290 relations: A Monetary History of the United States, Aaron Director, Actuary, Adam Smith, Adaptive expectations, Agnosticism, Agricultural Adjustment Act, Alan Greenspan, Alan Leong, Alan O. Ebenstein, Alfred Marshall, Amicus curiae, Anarcho-capitalism, Anna Schwartz, Antisemitism, Arcade Publishing, Arnold Harberger, Arthur F. Burns, Augusto Pinochet, Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson, Bachelor of Arts, Balance of payments, Baltic Tiger, Barry Goldwater, Basic income, Ben Bernanke, Berehove, Bertil Ohlin, Bretton Woods system, Brooklyn, Brown University, Business cycle, California, Capitalism and Freedom, Cato Institute, Chicago, Chicago Boys, Chicago school of economics, Chile, Chilean transition to democracy, Civilian Conservation Corps, Classical liberalism, Columbia University, Commentary (magazine), Communism, Conscription, Conscription in the United States, Conservative Party (UK), Consumption (economics), Consumption function, ..., Copyright Term Extension Act, Cost-push inflation, David D. Friedman, David Forbes Hendry, David I. Meiselman, David Stockman, Demand, Dennis Robertson (economist), Deregulation, Doctor of Philosophy, Donald Tsang, Dry goods, Eastern Economic Journal, Economic freedom, Economic history, Economics, Economist, Economy of Hong Kong, Economy of the United States, EconTalk, EdChoice, Edmund Phelps, Eldred v. Ashcroft, Epistemology, Estonia, Externality, Federal Reserve System, Federation, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Financial Times, Fiscal policy, Flash Video, Flat tax, Floating exchange rate, Foreign exchange market, Frank Knight, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Fraser Institute, Free market, Free to Choose, Free-rider problem, Friedman rule, Friedman test, Friedman's k-percent rule, Friedman–Savage utility function, Friedrich Hayek, Gary Becker, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, George H. Nash, George Stigler, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, Great Contraction, Great Depression, Gulf War, Harcourt (publisher), Harold Hotelling, Harry Markowitz, Heart failure, Helicopter money, Henry Calvert Simons, Henry George, Henry Schultz, Herbert Stein, Hernando de Soto Polar, History of economic thought, Homer Jones (economist), Hong Kong Chief Executive election, 2007, Hoover Institution, Iceland, Inflation, Institute of Economic Affairs, International Monetary Fund, Iraq War, Irving Fisher, J. Bradford DeLong, Jacob Viner, James Meade, James Tobin, Jan Martel (bridge), Jerzy Neyman, Jews, Joan Robinson, John Bates Clark Medal, John Cunningham Wood, John James Cowperthwaite, John Maynard Keynes, John Stuart Mill, Journal of Political Economy, Keith Joseph, Keynesian economics, Kingdom of Hungary, Lawrence Summers, Legal monopoly, Legality of cannabis, Leonard Jimmie Savage, Leonid Kantorovich, Lester G. Telser, LGBT rights by country or territory, Libertarianism, Liberty Fund, List of economists, List of Jewish Nobel laureates, List of Nobel Memorial Prize laureates in Economics, List of Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients, Lyndon B. Johnson, Macroeconomic Dynamics, Macroeconomics, Margaret Thatcher, Mart Laar, Master of Arts, Medical license, Michael Walker (economist), Microeconomics, Miguel Sidrauski, Military dictatorship, Military dictatorship of Chile (1973–90), Milton Friedman bibliography, Monetarism, Monetary base, Monetary policy, Monetary/fiscal debate, Money supply, Multinational corporation, NAIRU, Naomi Klein, National Bureau of Economic Research, National Medal of Science, National Recovery Administration, Natural monopoly, Natural rate of unemployment, Negative income tax, Neil Wallace, Neoliberalism, New classical macroeconomics, New Deal, New York (state), New York City, Newsweek, Noam Chomsky, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Nobel Prize, Op-ed, Orlando Letelier, Palgrave Macmillan, Paul Krugman, Paul Samuelson, Paul Volcker, PBS, Permanent income hypothesis, Peter Thomas Bauer, Philadelphia Society, Phillip D. Cagan, Phillips curve, Political freedom, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Presidency of Ronald Reagan, Presidential Medal of Freedom, Price controls, Price fixing, Price level, Privatization, Public good, Public Works Administration, Quantity theory of money, Rahway High School, Rahway, New Jersey, RAND Corporation, Rand Paul, Rational expectations, Reason (magazine), Recreational drug use, Republican Party (United States), Research Papers in Economics, Reykjavík, Richard Kahn, Baron Kahn, Robert Fogel, Robert H. Frank, Robert Lucas Jr., Ron Paul, Ronald Fisher, Ronald Reagan, Rose Friedman, Rutgers University, SAGE Publications, Salvador Allende, Same-sex marriage, San Francisco, School