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PJSC AeroflotRussian Airlines (ПАО "Аэрофло́т — Росси́йские авиали́нии"), commonly known as Aeroflot (Аэрофлот, English translation: "air fleet"), is the flag carrier and largest airline of the Russian Federation.
Agricultural economics is an applied field of economics concerned with the application of economic theory in optimizing the production and distribution of food and fibre—a discipline known as agricultural economics.
Alexander Dubček (27 November 1921 – 7 November 1992) was a Slovak politician who served as the First secretary of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) (de facto leader of Czechoslovakia) from January 1968 to April 1969.
Alexander Yevgenievich Lebedev (p; born 16 December 1959) is a Russian businessman, referred to as one of the Russian oligarchs.
Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Я́ковлев; 2 December 1923 – 18 October 2005) was a Soviet politician and historian.
The Alma-Ata Protocols are the founding declarations and principles of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
Almaty (Алматы, Almaty; Алматы), formerly known as Alma-Ata (Алма-Ата) and Verny (Верный Vernyy), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,797,431 people, about 8% of the country's total population.
Spetsgruppa "A", also known as Alpha Group (a popular English name), or Alfa, whose official name is Directorate "A" of the FSB Special Purpose Center (TsSN FSB), is an elite, stand-alone sub-unit of Russia's special forces.
Anatoly Ivanovich Lukyanov (Анатолий Иванович Лукьянов) (born 7 May 1930 in Smolensk) is a Russian Communist politician who was the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR between 15 March 1990 and 22 August 1991.
Andrei Andreyevich Gromyko (Андре́й Андре́евич Громы́ко; Андрэ́й Андрэ́евіч Грамы́ка; – 2 July 1989) was a Soviet communist politician during the Cold War.
Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (p; 21 May 192114 December 1989) was a Russian nuclear physicist, dissident, and activist for disarmament, peace and human rights.
Andrey Vadimovich Makarevich PAR (Андре́й Вади́мович Макаре́вич; born 11 December 1953 in Moscow, Soviet Union) is a Soviet and Russian rock musician and the founder of Russia's oldest still active rock band Mashina Vremeni (Time Machine).
Angela Dorothea Merkel (Kasner, born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as Chancellor of Germany since 2005 and leader of the centre-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU) since 2000.
The Crimean peninsula was annexed from Ukraine by the Russian Federation in February–March 2014.
Anna-Lou "Annie" Leibovitz (born October 2, 1949) is an American portrait photographer.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
An apparatchik (аппара́тчик), in Russian colloquial terms also borrowed widely into other languages, was a full-time, professional functionary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union or the Soviet government apparat (аппарат, apparatus), someone who held any position of bureaucratic or political responsibility, with the exception of the higher ranks of management called nomenklatura.
The April 9 tragedy (also known as Tbilisi massacre or Tbilisi tragedy) refers to the events in Tbilisi, Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, on April 9, 1989, when an anti-Soviet demonstration was dispersed by the Soviet Army, resulting in 21 deaths and hundreds of injuries.
Archibald Haworth Brown, (born 10 May 1938), commonly known as Archie Brown, is a British political scientist and historian.
Architect amidst the Ruins (Архитектор у развалин, other versions: Архитектор развалин - 'The Architect of the Ruins', Архитектору развалины - 'To the Architect of the Ruins') was an open letter by Gennady Zyuganov, then a relatively little known party functionary (later leader of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation) to Alexander Yakovlev, the ideological founder of perestroika, who was also known as the "architect of perestroika".
The Archons of the Ecumenical Patriarchate are honorees of the Patriarch of Constantinople, who have been selected from among the laity due to service to those portions of the Eastern Orthodox Church under his particular guidance.
Armenia (translit,; Армения; Armeniya), officially the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (Armenian SSR; translit; translit), also commonly referred to as Soviet Armenia, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union in December 1922 located in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Assisi (from the Asisium) is a town and comune of Italy in the Province of Perugia in the Umbria region, on the western flank of Monte Subasio. It is generally regarded as the birthplace of the Latin poet Propertius, born around 50–45 BC. It is the birthplace of St. Francis, who founded the Franciscan religious order in the town in 1208, and St. Clare (Chiara d'Offreducci), the founder of the Poor Sisters, which later became the Order of Poor Clares after her death. The 19th-century Saint Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows was also born in Assisi.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Aung San Suu Kyi (born 19 June 1945) is a Burmese politician, diplomat, and author, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate (1991).
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (south-west of Moscow) in the Soviet Union, during July and August 1943.
The Battle of the Dnieper was a military campaign that took place in 1943 on the Eastern Front of World War II.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
The Belavezha Accords (Беловежские соглашения, Белавежскае пагадненне, Біловезькі угоди) is the agreement that declared the Soviet Union effectively dissolved and established the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in its place.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
Białowieża Forest (Белавежская пушча, Biełaviežskaja Pušča; Baltvyžio giria; Puszcza Białowieska) is one of the last and largest remaining parts of the immense primeval forest that once stretched across the European Plain.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
A birthmark is a congenital, benign irregularity on the skin which is present at birth or appears shortly after birth, usually in the first month.
Black January (Qara Yanvar), also known as Black Saturday or the January Massacre, was a violent crackdown in Baku on 19–20 January 1990, pursuant to a state of emergency during the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules.
Boris Karlovich Pugo, OAN (Boriss Pugo, Борис Карлович Пуго) (February 19, 1937 – August 22, 1991) was a Soviet Communist political figure, Latvian by ethnicity.
