72 relations: Adrenaline, Alcohol, Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, Alzheimer's disease, Angina, Anticholinergic, Austria, Beta-secretase 1, Binding site, Bulgaria, Canada, Capsule (pharmacy), Clinical trial, Clonidine, Delirium, Dextrorotation and levorotation, Digitalis, Dopamine receptor D1, Dopamine receptor D2, Enantiomer, Enzyme inhibitor, Europe, European Medicines Agency, Fibromyalgia, Finland, Food and Drug Administration, France, GABAA receptor, Glycoside, Histamine H1 receptor, Imipramine, Japan, Kidney, Laboratoires Pierre Fabre, Lanabecestat, Levomilnacipran, Liver, Liver function tests, Major depressive disorder, Mania, Mexico, Moclobemide, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, Myocardial infarction, Neurotransmitter, Norepinephrine, Opioid receptor, Oral administration, Phenelzine, ..., Portugal, Psychomotor agitation, Psychosis, Racemic mixture, Receptor (biochemistry), Reuptake, Reuptake inhibitor, Russia, Sedation, Selegiline, Serotonin, Serotonin syndrome, Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Sleep, Suicide crisis, Tablet (pharmacy), Toloxatone, Tranylcypromine, Tricyclic antidepressant, Triptan, United States, Verubecestat. Expand index (22 more) » « Shrink index
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
The alpha-1 (α1) adrenergic receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gq heterotrimeric G-protein.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Beta-secretase 1 (BACE1), also known as beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1, beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1, membrane-associated aspartic protease 2, memapsin-2, aspartyl protease 2, and ASP2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BACE1 gene.
In biochemistry, a binding site is a region on a protein or piece of DNA or RNA to which ligands (specific molecules and/or ions) may form a chemical bond.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
In the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, encapsulation refers to a range of dosage forms—techniques used to enclose medicines—in a relatively stable shell known as a capsule, allowing them to, for example, be taken orally or be used as suppositories.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Clonidine (trade names Catapres, Kapvay, Nexiclon, Clophelin, and others) is a medication used to treat high blood pressure, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, tic disorders, withdrawal (from either alcohol, opioids, or smoking), migraine, menopausal flushing, diarrhea, and certain pain conditions.
Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.
Dextrorotation and levorotation (also spelled as laevorotation)The first word component dextro- comes from Latin word for dexter "right (as opposed to left)".
Digitalis is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous perennials, shrubs, and biennials commonly called foxgloves.
Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene.
Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is a European Union agency for the evaluation of medicinal products.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a medical condition characterised by chronic widespread pain and a heightened pain response to pressure.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.
In chemistry, a glycoside is a molecule in which a sugar is bound to another functional group via a glycosidic bond.
The H1 receptor is a histamine receptor belonging to the family of rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors.
Imipramine, sold under the brand name Tofranil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used mainly in the treatment of depression.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Laboratoires Pierre Fabre is a French multinational pharmaceutical and cosmetics company.
Lanabecestat (formerly known as AZD3293 or LY3314814) is an oral beta-secretase 1 cleaving enzyme (BACE) inhibitor.
Levomilnacipran (brand name Fetzima) is an antidepressant which was approved in the United States in 2013 for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs) are groups of blood tests that give information about the state of a patient's liver.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Moclobemide (sold as Amira, Aurorix, Clobemix, Depnil and Manerix) is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) drug primarily used to treat depression and social anxiety. It is not approved for use in the United States, but is approved in other Western countries such as the UK and Australia (TGA approved in December 2000). It is produced by affiliates of the Hoffmann–La Roche pharmaceutical company. Initially, Aurorix was also marketed by Roche in South Africa, but was withdrawn after its patent rights expired and Cipla Medpro's Depnil and Pharma Dynamic's Clorix became available at half the cost. No significant rise in blood pressure occurs when moclobemide is combined with amines such as tyramine-containing foods or pressor amine drugs, unlike with the older nonselective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), which cause a severe rise in blood pressure with such combination. Due to the lack of anticholinergic, cardiovascular, cognitive and psychomotor impairments moclobemide is advantageous in the elderly as well as those with cardiovascular disease.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or mAChRs, are acetylcholine receptors that form G protein-coupled receptor complexes in the cell membranes of certain neurons and other cells.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Opioid receptors are a group of inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors with opioids as ligands.
Phenelzine (Nardil, Nardelzine) is a non-selective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class which is used as an antidepressant and anxiolytic.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Psychomotor agitation is a set of signs and symptoms that stem from mental tension and anxiety.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Reuptake is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter located along the plasma membrane of an axon terminal (i.e., the pre-synaptic neuron at a synapse) or glial cell after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.
A reuptake inhibitor (RI) is a type of drug known as a reuptake modulator that inhibits the plasmalemmal transporter-mediated reuptake of a neurotransmitter from the synapse into the pre-synaptic neuron.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.
Selegiline, also known as L-deprenyl, is a substituted phenethylamine.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a group of symptoms that may occur following use of certain serotonergic medications or drugs.
Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that treat major depressive disorder (MDD) and can also treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and menopausal symptoms.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
A suicide crisis, suicidal crisis, attempted suicide or potential suicide, is a situation in which a person is attempting to kill themselves or is seriously contemplating or planning to do so.
A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form.
Toloxatone (Humoryl) is an antidepressant launched in 1984 in France for the treatment of depression.
Tranylcypromine (contracted from trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine; original trade name Parnate)Drugs.com.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
Triptans are a family of tryptamine-based drugs used as abortive medication in the treatment of migraines and cluster headaches.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Verubecestat (MK-8931) is an experimental drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.