choice, School voucher, Scott Sumner, Sequential analysis, Seven Stories Press, Shock (economics), Simon Kuznets, Social market economy, Social safety net, Social Security (United States), Stabilization policy, Stagflation, Stanford University, Tax, Television in Iceland, The Commanding Heights, The Economist, The Machinery of Freedom, The Nation, The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, The New York Times, The New York Times Company, The Shock Doctrine, The Stanford Daily, The Wall Street Journal, Thomas Paine, Thomas Sowell, Tjalling Koopmans, United States Department of the Treasury, University of Cambridge, University of Chicago, University of Chicago Library, University of Chicago Press, University of Chile, University of Minnesota, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Václav Klaus, Volunteer military, W. Allen Wallis, Walter E. Williams, Walter Oi, War on drugs, Washington, D.C., We are all Keynesians now, Welfare dependency, William F. Buckley Jr., Withholding tax, Works Progress Administration, World War II, Yon Goicoechea, YouTube, Zhao Ziyang, 1973 Chilean coup d'état. Expand index (240 more) » « Shrink index
A Monetary History of the United States, 1867–1960 is a book written in 1963 by Nobel Prize–winning economist Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz.
Aaron Director (September 21, 1901 – September 11, 2004), a celebrated professor at the University of Chicago Law School, played a central role in the development of the Chicago school of economics.
An actuary is a business professional who deals with the measurement and management of risk and uncertainty.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
In economics, adaptive expectations is a hypothesized process by which people form their expectations about what will happen in the future based on what has happened in the past.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) was a United States federal law of the New Deal era designed to boost agricultural prices by reducing surpluses.
Alan Greenspan (born March 6, 1926) is an American economist who served as Chairman of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006.
Alan Leong Kah-kit (born 22 February 1958), SC is a former member of the Hong Kong Legislative Council, representing the Kowloon East geographical constituency, and the sitting-Chairman of the Civic Party.
Alan Oliver (Lanny) Ebenstein (born May 28, 1959) is an American political scientist, educator and author, known from his biographical works on Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman.
Alfred Marshall, FBA (26 July 1842 – 13 July 1924) was one of the most influential economists of his time.
An amicus curiae (literally, "friend of the court"; plural, amici curiae) is someone who is not a party to a case and may or may not have been solicited by a party, who assists a court by offering information, expertise, or insight that has a bearing on the issues in the case, and is typically presented in the form of a brief.
Anarcho-capitalism is a political philosophy and school of anarchist thought that advocates the elimination of centralized state dictum in favor of self-ownership, private property and free markets.
Anna Jacobson Schwartz (/ʃwɔːrts/; November 11, 1915 – June 21, 2012) was an American economist who worked at the National Bureau of Economic Research in New York City and a writer for the New York Times.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Arcade Publishing is an independent trade publishing company that started in 1988 in New York, USA.
Arnold Carl Harberger (born July 27, 1924) is an American economist.
Arthur Frank Burns (August 27, 1904June 26, 1987) was an American economist.
Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (25 November 1915 – 10 December 2006) was a Chilean general, politician and the dictator of Chile between 1973 and 1990 who remained the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 1998 and was also President of the Government Junta of Chile between 1973 and 1981.
Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson (born 14 May 1943) is an Icelandic politician who was President of Iceland from 1996 to 2016.
A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both.
The balance of payments, also known as balance of international payments and abbreviated B.O.P. or BoP, of a country is the record of all economic transactions between the residents of the country and of the world in a particular period (over a quarter of a year or more commonly over a year).
Baltic Tiger is a term used to refer to any of the three Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania during their periods of economic boom, which started after the year 2000 and continued until 2006–2007.