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
Brest (Брэст There is also the name "Berestye", but it is found only in the Old Russian language and Tarashkevich., Брест Brest, Берестя Berestia, בריסק Brisk), formerly Brest-Litoŭsk (Брэст-Лiтоўск) (Brest-on-the-Bug), is a city (population 340,141 in 2016) in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet.
The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet foreign policy, first and most clearly outlined by Sergei Kovalev in a September 26, 1968 Pravda article entitled Sovereignty and the International Obligations of Socialist Countries.
The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is a nontechnical academic journal, published by Taylor and Francis that covers global security and public policy issues related to the dangers posed by nuclear threats, weapons of mass destruction, climate change, and emerging technologies and biological hazards.
C-SPAN, an acronym for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, is an American cable and satellite television network that was created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a public service.
Carleton University is a comprehensive university located in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Central Committee was the common designation of a standing administrative body of communist parties, analogous to a board of directors, whether ruling or non-ruling in the 20th century and of the surviving communist states in the 21st century.
The 24th Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 24th Congress, and was in session from 1971 until 1976.
The 25th Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 25th Congress, and was in session from 1976 until 1981.
The 26th Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 26th Congress, and was in session from 1981 until 1986.
The 27th Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 27th Congress, and was in session from 1986 until 1990.
The 28th Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 28th Congress, and was in session from 1990 until 1991, when the Communist Party was dissolved.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was de jure the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) between Party Congresses.
The Charles V European Award is awarded by the European Academy of Yuste Foundation.
The Chernigov Governorate (Черниговская губерния; translit.: Chernigovskaya guberniya), also known as the Government of Chernigov, was a guberniya in the historical Left-bank Ukraine region of the Russian Empire, which was officially created in 1802 from the Malorossiya Governorate with an administrative centre of Chernihiv.
Churches of Christ are autonomous Christian congregations associated with one another through distinct beliefs and practices.
The Club de Madrid is an independent non-profit organization created to promote democracy and change in the international community.
The Club of Rome describes itself as "an organisation of individuals who share a common concern for the future of humanity and strive to make a difference.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colin Luther Powell (born April 5, 1937) is an American statesman and a retired four-star general in the United States Army.
Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise." That type of collective is often an agricultural cooperative in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities.
The modern combine harvester, or simply combine, is a versatile machine designed to efficiently harvest a variety of grain crops.
The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of communist states elsewhere in the world.
The "Common European Home" was a concept created and espoused by former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Communist Party of Kazakhstan (CPK) (Қазақстан Коммунистік партиясы; Коммунистическая партия Казахстана) is a banned political party in Kazakhstan.
The Communist Party of Lithuania (Lietuvos komunistų partija, Коммунистическая партия Литвы) was a communist party in Lithuania, established in early October 1918.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
The Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union (Sʺezd narodnykh deputatov SSSR) was the highest body of state authority of the Soviet Union from 1989 to 1991.
The Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (съезд КПСС) was the gathering of the delegates of the Communist Party and its predecessors.
There were three versions of the constitution of the Soviet Union, modeled after the 1918 Constitution established by the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (RSFSR), the immediate predecessor of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
A dacha (a) is a seasonal or year-round second home, often located in the exurbs of Russian and other post-Soviet cities.
is a Buddhist philosopher, educator, author, and nuclear disarmament advocate.
On June 5, 2004, Ronald Reagan, the 40th President of the United States, died after having suffered from Alzheimer's disease for nearly a decade.
In political science, democratic backsliding is "the state-led debilitation or elimination of the political institutions sustaining an existing democracy," Democratic backsliding may occur when essential components of democracy are threatened; this may occur, for example, when.
The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA; جمهوری دمکراتی افغانستان,; دافغانستان دمکراتی جمهوریت), renamed in 1987 to the Republic of Afghanistan (جمهوری افغانستان;; د افغانستان جمهوریت), commonly known as Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), existed from 1978 to 1992 and covers the period when the socialist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) ruled Afghanistan.
Democratic Russia (Russian: Демократическая Россия, abbreviation: ДемРоссия DemRossiya) was the generic name for several political entities that played a transformative role in Russia's transition from Communist rule.
Demokratizatsiya (p, democratization) was a slogan introduced by General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev in January 1987 calling for the infusion of "democratic" elements into the Soviet Union's single-party government.
Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.
Dinmukhamed (Dimash) Akhmetuly Kunaev (Дінмұхаммед (Димаш) Ахметұлы Қонаев, Dіnmuhammed (Dımash) Ahmetuly Qonaev; Динмухаммед Ахмедович Кунаев; – 22 August 1993) was a Kazakh Soviet communist politician.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (p; born 14 September 1965) is a Russian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Russia since 2012.
Dmitry Timofeyevich Yazov (Дми́трий Тимофе́евич Я́зов; born 8 November 1924) was the last Marshal of the Soviet Union to be appointed before the collapse of the Soviet Union (on 28 April 1990).
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
DR (Danmarks Radio), officially Danish Broadcasting Corporation in English, is a Danish public-service radio and television broadcasting company.
DR P3 (referred to in Denmark simply as P3) is a Danish radio station operated by the Danish Broadcasting Corporation.
DR Radio was a division of Danish Broadcasting Corporation - DR - concerned with radio programming.
DR2 (DR To) is the second television channel operated by the Danish Broadcasting Corporation (DR) in Denmark.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
Dublin City Council (Comhairle Cathrach Bhaile Átha Cliath) is the authority responsible for local government in the city of Dublin in Ireland.
