76 relations: Adiabatic invariant, American Geophysical Union, Angular momentum, Apsidal precession, Astronomer, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Axial precession, Axial tilt, Brown University, Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere, Cenozoic, Climate, Climate change, Climatology, Common Era, Continental drift, Cosmic ray, Earth, Earth's orbit, Ecliptic, Ellipse, Equinox, Fixed stars, Frequency modulation, Future of Earth, General relativity, Geophysical Research Letters, Geophysics, Greenhouse gas, Greenwich Mean Time, Human impact on the environment, Ice age, Ice-sheet dynamics, Invariable plane, James Croll, James Hays, John Imbrie, Joseph Adhémar, Jupiter, Kilometre, Mars, Martian polar ice caps, Meteoroid, Methane, Milutin Milanković, National Centers for Environmental Information, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Negative feedback, Nicholas Shackleton, Nitrogen, ..., Noctilucent cloud, Oligocene, Orbital eccentricity, Orbital forcing, Orbital inclination, Paleoceanography (journal), Perihelion and aphelion, Perturbation (astronomy), Pole star, Positive feedback, Precession, Quaternary glaciation, Radiative forcing, Saturn, Science (journal), Season, Semi-major and semi-minor axes, Serbia, Sidereal year, Solar irradiance, Solar System, Solstice, Sun, Titan (moon), Triton (moon), Volumetric heat capacity. Expand index (26 more) » « Shrink index
A property of a physical system, such as the entropy of a gas, that stays approximately constant when changes occur slowly is called an adiabatic invariant.
The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization of geophysicists, consisting of over 62,000 members from 144 countries.
In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.
In celestial mechanics, apsidal precession or orbital precession is the precession (rotation) of the orbit of a celestial body.
An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.
Astronomy & Astrophysics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical, observational, and instrumental astronomy and astrophysics.
In astronomy, axial precession is a gravity-induced, slow, and continuous change in the orientation of an astronomical body's rotational axis.
In astronomy, axial tilt, also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane.
Brown University is a private Ivy League research university in Providence, Rhode Island, United States.
Carbon dioxide is an important trace gas in Earth's atmosphere.
The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Climatology (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, thus appearing to "drift" across the ocean bed.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth's orbit is the trajectory along which Earth travels around the Sun.
The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun follows over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system.
In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.
An equinox is commonly regarded as the moment the plane (extended indefinitely in all directions) of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 22-23 September.
The fixed stars (stellae fixae) comprise the background of astronomical objects that appear to not move relative to each other in the night sky compared to the foreground of Solar System objects that do.
In telecommunications and signal processing, frequency modulation (FM) is the encoding of information in a carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave.
The biological and geological future of Earth can be extrapolated based upon the estimated effects of several long-term influences.
General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
Geophysical Research Letters is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal of geoscience published by the American Geophysical Union that was established in 1974.
Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London.
Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming, environmental degradation (such as ocean acidification), mass extinction and biodiversity loss, ecological crises, and ecological collapse.
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
Ice sheet dynamics describe the motion within large bodies of ice, such those currently on Greenland and Antarctica.
The invariable plane of a planetary system, also called Laplace's invariable plane, is the plane passing through its barycenter (center of mass) perpendicular to its angular momentum vector.
James Croll, FRS, (2 January 1821 – 15 December 1890) was a 19th-century Scottish scientist who developed a theory of climate change based on changes in the Earth's orbit.
James D. Hays is a professor of Earth and environmental sciences at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.
John Imbrie (July 4, 1925 – May 13, 2016) was an American paleoceanographer best known for his work on the theory of ice ages.
Joseph Alphonse Adhémar (1797–1862) was a French mathematician.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
The kilometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: km; or) or kilometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres (kilo- being the SI prefix for). It is now the measurement unit used officially for expressing distances between geographical places on land in most of the world; notable exceptions are the United States and the road network of the United Kingdom where the statute mile is the official unit used.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
The planet Mars has two permanent polar ice caps.
A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Milutin Milanković (Милутин Миланковић, pronounced; 28 May 1879 – 12 December 1958) was a Serbian mathematician, astronomer, climatologist, geophysicist, civil engineer and popularizer of science.
The United States National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI), headquartered in Asheville, North Carolina, is the world's largest active archive of environmental data.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
Sir Nicholas John Shackleton FRS (23 June 1937 – 24 January 2006) was an English geologist and paleoclimatologist who specialised in the Quaternary Period.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Noctilucent clouds, or night shining clouds, are tenuous cloud-like phenomena in the upper atmosphere of Earth.
The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.
Orbital forcing is the effect on climate of slow changes in the tilt of the Earth's axis and shape of the orbit (see Milankovitch cycles).
Orbital inclination measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body.
Paleoceanography is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Geophysical Union.
The perihelion of any orbit of a celestial body about the Sun is the point where the body comes nearest to the Sun.
In astronomy, perturbation is the complex motion of a massive body subject to forces other than the gravitational attraction of a single other massive body.
Pole star or polar star refers to a star, preferably bright, closely aligned to the axis of rotation of an astronomical object.
Positive feedback is a process that occurs in a feedback loop in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation.
Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body.
The Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Quaternary Ice Age or Pleistocene glaciation, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.
Radiative forcing or climate forcing is the difference between insolation (sunlight) absorbed by the Earth and energy radiated back to space.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
A season is a division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology, and amount of daylight.
In geometry, the major axis of an ellipse is its longest diameter: a line segment that runs through the center and both foci, with ends at the widest points of the perimeter.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
A sidereal year (from Latin sidus "asterism, star") is the time taken by the Earth to orbit the Sun once with respect to the fixed stars.
Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
A solstice is an event occurring when the Sun appears to reach its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.
Triton is the largest natural satellite of the planet Neptune, and the first Neptunian moon to be discovered.
Volumetric heat capacity (VHC), also termed volume-specific heat capacity, describes the ability of a given volume of a substance to store internal energy while undergoing a given temperature change, but without undergoing a phase transition.
Astronomic theory of glaciation, Astronomical theory of paleoclimates, Earth wobble, Global wobble, Global wobbles, Global wobbling, Melankovitch Cycle, Milankovic cycle, Milankovic cycles, Milankovich Effect, Milankovich cycle, Milankovich cycles, Milankovich variations, Milankovics cycle, Milankovitch Cycle, Milankovitch cycle, Milankovitch hypothesis, Milankovitch theory, Milankovitch theory of ice ages, Milankovitch variations, Milankovitch wobble, Milanković cycles, Milenkovich cycle, Millankovich cycle, Millankovich cycles.