Barry Morris Goldwater (January 2, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was an American politician, businessman, and author who was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–65, 1969–87) and the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in 1964.
A basic income, also called basic income guarantee, universal basic income (UBI), basic living stipend (BLS) or universal demogrant, is a type of program in which citizens (or permanent residents) of a country may receive a regular sum of money from the government.
Ben Shalom Bernanke (born December 13, 1953) is an American economist at the Brookings Institution who served two terms as Chairman of the Federal Reserve, the central bank of the United States, from 2006 to 2014.
Berehove or Beregovo (Берегове; Берегово; Beregszász; בערעגסאז Beregsaz) is a city located in Zakarpattia Oblast (province) in western Ukraine, near the border with Hungary.
Bertil Gotthard Ohlin (23 April 1899 – 3 August 1979) was a Swedish economist and politician.
The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan after the 1944 Bretton-Woods Agreement.
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017.
Brown University is a private Ivy League research university in Providence, Rhode Island, United States.
The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Capitalism and Freedom is a book by Milton Friedman originally published in 1962 by the University of Chicago Press which discusses the role of economic capitalism in liberal society.
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
The Chicago Boys were a group of Chilean economists prominent around the 1970s and 1980s, the majority of whom trained at the Department of Economics of the University of Chicago under Milton Friedman and Arnold Harberger, or at its affiliate in the economics department at the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile.
The Chicago school of economics is a neoclassical school of economic thought associated with the work of the faculty at the University of Chicago, some of whom have constructed and popularized its principles.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The Chilean transition to democracy began when a Constitution establishing a transition itinerary was approved in a plebiscite.
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
Commentary is a monthly American magazine on religion, Judaism, and politics, as well as social and cultural issues.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
Conscription in the United States, commonly known as the draft, has been employed by the federal government of the United States in five conflicts: the American Revolution, the American Civil War, World War I, World War II, and the Cold War (including both the Korean War and the Vietnam War).
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
Consumption is the process in which consumers (customers or buyers) purchase items on the market.
In economics, the consumption function describes a relationship between consumption and disposable income.
The Copyright Term Extension Act (CTEA) of 1998 extended copyright terms in the United States.
Cost-push inflation is a type of inflation caused by substantial increases in the cost of important goods or services where no suitable alternative is available.
David Director Friedman (born February 12, 1945) is an American economist, physicist, legal scholar, and libertarian theorist.
Sir David Forbes Hendry, FBA CStat (born 6 March 1944) is a British econometrician, currently a professor of economics and from 2001–2007 was head of the Economics Department at the University of Oxford.
David I. Meiselman (1924 – December 3, 2014) was an American economist.
David Alan Stockman (born November 10, 1946) is an American politician and former businessman who served as a Republican U.S. Representative from the state of Michigan (1977–1981) and as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (1981–1985) under President Ronald Reagan.
In economics, demand is the quantities of a commodity or a service that people are willing and able to buy at various prices, over a given period of time.
Sir Dennis Holme Robertson (23 May 1890 – 21 April 1963) was an English economist who taught at Cambridge and London Universities.
Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations, typically in the economic sphere.
A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.
Donald Tsang Yam-kuen, GBM (born 7 October 1944) is a former Hong Kong civil servant and the second Chief Executive of Hong Kong from 2005 to 2012.
Dry goods is a historic term describing the type of product line a store carries, which differs by region.
The Eastern Economic Journal is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all aspects of economics.
Economic freedom or economic liberty is the ability of people of a society to take economic actions.
Economic history is the study of economies or economic phenomena of the past.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics.
As one of the world's leading international financial centres, Hong Kong's service-oriented economy is characterized by its low taxation, almost free port trade and well established international financial market.
The economy of the United States is a highly developed mixed economy.
EconTalk is a weekly economics podcast hosted by Russ Roberts.
EdChoice, formerly the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice, is an American education reform organization headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana.
Edmund Strother Phelps, (born July 26, 1933) is an American economist and the winner of the 2006 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.
Eldred v. Ashcroft, (2003) was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States upholding the constitutionality of the 1998 Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act (CTEA).
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
In economics, an externality is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit.
The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve or simply the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States of America.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
In economics and political science, fiscal policy is the use of government revenue collection (mainly taxes) and expenditure (spending) to influence the economy.