Durham University (legally the University of Durham) is a collegiate public research university in Durham, North East England, with a second campus in Stockton-on-Tees.
The Earth Charter is an international declaration of fundamental values and principles considered useful by its supporters for building a just, sustainable, and peaceful global society in the 21st century.
East Berlin existed from 1949 to 1990 and consisted of the Soviet sector of Berlin established in 1945.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
The economy of the Soviet Union (экономика Советского Союза) was based on a system of state ownership of the means of production, collective farming, industrial manufacturing and centralized administrative planning.
The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos,; Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Eduard Ambrosiyevich Shevardnadze (ედუარდ ამბროსის ძე შევარდნაძე, Eduard Ambrosis dze Šewardnadze; 25 January 1928 – 7 July 2014) was a Georgian politician and diplomat.
The Estonian Sovereignty Declaration (suveräänsusdeklaratsioon), fully: Declaration on the Sovereignty of the Estonian SSR (Deklaratsioon Eesti NSV suveräänsusest), was issued on November 16, 1988 during the Singing Revolution in Estonia.
Eureka College is a private, non-profit Christian college in Eureka, Illinois, related by covenant to the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ).
Faraway, So Close! (In weiter Ferne, so nah!) is a 1993 German fantasy film directed by Wim Wenders.
Fergana (Fargʻona/Фарғона, فەرغانە; Фарғона, Farğona/Farƣona; فرغانه Farġāna/Farqâna; Фергана́), or Ferghana, is the capital of Fergana Region in eastern Uzbekistan.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The flag of Russia (Флаг России) is a tricolor flag consisting of three equal horizontal fields: white on the top, blue in the middle and red on the bottom.
The State Flag of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; commonly known as the Soviet flag was the official national flag of the Soviet Union from 1923 to 1991.
Foreign Affairs is an American magazine of international relations and U.S. foreign policy published by the Council on Foreign Relations, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, membership organization and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
The foreign policy of the United States is its interactions with foreign nations and how it sets standards of interaction for its organizations, corporations and system citizens of the United States.
Saint Francis of Assisi (San Francesco d'Assisi), born Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone, informally named as Francesco (1181/11823 October 1226), was an Italian Catholic friar, deacon and preacher.
The Freedom of the City of Aberdeen is an honour bestowed by the city of Aberdeen, Scotland.
The Freedom of the City of Dublin is awarded by Dublin City Council after approving a person nominated by the Lord Mayor.
Fulton is the largest city in and the county seat of Callaway County, Missouri, United States.
Fyodor Davydovich Kulakov (Фёдор Давыдович Кулаков) (4 February 1918 – 17 July 1978) was a Soviet-Russian statesman during the Cold War.
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was an office of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) that by the late 1920s had evolved into the most powerful of the Central Committee's various secretaries.
The Geneva Summit of 1985 was a Cold War-era meeting in Geneva, Switzerland.
Gennadi (or Gennady) Ivanovich Gerasimov (Russian, Геннадий Иванович Герасимов, 3 March 1930, Yelabuga – 14 September 2010, Moscow) was the last Soviet, and then Russian ambassador to Portugal from 1990 to 1995.
Gennady Ivanovich Yanayev (Генна́дий Ива́нович Яна́ев; 26 August 1937 – 24 September 2010) was a Soviet politician who served as the first and only Vice President of the Soviet Union.
Gennady Andreyevich Zyuganov (Генна́дий Андре́евич Зюга́нов; born 26 June 1944) is a Russian communist politician who has been the leader of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation since 1993.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Georgia, formally the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (Georgian SSR; tr; Gruzinskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), was one of the republics of the Soviet Union from its inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991.
The German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945) began with the German annexation of Czechoslovakia's northern and western border regions, formerly being part of German-Austria known collectively as the Sudetenland, under terms outlined by the Munich Agreement.
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
The Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for Children was an honor presented at the Grammy Awards, a ceremony that was established in 1958 and originally called the Gramophone Awards, to recording artists for works containing quality "spoken word" performances aimed at children.
The Grawemeyer Awards are five awards given annually by the University of Louisville.
Green Cross International (GCI) is a global independent non-profit and non-governmental environmental organisation (NGO) working to address the inter-connected global challenges of security, poverty eradication and environmental degradation through a combination of advocacy and local projects.
Grigory Vasilyevich Romanov (Григорий Васильевич Романов, scientific transliteration: Grigorij Vasil'evič Romanov; 7 February 1923 – 3 June 2008) was a Soviet politician and member of the Politburo and Secretariat of the CPSU.
The hammer and sickle (☭) or sickle and hammer (translit) is a communist symbol that was adopted during the Russian Revolution.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
The Harvey Prize is an Israeli scientific distinction awarded annually for breakthroughs in science and technology, as well as contributions to Peace in the Middle East, by Technion – Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa.
Hayk S. Kotanjian (Հայկ Սարգսի Քոթանջյան, born in 1945 in Gyumri, Armenia) is an Armenian military diplomat, academic and political adviser.
Höfði is a house in northern Reykjavík, the capital city of Iceland, built in 1909.
Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (3 April 1930 – 16 June 2017) was a German statesman who served as Chancellor of Germany from 1982 to 1998 (of West Germany 1982–1990 and of the reunited Germany 1990–1998) and as the chairman of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) from 1973 to 1998.
In the USSR, the eleven-year period from the death of Joseph Stalin (1953) to the political ouster of Nikita Khrushchev (1964), the national politics were dominated by the Cold War; the ideological U.S.–USSR struggle for the planetary domination of their respective socio–economic systems, and the defense of hegemonic spheres of influence.
