – 1 March 1964, Moscow) was a Russian chess International Master, International Arbiter, and author.

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Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University

Peter the Great St.

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Pinhas Rutenberg

Pinhas Rutenberg (5 February 1879 – 3 January 1942; Пётр Моисеевич Рутенберг, Pyotr Moiseyevich Rutenberg; פנחס רוטנברג) was a Russian Jewish engineer, businessman, and political activist.

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Ply (game theory)

In two-player sequential games, a ply refers to one turn taken by one of the players.

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Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.

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Queen's Gambit

The Queen's Gambit is a chess opening that starts with the moves: The Queen's Gambit is one of the oldest known chess openings.

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Queen's Gambit Declined

The Queen's Gambit Declined (or QGD) is a chess opening in which Black declines a pawn offered by White in the Queen's Gambit: This is known as the Orthodox Line of the Queen's Gambit Declined.

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Raymond Keene

Raymond Dennis Keene OBE (born 29 January 1948) is an English chess Grandmaster, a FIDE International Arbiter, a chess organiser, and a journalist and author.

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Repino, Saint Petersburg

Repino (Ре́пино) is an area of Saint Petersburg, Russia, and a station of the Saint Petersburg-Vyborg railroad.

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Reuben Fine

Reuben Fine (October 11, 1914 – March 26, 1993) was an American chess grandmaster, psychologist, university professor, and author of many books on both chess and psychology.

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Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.

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Round-robin tournament

A round-robin tournament (or all-play-all tournament) is a competition in which each contestant meets all other contestants in turn.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russia (USSR) vs Rest of the World

There have been two chess matches featuring USSR vs.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.

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Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.

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Sacrifice (chess)

In chess, a sacrifice is a move giving up a piece with the objective of gaining tactical or positional compensation in other forms.

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Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).

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Salo Flohr

Salomon Mikhailovich Flohr (November 21, 1908 – July 18, 1983) was a leading Czech chess grandmaster of the mid-20th century, who became a national hero in Czechoslovakia during the 1930s.

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Samuel Reshevsky

Samuel Herman Reshevsky (born Szmul Rzeszewski; November 26, 1911 – April 4, 1992) was a Polish chess prodigy and later a leading American chess grandmaster.

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Semi-Slav Defense

The Semi-Slav Defense is a variation of the Queen's Gambit chess opening defined by the position reached after the moves: The position may readily be reached by a number of different.

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Semyon Furman

Semyon Abramovich Furman (December 1, 1920 – March 17, 1978) was a Soviet chess Grandmaster and trainer.

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Show trial

A show trial is a public trial in which the judicial authorities have already determined the guilt of the defendant.

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Sicilian Defence

The Sicilian Defence is a chess opening that begins with the following moves: The Sicilian is the most popular and best-scoring response to White's first move 1.e4.

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Simultaneous exhibition

A simultaneous exhibition or simultaneous display is a board game exhibition (commonly chess or Go) in which one player (typically of high rank, such as a grandmaster or dan-level player) plays multiple games at a time with a number of other players.

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Slav Defense

The Slav Defense is a chess opening that begins with the moves: The Slav is one of the primary defenses to the Queen's Gambit.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spassky (masculine) or Spasskaya (feminine) is a common Russian surname, usually of descendants of Russian Orthodox clergymen.

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Sports governing body

A sports governing body is a sports organization that has a regulatory or sanctioning function.

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Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.

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The exchange (chess)

The exchange in chess refers to a situation in which one player loses a minor piece (i.e. a bishop or knight) but captures the opponent's rook.

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The Hague

The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.

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The Independent

The Independent is a British online newspaper.

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The Oxford Companion to Chess

The Oxford Companion to Chess is a reference book on the game of chess, written by David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld.

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A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.

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Tigran Petrosian

Tigran Vartanovich Petrosian (Тигра́н Варта́нович Петрося́н; Տիգրան Պետրոսյան; June 17, 1929 – August 13, 1984) was a Soviet Armenian Grandmaster, and World Chess Champion from 1963 to 1969.

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USA vs. USSR radio chess match 1945

The USA vs.

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USSR Chess Championship

The USSR Chess Championship was played from 1921 to 1991.