Flash Video is a container file format used to deliver digital video content (e.g., TV shows, movies, etc.) over the Internet using Adobe Flash Player version 6 and newer.
A flat tax (short for flat tax rate) is a tax system with a constant marginal rate, usually applied to individual or corporate income.
A floating exchange rate (also called a fluctuating or flexible exchange rate) is a type of exchange-rate regime in which a currency's value is allowed to fluctuate in response to foreign-exchange market mechanisms.
The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies.
Frank Hyneman Knight (November 7, 1885 – April 15, 1972) was an American economist who spent most of his career at the University of Chicago, where he became one of the founders of the Chicago school.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
The Fraser Institute is a Canadian public policy think tank and registered charity.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
Free to Choose: A Personal Statement (1980) is a book and a ten-part television series broadcast on public television by economists Milton and Rose D. Friedman that advocates free market principles.
In economics, the free-rider problem occurs when those who benefit from resources, public goods, or services do not pay for them, which results in an underprovision of those goods or services.
The Friedman rule is a monetary policy rule proposed by Milton Friedman.
The Friedman test is a non-parametric statistical test developed by Milton Friedman.
Friedman's k-percent rule is the monetarist proposal that the money supply should be increased by the central bank by a constant percentage rate every year, irrespective of business cycles.
The Friedman–Savage utility function is the utility function postulated in the theory that Milton Friedman and Leonard J. Savage put forth in their 1948 paper.
Friedrich August von Hayek (8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism.
Gary Stanley Becker (December 2, 1930 – May 3, 2014) was an American economist and empiricist.
The General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China is head of the Communist Party of China and the highest-ranking official within the People's Republic of China.
George H. Nash (born April 1, 1945) is an American historian and interpreter of American conservatism.
George Joseph Stigler (January 17, 1911 – December 1, 1991) was an American economist, the 1982 laureate in Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences and a key leader of the Chicago School of Economics.
Gonville & Caius College (often referred to simply as Caius) is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England.
The Great Contraction is Milton Friedman's term for the recession which led to the Great Depression.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Harcourt was a United States publishing firm with a long history of publishing fiction and nonfiction for adults and children.
Harold Hotelling (September 29, 1895 – December 26, 1973) was a mathematical statistician and an influential economic theorist, known for Hotelling's law, Hotelling's lemma, and Hotelling's rule in economics, as well as Hotelling's T-squared distribution in statistics.
Harry Max Markowitz (born August 24, 1927) is an American economist, and a recipient of the 1989 John von Neumann Theory Prize and the 1990 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Helicopter money is a proposed unconventional monetary policy, sometimes suggested as an alternative to quantitative easing (QE) when the economy is in a liquidity trap (when interest rates near zero and the economy remains in recession).
Henry Calvert Simons (October 9, 1899 – June 19, 1946) was an American economist at the University of Chicago.
Henry George (September 2, 1839 – October 29, 1897) was an American political economist and journalist.
Henry Schultz (September 4, 1893 – November 26, 1938) was an American economist, statistician, and one of the founders of econometrics.
Herbert Stein (August 27, 1916 – September 8, 1999) was an American economist, a senior fellow at the American Enterprise Institute and was on the board of contributors of The Wall Street Journal.
Hernando de Soto Polar (or Hernando de Soto; born 1941) is a Peruvian economist known for his work on the informal economy and on the importance of business and property rights.
The history of economic thought deals with different thinkers and theories in the subject that became political economy and economics, from the ancient world to the present day in the 21st Century.
Homer Jones (1906–1986) was a prominent American economist.
The 2007 Hong Kong Chief Executive election was held on 25 March 2007 to select the Chief Executive of Hong Kong.
The Hoover Institution is an American public policy think tank and research institution located at Stanford University in California.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
The Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA) is a privately funded non-profit conservative think tank based in Westminster, London, United Kingdom.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
Irving Fisher (February 27, 1867 – April 29, 1947) was an American economist, statistician, inventor, and Progressive social campaigner.
James Bradford "Brad" DeLong (born June 24, 1960) is an economic historian who is professor of Economics at the University of California, Berkeley.
Jacob Viner (May 3, 1892 – September 12, 1970) was a Canadian economist and is considered with Frank Knight and Henry Simons to be one of the "inspiring" mentors of the early Chicago School of Economics in the 1930s: he was one of the leading figures of the Chicago faculty.