The House of Commons of Canada (Chambre des communes du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate.
Hurricane Katrina was an extremely destructive and deadly Category 5 hurricane that caused catastrophic damage along the Gulf coast from central Florida to Texas, much of it due to the storm surge and levee failure.
I.B. Tauris (usually typeset as I.B.Tauris) was an independent publishing house with offices in London and New York City.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
The Independent Democratic Party of Russia (Независимая демократическая партия России) was the proposed name of a liberal party that was announced in late September 2008 to be founded by the former General Secretary of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, and State Duma deputy of Fair Russia, Alexander Lebedev.
An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.
Articles related to the former nation known as the Soviet Union include.
The Indira Gandhi Prize or the Indira Gandhi Peace Prize or the Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development is the prestigious award accorded annually by Indira Gandhi Memorial Trust dated 18 November 2015, accessed 19 November 2017.
Interfax Ltd. (Интерфакс) is a privately-held independent major news agency in Russia (along with state-operated TASS and RIA Novosti) and information services company headquartered in Moscow.
The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty) is the abbreviated name of the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles, a 1987 agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union (and later its successor states, in particular the Russian Federation).
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ivan Stepanovich Silayev (Ива́н Степа́нович Сила́ев; born 21 October 1930) is a former Soviet official who became a Russian politician following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Jack Foust Matlock Jr. (born October 1, 1929) is a former American ambassador, career Foreign Service Officer, a teacher, a historian, and a linguist.
The Jeltoqsan (Желтоқсан көтерілісі, Jeltoqsan kóterilisi) or "December" of 1986 were riots that took place in Alma-Ata (present-day Almaty), Kazakhstan, in response to General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev's dismissal of Dinmukhamed Kunaev, the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan and an ethnic Kazakh, and his appointment of Gennady Kolbin, an outsider from the Russian SFSR.
Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. (born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who served as the 47th Vice President of the United States from 2009 to 2017.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
The Jubilee Medal "Forty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" (Юбилейная медаль «Сорок лет Победы в Великой Отечественной войне 1941—1945 гг.») was a state commemorative medal of the Soviet Union established on April 12, 1985 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to denote the fortieth anniversary of the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany in World War II.
Karen Demirchyan (Կարեն Դեմիրճյան) (April 17, 1932 – October 27, 1999) was a Soviet and Armenian politician.
The Katyn massacre (zbrodnia katyńska, "Katyń massacre" or "Katyn crime"; Катынская резня or Катынский расстрел Katynskij reznya, "Katyn massacre") was a series of mass executions of Polish intelligentsia carried out by the NKVD ("People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs", the Soviet secret police) in April and May 1940.
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
On 7 January 1989, Ruhollah Khomeini, leader of the Iranian Revolution, sent a letter to Mikhail Gorbachev, the General Secretary of the Soviet Union.
A kolkhoz (p) was a form of collective farm in the Soviet Union.
The All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (Всесою́зный ле́нинский коммунисти́ческий сою́з молодёжи (ВЛКСМ)), usually known as Komsomol (Комсомо́л, a syllabic abbreviation of the Russian kommunisticheskiy soyuz molodyozhi), was a political youth organization in the Soviet Union.
Konstantin Ustinovich Chernenko (p, 24 September 1911 – 10 March 1985) was a Soviet politician and the fifth General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
The Law on Cooperatives was a major economic reform implemented in the Soviet Union during General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev's perestroika and glasnost reforms.
Lech Wałęsa (born 29 September 1943) is a retired Polish politician and labour activist.
Lenin's Testament is the name given to a document (supposedly; perhaps generated by his secretary who was also his wife: Nadezhda Krupskaya) "written" (he was partially paralyzed and severely ill due to successive strokes) or dictated by Vladimir Lenin in the last weeks of 1922 and the first week of 1923.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
Liège (Lidje; Luik,; Lüttich) is a major Walloon city and municipality and the capital of the Belgian province of Liège. The city is situated in the valley of the Meuse, in the east of Belgium, not far from borders with the Netherlands (Maastricht is about to the north) and with Germany (Aachen is about north-east). At Liège, the Meuse meets the River Ourthe. The city is part of the sillon industriel, the former industrial backbone of Wallonia. It still is the principal economic and cultural centre of the region. The Liège municipality (i.e. the city proper) includes the former communes of Angleur, Bressoux, Chênée, Glain, Grivegnée, Jupille-sur-Meuse, Rocourt, and Wandre. In November 2012, Liège had 198,280 inhabitants. The metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 1,879 km2 (725 sq mi) and had a total population of 749,110 on 1 January 2008. Population of all municipalities in Belgium on 1 January 2008. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. Definitions of metropolitan areas in Belgium. The metropolitan area of Liège is divided into three levels. First, the central agglomeration (agglomeratie) with 480,513 inhabitants (2008-01-01). Adding the closest surroundings (banlieue) gives a total of 641,591. And, including the outer commuter zone (forensenwoonzone) the population is 810,983. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. This includes a total of 52 municipalities, among others, Herstal and Seraing. Liège ranks as the third most populous urban area in Belgium, after Brussels and Antwerp, and the fourth municipality after Antwerp, Ghent and Charleroi.
The Constitution of the Soviet Union recognised the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet and the earlier Central Executive Committee (CEC) of the Congress of Soviets as the highest organs of state authority in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
Under the 1977 Constitution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), the Chairman of the Council of Ministers was the head of government and the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet was the head of state.