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USSR Chess Federation

The USSR Chess Federation (Шахматная федерация СССР - Shakhmatnaya fyedyeratsiya SSSR) was the national organism for chess in the USSR.

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Vaganova Academy of Russian Ballet

The Vaganova Academy of Russian Ballet is a school of classical ballet in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Vasily Smyslov

Vasily Vasilyevich Smyslov (Василий Васильевич Смыслов; 24 March 1921 – 27 March 2010) was a Soviet and Russian chess grandmaster, who was World Chess Champion from 1957 to 1958.

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Viacheslav Ragozin

Viacheslav Vasilyevich Ragozin (Вячесла́в Васи́льевич Раго́зин, 8 October 1908 – 11 March 1962) was a Soviet chess Grandmaster, an International Arbiter of chess, and a World Correspondence Chess Champion.

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Viktor Korchnoi

Viktor Lvovich Korchnoi (p; 23 March 1931 – 6 June 2016) was a Soviet (until 1976) and Swiss (since 1994) chess grandmaster and writer.

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Vladimir Akopian

Vladimir Akopian (Владимир Акопян, Վլադիմիր Հակոբյան; born December 7, 1971 in Baku, Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, Soviet Union) is an Armenian chess Grandmaster.

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Vladimir Kramnik

Vladimir Borisovich Kramnik (Влади́мир Бори́сович Кра́мник; born 25 June 1975) is a Russian chess grandmaster.

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Vladimir Makogonov

Vladimir Andreevich Makogonov (Влади́мир Андре́евич Макого́нов, August 27, 1904 – January 2, 1993) was a chess player from Azerbaijan.

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Vyacheslav Molotov

Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov (né Skryabin; 9 March 1890 – 8 November 1986) was a Soviet politician and diplomat, an Old Bolshevik, and a leading figure in the Soviet government from the 1920s, when he rose to power as a protégé of Joseph Stalin.

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Vyborg Governorate

The Vyborg Governorate was a Russian Governorate 1744-1812, which was established in territories ceded by the Swedish Empire in the Great Northern War.

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Wageningen is a municipality and a historic town in the central Netherlands, in the province of Gelderland.

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Wijk aan Zee

Wijk aan Zee is a small town on the coast of the North Sea in the municipality of Beverwijk in the province of North Holland of the Netherlands.

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Wilhelm Steinitz

Wilhelm (later William) Steinitz (May 17, 1836 – August 12, 1900) was an Austrian and later American chess master, and the first undisputed World Chess Champion, from 1886 to 1894.

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Wolfgang Uhlmann

Wolfgang Uhlmann (born 29 March 1935) is a prominent German International Grandmaster of chess.

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World Chess Championship

The World Chess Championship (sometimes abbreviated as WCC) is played to determine the World Champion in chess.

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World Chess Championship 1948

The 1948 World Chess Championship was a quintuple round-robin tournament played to determine the new World Chess Champion following the death of the previous champion Alexander Alekhine in 1946.

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Yekaterinburg (p), alternatively romanized Ekaterinburg, is the fourth-largest city in Russia and the administrative centre of Sverdlovsk Oblast, located on the Iset River east of the Ural Mountains, in the middle of the Eurasian continent, at the boundary between Asia and Europe.

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Yuri Averbakh

Yuri Lvovich Averbakh (Ю́рий Льво́вич Аверба́х; born February 8, 1922) is a Soviet and Russian chess player and author.

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11th Chess Olympiad

The 11th Chess Olympiad, organized by the FIDE and comprising an open team tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between September 4 and September 25, 1954, in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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13th Chess Olympiad

The 13th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open team tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between September 30 and October 23, 1958, in Munich, West Germany.

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14th Chess Olympiad

The 14th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open team tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between October 26 and November 9, 1960, in Leipzig, East Germany.

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15th Chess Olympiad

The 15th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open team tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between September 15 and October 10, 1962, in Varna, Bulgaria.

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16th Chess Olympiad

The 16th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open team tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between November 2 and November 25, 1964, in Tel Aviv, Israel.

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Redirects here:

Bottvinik, Botvinik, Botwinnik, Michail Botwinnik, Mihail Botvinnik, Mikhail Botwinnik, Mikhail Moiseevich Botvinnik, Mikhail Moiseyevich Botvinnik, Misha Botvinnik.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikhail_Botvinnik

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