James Edward Meade CB, FBA (23 June 1907 – 22 December 1995) was a British economist and winner of the 1977 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences jointly with the Swedish economist Bertil Ohlin for their "pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements." Meade was born in Swanage, Dorset.
James Tobin (March 5, 1918 – March 11, 2002) was an American economist who served on the Council of Economic Advisers and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, and taught at Harvard and Yale Universities.
Jan F. Martel (born February 26, 1943) is an American bridge player from Davis, California.
Jerzy Neyman (April 16, 1894 – August 5, 1981), born Jerzy Spława-Neyman, was a Polish mathematician and statistician who spent the first part of his professional career at various institutions in Warsaw, Poland and then at University College London, and the second part at the University of California, Berkeley.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Joan Violet Robinson FBA (31 October 1903 – 5 August 1983), previously Joan Violet Maurice, was a British economist well known for her wide-ranging contributions to economic theory.
The John Bates Clark Medal is awarded by the American Economic Association to "that American economist under the age of forty who is adjudged to have made a significant contribution to economic thought and knowledge".
John Cunningham Wood (born 1952) is an Australian economist, author, and the Chief Executive Officer of the University Division at Navitas, known as series editor of the "Critical Assessment of Leading Economists" series of Taylor & Francis.
Sir John James Cowperthwaite, KBE, CMG (25 April 1915 – 21 January 2006), was a British civil servant and the Financial Secretary of Hong Kong from 1961 to 1971.
John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
The Journal of Political Economy is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press.
Keith Sinjohn Joseph, Baron Joseph, (17 January 1918 – 10 December 1994), known as Sir Keith Joseph, 2nd Baronet, for most of his political life, was a British barrister and politician.
Keynesian economics (sometimes called Keynesianism) are the various macroeconomic theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions – economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total demand in the economy).
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
Lawrence Henry Summers (born November 30, 1954) is an American economist, former Vice President of Development Economics and Chief Economist of the World Bank (1991–93),, Data & Research office, The World Bank, retrieved March 31, 2017, World Bank Live, The World Bank, retrieved March 31, 2017 Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard University, retrieved March 31, 2017 senior U.S. Treasury Department official throughout President Clinton's administration (ultimately Treasury Secretary, 1999–2001), U.S. Treasury Department, Last Updated: 11/20/2010, retrieved March 31, 2017 and former director of the National Economic Council for President Obama (2009–2010).
A legal monopoly, statutory monopoly, or de jure monopoly is a monopoly that is protected by law from competition.
The legality of cannabis for general or recreational use varies from country to country.
Leonard Jimmie Savage (born Leonard Ogashevitz; 20 November 1917 – 1 November 1971) was an American mathematician and statistician.
Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich (a) (19 January 19127 April 1986) was a Soviet mathematician and economist, known for his theory and development of techniques for the optimal allocation of resources.
Lester Greenspan Telser (born January 3, 1931 in Chicago) is an American economist and Professor Emeritus in Economics at the University of Chicago.
Laws affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people vary greatly by country or territory; everything from the legal recognition of same-sex marriage to the death penalty as punishment for same-sex romantic/sexual activity or identity.
Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.
Liberty Fund, Inc. is a nonprofit foundation headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana which promulgates the libertarian views of its founder, Pierre F. Goodrich through publishing, conferences, and educational resources.
This is an incomplete alphabetical list by surname of notable economists, experts in the social science of economics, past and present.
As of 2017, Nobel PrizesThe Nobel Prize is an annual, international prize first awarded in 1901 for achievements in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace.
The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially known as The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (Swedish: Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to researchers in the field of economic sciences.
This is an alphabetized, partial list of recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, grouped by the aspect of life in which they are/were renowned.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
Macroeconomic Dynamics is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering macroeconomics.
Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
Mart Laar (born 22 April 1960) is an Estonian politician and historian.
A Master of Arts (Magister Artium; abbreviated MA; also Artium Magister, abbreviated AM) is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts in colloquial speech.
A medical license is an occupational license that permits a person to legally practice medicine.
Michael Walker (born 1945, in Corner Brook, Newfoundland) is a Canadian economist.