This list of peace activists includes people who have proactively advocated diplomatic, philosophical, and non-military resolution of major territorial or ideological disputes through nonviolent means and methods.
Louis Vuitton Malletier, commonly referred to as Louis Vuitton, or shortened to LV, is a French fashion house and luxury retail company founded in 1854 by Louis Vuitton.
Lubbock Avalanche-Journal is a newspaper based in Lubbock, Texas, United States.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
Market socialism is a type of economic system involving the public, cooperative or social ownership of the means of production in the framework of a market economy.
Maurizio Giuliano (born 24 February 1975) is a British-Italian traveller, author and journalist.
Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares, GColTE, GCC, GColL (7 December 1924 – 7 January 2017) was a Portuguese politician who served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1976 to 1978 and from 1983 to 1985, and subsequently as the 17th President of Portugal from 1986 to 1996.
The Medal "For Labour Valour" (Медаль «За трудовую доблесть») was a civilian labour award of the Soviet Union bestowed to especially deserving workers to recognise and honour dedicated and valorous labour or significant contributions in the fields of science, culture or the manufacturing industry.
The Medal "For Strengthening Military Cooperation" (Медаль «За укрепление боевого содружества») was a military award of the Soviet Union established on May 25, 1979 by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet.
The Medal "In Commemoration of the 1500th Anniversary of Kiev" (Медаль «В память 1500-летия Киева») was a state commemorative medal of the Soviet Union established by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on May 10, 1982 to commemorate the 1500th anniversary of the Hero City of Kiev.
Memphis is a city located along the Mississippi River in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Tennessee.
Mikhail Andreyevich Suslov (Михаи́л Андре́евич Су́слов; 25 January 1982) was a Soviet statesman during the Cold War.
Mikheil Saakashvili (მიხეილ სააკაშვილი, Mixeil Saak'ašvili; Міхеіл Саакашвілі, Michejil Saakašwili; born 21 December 1967) is a Georgian and Ukrainian politician.
The military–industrial complex (MIC) is an informal alliance between a nation's military and the defense industry which supplies it, seen together as a vested interest which influences public policy.
In Christianity, a minister is a person authorized by a church, or other religious organization, to perform functions such as teaching of beliefs; leading services such as weddings, baptisms or funerals; or otherwise providing spiritual guidance to the community.
Najibullah Ahmadzai (ډاکټر نجیب ﷲ احمدزی; February 1947 – 27 September 1996), commonly known as Najibullah or Dr.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
The Mongolian People's Republic (Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Ард Улс (БНМАУ), Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Ard Uls (BNMAU)), commonly known as Outer Mongolia, was a unitary sovereign socialist state which existed between 1924 and 1992, coterminous with the present-day country of Mongolia in East Asia.
The Moscow Kremlin (p), usually referred to as the Kremlin, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west.
Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU; Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ) is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia.
Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").
The Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast was an autonomous oblast within the borders of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, mostly inhabited by ethnic Armenians.
The Nagorno-Karabakh War was an ethnic and territorial conflict that took place in the late 1980s to May 1994, in the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh in southwestern Azerbaijan, between the majority ethnic Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh backed by the Republic of Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Naomi Klein (born May 8, 1970) is a Canadian author, social activist, and filmmaker known for her political analyses and criticism of corporate globalization and of capitalism.
The National Civil Rights Museum is a complex of museums and historic buildings in Memphis, Tennessee; its exhibits trace the history of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States from the 17th century to the present.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The NATO bombing of Yugoslavia was the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation's (NATO) military operation against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) during the Kosovo War.
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
The New Economic Policy (NEP, Russian новая экономическая политика, НЭП) was an economic policy of Soviet Russia proposed by Vladimir Lenin in 1921 as a temporary expedient.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
New political thinking (or simply "new thinking") was the doctrine put forth by Mikhail Gorbachev as part of his reforms of the Soviet Union.
Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Nikolai Ivanovich Ryzhkov (Ukrainian: Рижков Микола Іванович, Russian: Николай Иванович Рыжков, Nikolaj Ivanovič Ryžkov; born 28 September 1929) is a former Soviet official who became a Russian politician following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Nina Aleksandrovna Andreyeva (Нина Александровна Андреева, born 12 October 1938) is a Russian chemist, teacher, author, political activist, and social critic.
Nizhny Novgorod (p), colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is a city in Russia and the administrative center (capital) of Volga Federal District and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
Non-interventionism or non-intervention is a foreign policy that holds that political rulers should avoid alliances with other nations but still retain diplomacy and avoid all wars unless related to direct self-defense.
The Nordic model (also called Nordic capitalism or Nordic social democracy) refers to the economic and social policies common to the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Sweden).
North Caucasus Krai (Се́веро-Кавка́зский край, Severo-Kavkazskiy kray) was an administrative division (krai) within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic of the Soviet Union.
Novo-Ogaryovo (Ново-Огарёво), also Novo-Ogarevo, is an estate in the Odintsovsky District of Moscow Oblast, located by the Rublyovo-Uspenskoye Highway, and is the suburban residence of the President of Russia, officially recognized in 2000.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Nursultan Ábishuly Nazarbayev (born 6 July 1940) is a Kazakh statesman serving as President of Kazakhstan since the office was created on April 24, 1990.
An open letter is a letter that is intended to be read by a wide audience, or a letter intended for an individual, but that is nonetheless widely distributed intentionally.
The Order of Honour (r) is a state order of the Russian Federation established by Presidential Decree № 442 of March 2, 1994 to recognise high achievements in government, economic, scientific, sociocultural, public, sport and charitable activities.
