134 relations: Agricultural productivity, Agricultural Research Service, Andropogoneae, Apple, Asphyxia, Australia, B vitamins, Benin, Bhakri, Brachiaria, Burkina Faso, C4 carbon fixation, Calorie, Carbohydrate, Cassava, Cereal, Chad, China, Chinese cuisine, Chloridoideae, Cishan culture, Civilization, Coeliac disease, Crop, Cucurbita, Developing country, Dietary fiber, Digitaria, Digitaria compacta, Digitaria exilis, Digitaria iburua, Digitaria sanguinalis, East Africa, Echinochloa, Echinochloa crus-galli, Echinochloa esculenta, Echinochloa frumentacea, Echinochloa stagnina, Eleusine coracana, Eragrostideae, Eragrostis tef, Ethiopia, Europe, Fat, Fodder, Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database, Foxtail millet, Fura (food), German cuisine, Gluten, ..., Gluten-free diet, Gluten-related disorders, Gujarati language, Hindi, Honey, Hydrogen cyanide, India, Indian Institute of Millets Research, Indigenous (ecology), International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Japan, Jōmon period, Jeulmun pottery period, Job's tears, Kannada, Karnataka, Khasi Hills, Korean Peninsula, Lajia, List of ancient dishes, Maharashtra, Maize, Malayalam, Mali, Manganese, Marathi language, Mauritania, Mineral (nutrient), Mumun pottery period, Myanmar, Namibia, Neolithic, Niger, Nigeria, Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, North Korea, Paleoethnobotany, Paniceae, Panicoideae, Panicum, Panicum sumatrense, Paspalum scrobiculatum, Pearl millet, Photosynthesis, Phytolith, Poaceae, Porridge, Prehistoric storage pits, Prehistory, Proso millet, Protein, Ragi mudde, Ragi rotti, Raksi, Reference Daily Intake, Rice, Roti, Russian cuisine, Sahara, Sahel, Semi-arid climate, Senegal, Sheep, Shennong, Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor, Sugar, Sulfur, Sweet potato, Tamil language, Telangana, Telugu language, The Gambia, Tifton, Georgia, Tonne, Uganda, United Nations, United States Department of Agriculture, Urochloa, Water-use efficiency, Wheat, Wheat allergy, Yajurveda, Zimbabwe. Expand index (84 more) » « Shrink index
Agricultural productivity is measured as the ratio of agricultural outputs to agricultural inputs.
The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the principal in-house research agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
The Andropogoneae, sometimes called the sorghum tribe, are a large tribe of grasses (family Poaceae) with roughly 1,200 species in 90 genera, mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical areas.
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism.
Benin (Bénin), officially the Republic of Benin (République du Bénin) and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa.
Bhakri is a round flat unleavened bread often used in the cuisine of the states of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Goa states in India, along with several regions of western and central India, including areas of Rajasthan, Malwa, and Karnataka.
Brachiaria, or signalgrass, is a genus of plants in the grass family native to tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, Australia, southern Europe, the Americas, and various islands.
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa.
C4 carbon fixation or the Hatch-Slack pathway is a photosynthetic process in some plants.
A calorie is a unit of energy.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese cuisine is an important part of Chinese culture, which includes cuisine originating from the diverse regions of China, as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world.
Chloridoideae is one of the largest subfamilies of grasses, with roughly 130 genera and 1,600 species, mainly found in arid tropical or subtropical grasslands.
The Cishan culture (6500–5000 BC) was a Neolithic culture in northern China, on the eastern foothills of the Taihang Mountains.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence.
Cucurbita (Latin for gourd) is a genus of herbaceous vines in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae, also known as cucurbits, native to the Andes and Mesoamerica.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
Digitaria is a genus of plants in the grass family native to tropical and warm temperate regions.
Digitaria compacta is a grass species native to India and Indochina.
Digitaria exilis, referred to as findi in areas of Africa, such as The Gambia, with English common names white fonio, fonio millet, and hungry rice or acha rice, is a grass species.
Digitaria iburua is a grass species native to west and west-central tropical Africa, which is cultivated as a grain crop known as black fonio.
Digitaria sanguinalis is a species of grass known by several common names, including hairy crabgrass, hairy finger-grass, large crabgrass, crab finger grass, purple crabgrass.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
Echinochloa is a very widespread genus of plants in the grass family.
Echinochloa crus-galli is a type of wild grass originating from tropical Asia that was formerly classified as a type of panicum grass.
Echinochloa esculenta, the Japanese barnyard millet or Japanese millet, is a species of Echinochloa that is cultivated on a small scale in Japan, China, and Korea, both as a food and for animal fodder.
Echinochloa frumentacea (Indian barnyard millet, sawa millet, or billion dollar grass) USDA NRCS Plant Fact Sheet.
Echinochloa stagnina (Burgu millet, bourgou, hippo grass) is a species of Echinochloa widespread in tropical Africa and Asia, with an invasive status in many Pacific islands.
Eleusine coracana, or finger millet, is an annual herbaceous plant widely grown as a cereal crop in the arid and semiarid areas in Africa and Asia.
Eragrostideae is a tribe of grasses in subfamily Chloridoideae.
Eragrostis tef, also known as teff, Williams' lovegrass or annual bunch grass, is an annual grass, a species of lovegrass native to Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
Fodder, a type of animal feed, is any agricultural foodstuff used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, such as cattle, rabbits, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs.
The Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT) website disseminates statistical data collected and maintained by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
Foxtail millet (botanic name Setaria italica, synonym Panicum italicum L.) is an annual grass grown for human food.
Fura are millet dough balls eaten in Nigeria.