Microeconomics (from Greek prefix mikro- meaning "small") is a branch of economics that studies the behavior of individuals and firms in making decisions regarding the allocation of scarce resources and the interactions among these individuals and firms.
Miguel Sidrauski (October 12, 1939 – September 1, 1968) was an Argentine economist who made important contributions to the theory of economic growth by developing a modified version of the Ramsey–Cass–Koopmans model to describe the effects of money on long-run growth.
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.
The military dictatorship of Chile (dictadura militar de Chile) was an authoritarian military government that ruled Chile between 1973 and 1990.
A list of works by the prominent American economist Milton Friedman follows.
Monetarism is a school of thought in monetary economics that emphasizes the role of governments in controlling the amount of money in circulation.
In economics, the monetary base (also base money, money base, high-powered money, reserve money, outside money, central bank money or, in the UK, narrow money) in a country is defined as the portion of a commercial bank's reserves that consist of the commercial bank's accounts with its central bank plus the total currency circulating in the public, plus the currency, also known as vault cash, that is physically held in the bank's vault.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
The monetary/fiscal policy debate,McCallum (1985) otherwise known as the Ando–Modigliani/Friedman–Meiselman debateEisner (1988) (or AM/FM debateBias (2014) from the main instigators' initials, and for this reason sometimes jokingly called the "radio stations debate"See AM Broadcasting and FM BroadcastingGramlich (2004)), is the exchange of viewpoints about the comparative efficiency of monetary policies and fiscal policies that originated with a workFriedman/Meiselman (1963) co-authored by Milton Friedman and David Meiselman and first published in 1963, as part of studies submitted to the Commission on Money and Credit.
In economics, the money supply (or money stock) is the total value of monetary assets available in an economy at a specific time.
A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.
NAIRU is an acronym for non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment, and refers to a level of unemployment below which inflation rises.
Naomi Klein (born May 8, 1970) is a Canadian author, social activist, and filmmaker known for her political analyses and criticism of corporate globalization and of capitalism.
The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) is an American private nonprofit research organization "committed to undertaking and disseminating unbiased economic research among public policymakers, business professionals, and the academic community." The NBER is well known for providing start and end dates for recessions in the United States.
The National Medal of Science is an honor bestowed by the President of the United States to individuals in science and engineering who have made important contributions to the advancement of knowledge in the fields of behavioral and social sciences, biology, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and physics.
The National Recovery Administration was a prime New Deal agency established by U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) in 1933.
A natural monopoly is a monopoly in an industry in which high infrastructural costs and other barriers to entry relative to the size of the market give the largest supplier in an industry, often the first supplier in a market, an overwhelming advantage over potential competitors.
The natural rate of unemployment is the name that was given to a key concept in the study of economic activity.
In economics, a negative income tax (NIT) is a progressive income tax system where people earning below a certain amount receive supplemental pay from the government instead of paying taxes to the government.
Neil Wallace (born 1939) is an American economist and professor at Pennsylvania State University.
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
New classical macroeconomics, sometimes simply called new classical economics, is a school of thought in macroeconomics that builds its analysis entirely on a neoclassical framework.
The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms and regulations enacted in the United States 1933-36, in response to the Great Depression.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (officially Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne, or the Swedish National Bank's Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel), commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
An op-ed (originally short for "opposite the editorial page" although often taken to stand for "opinion editorial") is a written prose piece typically published by a newspaper or magazine which expresses the opinion of a named author usually not affiliated with the publication's editorial board.
Marcos Orlando Letelier del Solar (13 April 1932 – 21 September 1976) was a Chilean economist, politician and diplomat during the presidency of Salvador Allende.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
Paul Robin Krugman (born February 28, 1953) is an American economist who is currently Distinguished Professor of Economics at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, and a columnist for The New York Times.
Paul Anthony Samuelson (15 May 1915 – 13 December 2009) was an American economist and the first American to win the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.
Paul Adolph Volcker Jr. (born September 5, 1927) is an American economist.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
The permanent income hypothesis (PIH) is an economic theory attempting to describe how agents spread consumption over their lifetimes.
Peter Thomas Bauer, Baron Bauer, FBA (6 November 1915 – 2 May 2002) was a Hungarian-born British development economist.