The Order of Lenin (Orden Lenina), named after the leader of the Russian October Revolution, was established by the Central Executive Committee on April 6, 1930.
The Order of Liberty, or the Order of Freedom (Ordem da Liberdade), is a Portuguese honorific civil order that distinguishes relevant services to the cause of democracy and freedom, in the defense of the values of civilization and human dignity.
The Order of St.
The Order of the Badge of Honour (Орден «Знак Почёта») was a civilian award of the Soviet Union.
The Order of the October Revolution (Орден Октябрьской Революции, Orden Oktyabr'skoy Revolyutsii) was instituted on October 31, 1967, in time for the 50th anniversary of the October Revolution.
The Order of the Red Banner of Labour (translit) was an order of the Soviet Union established to honour great deeds and services to the Soviet state and society in the fields of production, science, culture, literature, the arts, education, health, social and other spheres of labour activities.
Otis Gatewood (1911–1999) was a well-known preacher and missionary in Churches of Christ.
The Otto Hahn Peace Medal in Gold is named after the German nuclear chemist and 1944 Nobel Laureate Otto Hahn, an honorary citizen of Berlin.
Pamyat (Память, Общество «Память»,; English translation: "Memory" Society) is a Neo-Nazi, ultranationalist organization that identifies itself as the "People's National-patriotic Orthodox Christian movement." The group's stated focus is preserving Russian culture.
Pantheon Books is an American book publishing imprint with editorial independence.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
Pentatone (stylized as PENTATONE) is a Dutch classical music label, located in Baarn.
Peoria is the county seat of Peoria County, Illinois, and the largest city on the Illinois River.
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
Peter and the Wolf (p) Op. 67, a 'symphonic fairy tale for children', is a musical composition written by Sergei Prokofiev in 1936.
Picador is an imprint of Pan Macmillan in the United Kingdom and Australia and of Macmillan Publishing in the United States.
Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau (October 18, 1919 – September 28, 2000), often referred to by the initials PET, was a Canadian statesman who served as the 15th Prime Minister of Canada (1968–1979 and 1980–1984).
Pizza Hut is an American restaurant chain and international franchise founded in 1958 by Dan and Frank Carney.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
A politburo or political bureau is the executive committee for communist parties.
Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies.
Throughout the history of the Soviet Union, tens of millions of people suffered political repression, which was an instrument of the state since the October Revolution.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
A port-wine stain (nevus flammeus), also commonly called a firemark, is a discoloration of the human skin caused by a vascular anomaly (a capillary malformation in the skin).
PR Newswire is a distributor of press releases based in New York City.
The Prague Spring (Pražské jaro, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II.
The presidency of Ronald Reagan began at noon EST on January 20, 1981, when Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as 40th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 1989.
The President of the Russian Federation (Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces.
The President of the Soviet Union (Президент Советского Союза, Prezident Sovetskogo Soyuza), officially called President of the USSR (Президент СССР) or President of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics (Президент Союза Советских Социалистических Республик), was the head of state of the Soviet Union from 15 March 1990 to 25 December 1991.
The Presidential Council was created in March 1990 to replace the Politburo as the major policymaking body in the USSR.
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (Президиум Верховного Совета or Prezidium Verkhovnogo Soveta) was a Soviet governmental institution – a permanent body of the Supreme Soviets (parliaments).
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, led by a chairman, was the de jure leader office of the Russian SFSR between 1938 and 1990.
Privolnoye (Приво́льное) is a rural locality (a selo) in Krasnogvardeysky District of Stavropol Krai, Russia, located on the Yegorlyk River.
profil is an Austrian weekly news magazine published in German and based in Vienna.
Raisa Maximovna Gorbacheva (Раи́са Макси́мовна Горбачёва tr. Raisa Maksimovna Gorbachyova,, Титаре́нко; 5 January 1932 – 20 September 1999) was a Russian activist who was the wife of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
In politics, regionalism is a political ideology that focuses on the national or normative interests of a particular region, group of regions or another subnational entity.
The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (r) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based proto-states that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Reykjavík is the capital and largest city of Iceland.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
The Ronald Reagan Freedom Award is the highest civilian honor bestowed by the private Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation.
The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Center for Public Affairs is the presidential library and final resting place of Ronald Wilson Reagan, the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989), and his wife Nancy Reagan.
(Российская газета, lit. Russian Gazette) is a Russian newspaper published by the Government of Russia.
The RSD-10 Pioneer (ракета средней дальности (РСД) «Пионер» tr.: Raketa Sredney Dalnosti (RSD) "Pioneer"; Medium-Range Missile "Pioneer") was an intermediate-range ballistic missile with a nuclear warhead, deployed by the Soviet Union from 1976 to 1988.
RT (formerly Russia Today) is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Parliamentary elections were held in Russia on 7December 2003.
Legislative elections were held in Russia on 4 December 2011.
Presidential elections were held in Russia on 16 June 1996, with a second round on 3 July.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
The Russo-Georgian War was a war between Georgia, Russia and the Russian-backed self-proclaimed republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
The Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), often referred to as the Secretariat of the CPSU Central Committee, had responsibility for the central administration of the party as opposed to drafting government policy (which was usually handled by the Politburo).
The Senate of Canada (Sénat du Canada) is the upper house of the Parliament of Canada, along with the House of Commons and the Monarch (represented by the Governor General).