The cuisine of Germany has evolved as a national cuisine through centuries of social and political change with variations from region to region.
Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins and stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.
A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that strictly excludes gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale).
Gluten-related disorders is the umbrella term for all diseases triggered by gluten.
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Institute of Millets Research (IIMR), located at Rajendranagar (Hyderabad, Telangana, India) is an agricultural research institute engaged in basic and strategic research on sorghum and other millets.
In biogeography, a species is defined as indigenous to a given region or ecosystem if its presence in that region is the result of only natural process, with no human intervention.
The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) is an International organization which conducts agricultural research for rural development, headquartered in Patancheru (Hyderabad, Telangana, India) with several regional centers (Bamako (Mali), Nairobi (Kenya)) and research stations (Niamey (Niger), Kano (Nigeria), Lilongwe (Malawi), Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), Bulawayo (Zimbabwe)).
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The is the time in Japanese prehistory, traditionally dated between 14,000–300 BCE, recently refined to about 1000 BCE, during which Japan was inhabited by a hunter-gatherer culture, which reached a considerable degree of sedentism and cultural complexity.
The Jeulmun Pottery Period is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory broadly spanning the period of 8000–1500 BC.
Job's tears (US) or Job's-tears (UK), scientific name Coix lacryma-jobi, also known as adlay or adlay millet, is a tall grain-bearing perennial tropical plant of the family Poaceae (grass family).
Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka, and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa and abroad.
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
The Khasi Hills are part of the Garo-Khasi range in the Indian state of Meghalaya (before 1970 part of Assam), and is part of the Patkai range and of the Meghalaya subtropical forests ecoregion.
The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula of Eurasia located in East Asia.
Lajia is an archaeological site located in Minhe County, Haidong Prefecture in Northwest China's Qinghai province.
This is a list of ancient dishes, foods and beverages that have been recorded as originating during ancient history.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
The Mumun pottery period is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 BC This period is named after the Korean name for undecorated or plain cooking and storage vessels that form a large part of the pottery assemblage over the entire length of the period, but especially 850-550 BC.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Pal(a)eoethnobotany or Archaeobotany, "is the study of remains of plants cultivated or used by people in ancient times, which have survived in archaeological contexts." Paleoethnobotany is the archaeological sub-field that studies plant remains from archaeological sites.
Paniceae is a large tribe of the Panicoideae subfamily in the grasses (Poaceae), the only in the monotypic supertribe Panicodae.
Panicoideae is the second-largest subfamily of the grasses with over 3,500 species, mainly distributed in warm temperate and tropical regions.
Panicum (panicgrass) is a large genus of about 450 species of grasses native throughout the tropical regions of the world, with a few species extending into the northern temperate zone.
Panicum sumatrense, known as little millet, is a species of millet in the family Poaceae.
Paspalum scrobiculatum, Kodo millet (Telugu: Arikelu, Tamil: Varagu, Kannada: Arka, Hindi: Kodra), is an annual grain that is grown in primarily in India, but also in the Philippines, Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, and in West Africa where it originates.
Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is the most widely grown type of millet.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Phytoliths (from Greek, "plant stone") are rigid, microscopic structures made of silica, found in some plant tissues and persisting after the decay of the plant.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
Porridge (also historically spelled porage, porrige, parritch) is a food commonly eaten as a breakfast cereal dish, made by boiling ground, crushed or chopped starchy plants—typically grain—in water or milk.
Storage pits were underground cists used by many people in the past to protect the seeds for the following year's crops and surplus food from being eaten by insects and rodents.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
Panicum miliaceum, with many common names including proso millet, broomcorn millet, common millet, broomtail millet, hog millet, Kashfi millet red millet, and white millet, is a grass species used as a crop.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
(#Telugu|రాగి సంగటి/రాగి ముద్ద) Ragi sangati/Ragi Mudda (ರಾಗಿ ಮುದ್ದೆ) Ragi Mudde (.
Ragi rotti (ರಾಗಿ ರೊಟ್ಟಿ ராகி ரொட்டி) is a breakfast food of the state of Karnataka, India.
Raksi (Limbu:Sijongwaa aara) (रक्सी) or Rakshi is a traditional distilled alcoholic beverage in Nepal and Tibet.
The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Roti (also known as chapati) is a flatbread native to the Indian subcontinent made from stoneground wholemeal flour, traditionally known as atta, and water that is combined into a dough.
Russian cuisine is a collection of the different cooking traditions of the Russian people.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
Shennong (which can be variously translated as "God Farmer" or "God Peasant", "Agriculture God"), also known as the Wugushen (五穀神 "Five Grains' or Five Cereals' God") or also Wuguxiandi (五穀先帝 "First Deity of the Five Grains"), is a deity in Chinese religion, a mythical sage ruler of prehistoric China.
Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.
Sorghum bicolor, commonly called sorghum and also known as great millet, durra, jowari, or milo, is a grass species cultivated for its grain, which is used for food for humans, animal feed, and ethanol production.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the bindweed or morning glory family, Convolvulaceae.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Telangana is a state in the south of India.
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
Tifton is a city in Tift County, Georgia, United States.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
Urochloa (common name signalgrass) is a genus of plants in the grass family, native to Eurasia, Africa, Australia, Mexico, and the Pacific Islands.
Water-use efficiency (WUE) refers to the ratio of water used in plant metabolism to water lost by the plant through transpiration.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
Wheat allergy is an allergy to wheat which typically presents itself as a food allergy, but can also be a contact allergy resulting from occupational exposure.
The Yajurveda (Sanskrit: यजुर्वेद,, from meaning "prose mantra" and veda meaning "knowledge") is the Veda of prose mantras.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.