The Philadelphia Society is a membership organization the purpose of which is "to sponsor the interchange of ideas through discussion and writing, in the interest of deepening the intellectual foundation of a free and ordered society, and of broadening the understanding of its basic principles and traditions".
Phillip David Cagan (April 30, 1927 – June 15, 2012) was an American scholar and author.
The Phillips curve is a single-equation empirical model, named after William Phillips, describing a historical inverse relationship between rates of unemployment and corresponding rates of rises in wages that result within an economy.
Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies.
The Pontifical Catholic University of Chile (UC) (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile) is one of the six Catholic Universities existing in the Chilean university system and one of the two Pontifical Universities in the country, along with the Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaíso.
The presidency of Ronald Reagan began at noon EST on January 20, 1981, when Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as 40th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 1989.
The Presidential Medal of Freedom is an award bestowed by the President of the United States and is—along with the comparable Congressional Gold Medal—the highest civilian award of the United States.
Price controls are governmental restrictions on the prices that can be charged for goods and services in a market.
Price fixing is an agreement between participants on the same side in a market to buy or sell a product, service, or commodity only at a fixed price, or maintain the market conditions such that the price is maintained at a given level by controlling supply and demand.
The general price level is a hypothetical daily measure of overall prices for some set of goods and services (the consumer basket), in an economy or monetary union during a given interval (generally one day), normalized relative to some base set.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
In economics, a public good is a good that is both non-excludable and non-rivalrous in that individuals cannot be effectively excluded from use and where use by one individual does not reduce availability to others.
Public Works Administration (PWA), part of the New Deal of 1933, was a large-scale public works construction agency in the United States headed by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes.
In monetary economics, the quantity theory of money (QTM) states that the general price level of goods and services is directly proportional to the amount of money in circulation, or money supply.
Rahway High School is a four-year public high school that serves students in ninth through twelfth grades from Rahway, in Union County, New Jersey, United States, operating as the lone secondary school of the Rahway Public Schools.
Rahway is a city in southern Union County, New Jersey, United States.
RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.
Randal Howard "Rand" Paul (born January 7, 1963) is an American politician and physician serving as the junior United States Senator from Kentucky since 2011, alongside Majority Leader Mitch McConnell.
In economics, "rational expectations" are model-consistent expectations, in that agents inside the model are assumed to "know the model" and on average take the model's predictions as valid.
Reason is an American libertarian monthly magazine published by the Reason Foundation.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
Research Papers in Economics (RePEc) is a collaborative effort of hundreds of volunteers in many countries to enhance the dissemination of research in economics.
Reykjavík is the capital and largest city of Iceland.
Richard Ferdinand Kahn, Baron Kahn, CBE, FBA (10 August 1905 – 6 June 1989) was a British economist.
Robert William Fogel (July 1, 1926 – June 11, 2013) was an American economic historian and scientist, and winner (with Douglass North) of the 1993 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.
Robert Harris Frank (born January 2, 1945) is the Henrietta Johnson Louis Professor of Management and a Professor of Economics at the Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management at Cornell University.
Robert Emerson Lucas Jr. (born September 15, 1937) is an American economist at the University of Chicago.
Ronald Ernest Paul (born August 20, 1935) is an American author, physician and retired politician who served as the U.S. Representative for Texas's 22nd congressional district from 1976 to 1977 and again from 1979 to 1985, and for Texas's 14th congressional district from 1997 to 2013.
Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962), who published as R. A. Fisher, was a British statistician and geneticist.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Rose Director Friedman (born Rose Director, December, 1910 – 18 August 2009), also known as Rose D. Friedman, was a free-market economist and co-founder of the Milton and Rose D. Friedman Foundation.
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, commonly referred to as Rutgers University, Rutgers, or RU, is an American public research university and is the largest institution of higher education in New Jersey.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens (26 June 1908 – 11 September 1973) was a Chilean physician and politician, known as the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections.
Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is the marriage of a same-sex couple, entered into in a civil or religious ceremony.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
School choice is a term for K–12 public education options in the United States, describing a wide array of programs offering students and their families alternatives to publicly provided schools, to which students are generally assigned by the location of their family residence.
A school voucher, also called an education voucher, in a voucher system, is a certificate of government funding for a student at a school chosen by the student or the student's parents.
Scott B. Sumner (born 1955) is an American economist.
In statistics, sequential analysis or sequential hypothesis testing is statistical analysis where the sample size is not fixed in advance.