Sergei M. Plekhanov (Сергей Плеханов, born May 7, 1946 in Moscow, Russia) is Associate Professor of Political Science at York University in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and a former Deputy Director of the Institute for US and Canadian Studies in Russia.
Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (r; 27 April 1891 – 5 March 1953) was a Russian Soviet composer, pianist and conductor.
Sergey Fyodorovich Akhromeyev (Серге́й Фёдорович Ахроме́ев; May 5, 1923 – August 24, 1991) was a Soviet military figure, Hero of the Soviet Union (1982) and Marshal of the Soviet Union (1983).
Simi Valley is a synclinal valley in Southern California in the United States.
"Sinatra Doctrine" was the name that the Soviet government of Mikhail Gorbachev used jokingly to describe its policy of allowing neighboring Warsaw Pact states to determine their own internal affairs.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
The Social Democratic Party of Russia (Социал-демократическая партия России, Sotsial-demokraticheskaya partiya Rossii) was a political party founded in Russia by Mikhail Gorbachev on November 26, 2001.
Sofia Villani Scicolone, known as Sophia Loren, Dame of the Grand Cross, O.M.R.I. (born 20 September 1934) is an Italian film actress and singer.
South Ossetia or Tskhinvali Region, is a disputed territory in the South Caucasus, in the northern part of the internationally recognised Georgian territory.
Sovetskaya Rossiya (Советская Россия, Soviet Russia) is a political newspaper in Russia.
The Soviet famine of 1932–33 was a major famine that killed millions of people in the major grain-producing areas of the Soviet Union, including Ukraine, Northern Caucasus, Volga Region and Kazakhstan, the South Urals, and West Siberia.
The Soviet of Nationalities (Совет Национальностей, Sovyet Natsionalnostey) was the upper chamber of the Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, elected on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot in accordance with the principles of Soviet democracy.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
In 1989, elections were held for the Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union.
Presidential elections were held in the Soviet Union on 14 March 1990 to elect a president for a five-year term.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.
Staraya Square (Старая Площадь), literally Old Square, connects Ilyinka Street with Varvarka Gates Square in central Kitai-gorod area of Moscow, Russia.
State Acceptance of Production (Государственная приёмка продукции), commonly abbreviated as State Acceptance (Государственная приёмка, Госприёмка, Gospriyomka), was a procedure of quality assurance of production of enterprises in late Soviet Union introduced under Mikhail Gorbachev within the framework of perestroika (restructuring of Soviet economy and society).
The State Committee on the State of Emergency, abbreviated as SCSE, American publicist Georges Obolensky also called it the Gang of Eight, was a group of eight high-level Soviet officials within the Soviet government, the Communist Party, and the KGB, who attempted a coup d'état against Mikhail Gorbachev on 19 August 1991.
Stavropol Krai (p) is a federal subject (a krai) of Russia.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was a proposed missile defense system intended to protect the United States from attack by ballistic strategic nuclear weapons (intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched ballistic missiles).
The Supreme Council – Restoration Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania (officially known as Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania), was the supreme governing body, elected in 1990.
The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (Russian: Верховный Суд Российской Федерации) is a court within the judiciary of Russia and the court of last resort in Russian administrative law, civil law and criminal law cases.
The Supreme Soviet (Верховный Совет, Verkhóvnyj Sovét, literally "Supreme Council") was the common name for the legislative bodies (parliaments) of the Soviet socialist republics (SSR) in the Soviet Union.
The Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union was the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The Daily Show is an American late-night talk and news satire television program.
The Gorbachev Foundation (Горбачёв-Фонд, Gorbachyov-Fond) is a non-profit organization headquartered in Moscow, founded by the former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev in December 1991 and began its work since January 1992.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news, opinion, and analysis.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism is a 2007 book by the Canadian author and social activist Naomi Klein.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Trade unions in the Soviet Union, headed by the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions (VTsSPS), had a complex relationship with industrial management, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and the Soviet government, given that the Soviet Union was ideologically supposed to be a state in which the members of the working class ruled the country and managed themselves.
Trinity College (Coláiste na Tríonóide), officially the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin, a research university located in Dublin, Ireland.
Tskhinvali (Tskhinval,; r; ცხინვალი) is a city in the cultural region of South Ossetia, Transcaucasia and the capital of the de facto independent Republic of South Ossetia (which has been recognised by the Russian Federation and three other UN member states) and the former Soviet Georgian South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
A referendum on the Act of Declaration of Independence was held in Ukraine on 1 December 1991.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
Ukrainians in Russia make up the largest single diaspora group of the Ukrainian people.
Union of Social Democrats (Союз социал-демократов, Soyuz sotsial-demokratov) is an all-Russian non-governmental organization founded on October 20, 2007 by former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev.
The Union of Sovereign States (Soyuz Suverennykh Gosudarstv (SSG)) was the proposed name of a reorganization of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics into a new confederal entity.
United Press International (UPI) is an international news agency whose newswires, photo, news film, and audio services provided news material to thousands of newspapers, magazines, radio and television stations for most of the 20th century.
United Russia ((j)ɪˈdʲinəjə rɐˈsʲijə) is the ruling political party of the Russian Federation.
The University of Calgary (U of C or UCalgary) is a public research university located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
The University of Liège (ULiège), in Liège, Wallonia, Belgium, is a major public university in the French Community of Belgium.
The University of Louisville (UofL) is a public university in Louisville, Kentucky, a member of the Kentucky state university system.
The University of Münster (Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, WWU) is a public university located in the city of Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany.
Uskoreniye (p; literally meaning acceleration) was a slogan and a policy announced by Communist Party General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev on 20 April 1985 at a Soviet Party Plenum, aimed at the acceleration of political, social and economic development of the Soviet Union.
Valentin Sergeyevich Pavlov (Валентин Серге́евич Павлов; 27 September 1937 – 30 March 2003) was a Soviet official who became a Russian banker following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Valentin Ivanovich Varennikov (Валентин Иванович Варенников) (December 15, 1923 – May 6, 2009) was a Soviet/Russian Army general and politician, best known for being one of the planners and leaders of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, as well as one of the instigators of the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Vladimir Antonovich Ivashko (Влади́мир Анто́нович Ива́шко; Володимир Антонович Івашко, Volodymyr Ivashko) (28 October 1932 – 13 November 1994), was a Soviet Ukrainian politician, briefly acting as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) during the period from 24 August 1991 to 29 August 1991.
Vladimir Alexandrovich Kryuchkov (Russian: Влади́мир Алекса́ндрович Крючко́в; 29 February 1924 – 23 November 2007) was a Soviet lawyer, diplomat and head of the KGB, member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
Vladislav Achalov (Владисла́в Алексе́евич Ача́лов) (19 November 1945 – 23 June 2011) was a Soviet general who at one time commanded the Soviet Airborne Forces.
The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.
Voronezh Governorate (Воронежская губерния, Voronezhskaya guberniya) was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Tsardom of Russia, the Russian Empire, and the early Russian SFSR, which existed from 1708 (as Azov Governorate) until 1779 and from 1796 until 1928.
Vsevolod Serafimovich Murakhovsky (Всеволод Серафимович Мураховский; 20 October 1926 – 12 January 2017) was a Ukrainian-Russian politician who served as first deputy premier during the Gorbachev Era.
Vytautas Landsbergis (born 18 October 1932) is a Lithuanian conservative politician and Member of the European Parliament.
The War in Donbass is an armed conflict in the Donbass region of Ukraine.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
The Washington Consensus is a set of 10 economic policy prescriptions considered to constitute the "standard" reform package promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries by Washington, D.C.–based institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank and United States Department of the Treasury.
Westminster College is a private, residential, undergraduate college with a curriculum based on the liberal arts.
Ernst Wilhelm "Wim" Wenders (born 14 August 1945) is a German filmmaker, playwright, author, photographer, and a major figure in New German Cinema.
Wings of Desire is a 1987 romantic fantasy film directed by Wim Wenders.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yegor Kuzmich Ligachyov (also transliterated as Ligachev; Его́р Кузьми́ч Лигачёв; born 29 November 1920) is a Soviet politician who was a high-ranking official in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU).
Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (p; – 9 February 1984) was a Soviet politician and the fourth General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Zdeněk Mlynář (Müller) (22 June 1930, Vysoké Mýto – 15 April 1997, Vienna) was secretary of Czechoslovak communist party in the years 1968–1970 and an intellectual who went against the grain during a critical time in the development of Eastern European political history.
The 14th Dalai Lama (religious name: Tenzin Gyatso, shortened from Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso; born Lhamo Thondup, 6 July 1935) is the current Dalai Lama.
The 1988 Armenian earthquake, also known as the Spitak earthquake (Սպիտակի երկրաշարժ Spitaki yerkrašarž), occurred on December 7 at with a surface wave magnitude of 6.8 and a maximum MSK intensity of X (Devastating).
The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup (r "August Putsch"), was an attempt by members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.
The 2011–2013 Russian protests (which some English language media referred to as the Snow Revolution) began in 2011 (as protests against the 2011 Russian legislative election results) and continued into 2012 and 2013.
The 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (XXII съезд КПСС) was held from 17 to 31 October 1961.
The 25th Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 25th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 25th Congress.
The 25th Secretariat of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 25th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 25th Congress.
The 26th Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 26th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 26th Congress.
The 26th Secretariat of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 26th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 26th Congress.
The 27th Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 1st Plenary Session of the 27th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 27th Congress.
The 27th Secretariat of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 1st Plenary Session of the 27th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 27th Congress.
The 28th Congress of the CPSU (July 2, 1990 – July 13, 1990) was held in Moscow.
The 28th Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 28th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 28th Congress.
The 28th Secretariat and the Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union were elected by the 1st Plenary Session of the 28th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 28th Congress.
The 46th Annual Grammy Awards were held on February 8, 2004 at the Staples Center in Los Angeles, California.
Gorbacev, Gorbachav, Gorbacheu, Gorbachev, Gorbachevian, Gorbachof, Gorbachoff, Gorbachov, Gorbachyov, Gorbatschow, Gorbatsiov, Gorbatsof, Gorbačëv, Irina Mihailovna Virganskaya, Irina Virganskaya, January Proposal, M Gorbachev, M. Gorbachev, Michael Gorbachev, Michail Gorbatschow, Michail Gorbatsjov, Mihail Gorbacev, Mihail Gorbachev, Mihail Gorbachyov, Mihail Gorbaciov, Mihail Gorbačëv, Mihail Sergeevic Gorbacev, Mihail Sergeevič Gorbačëv, Mihail Sergejevic Gorbacev, Mihail Sergejevič Gorbačëv, Mikael Gorbachev, Mikhael Gorbachev, Mikhail Gorbachov, Mikhail Gorbachyov, Mikhail Gorbačëv, Mikhail Gorbechev, Mikhail S. Gorbachev, Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov, Mikhail gorbachev, President Gorbachev, Михаил Горбачёв, Михаил Сергеевич Горбачёв.