Seven Stories Press is an independent American publishing company.
In economics, a shock is an unexpected or unpredictable event that affects an economy, either positively or negatively.
Simon Smith Kuznets (p; April 30, 1901 – July 8, 1985) was a Russo-American economist and statistician who received the 1971 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences "for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development." Kuznets made a decisive contribution to the transformation of economics into an empirical science and to the formation of quantitative economic history.
The social market economy (SOME; soziale Marktwirtschaft), also called Rhine capitalism, is a socioeconomic model combining a free market capitalist economic system alongside social policies which establish both fair competition within the market and a welfare state.
The social safety net is a collection of services provided by the state or other institutions such as friendly societies.
In the United States, Social Security is the commonly used term for the federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program and is administered by the Social Security Administration.
A stabilization policy is a package or set of measures introduced to stabilize a financial system or economy.
In economics, stagflation, a portmanteau of stagnation and inflation, is a situation in which the inflation rate is high, the economic growth rate slows, and unemployment remains steadily high.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
Television in Iceland began in September 1966.
The Commanding Heights: The Battle for the World Economy is a book by Daniel Yergin and Joseph Stanislaw, first published as The Commanding Heights: The Battle Between Government and the Marketplace That Is Remaking the Modern World in 1998.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Machinery of Freedom is a nonfiction book by David D. Friedman which advocates an anarcho-capitalist society from a utilitarian / consequentialist perspective.
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news, opinion, and analysis.
The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (2008), 2nd ed., is an eight-volume reference work on economics, edited by Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume and published by Palgrave Macmillan.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New York Times Company is an American media company which publishes its namesake, The New York Times.
The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism is a 2007 book by the Canadian author and social activist Naomi Klein.
The Stanford Daily is the student-run, independent daily newspaper serving Stanford University.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed. – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.
Thomas Sowell (born June 30, 1930) is an American economist and social theorist who is currently Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University.
Tjalling Charles Koopmans (August 28, 1910 – February 26, 1985) was a Dutch American mathematician and economist.
The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
University of Chicago Library is the library system of the University of Chicago, located on the university's campus in Chicago, Illinois, United States.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Chile (Universidad de Chile) is a public university located in Santiago, Chile.
The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (often referred to as the University of Minnesota, Minnesota, the U of M, UMN, or simply the U) is a public research university in Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota.
The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.
Václav Klaus (born 19 June 1941) is a Czech economist and politician who served as the second President of the Czech Republic from 2003 to 2013.
A volunteer military or all-volunteer military is one which derives its manpower from volunteers rather than conscription or mandatory service.
Wilson Allen Wallis (November 5, 1912 – October 12, 1998) was an American economist and statistician best known for serving as president of the University of Rochester.
Walter Edward Williams (born March 31, 1936) is an American economist, commentator, and academic.
Walter Yasuo Oi (July 1, 1929 – December 24, 2013) was the Elmer B. Milliman Professor of Economics at the University of Rochester in Rochester, New York.
War on Drugs is an American term usually applied to the U.S. federal government's campaign of prohibition of drugs, military aid, and military intervention, with the stated aim being to reduce the illegal drug trade.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
"We are all Keynesians now" is a famous phrase coined by Milton Friedman and attributed to U.S. president Richard Nixon.
Welfare dependency is the state in which a person or household is reliant on government welfare benefits for their income for a prolonged period of time, and without which they would not be able to meet the expenses of daily living.
William Frank Buckley Jr. (born William Francis Buckley; November 24, 1925 – February 27, 2008) was an American conservative author and commentator.
A withholding tax, or a retention tax, is an income tax to be paid to the government by the payer of the income rather than by the recipient of the income.
The Works Progress Administration (WPA; renamed in 1939 as the Work Projects Administration) was the largest and most ambitious American New Deal agency, employing millions of people (mostly unskilled men) to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yon Alexander Goicoechea Lara (born 8 November 1984) is a Venezuelan lawyer, graduated from the Universidad Católica Andrés Bello and Columbia University (LLM).
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
Zhao Ziyang (pronounced; 17 October 1919 – 17 January 2005) was a high-ranking statesman in China.
The 1973 Chilean coup d'état was a watershed moment in both the history of Chile and the Cold War.